You are on page 1of 21

# Communication and Research Skills (C&RS)

BASIC CONCEPTS IN

MEASUREMENT
PRESENTED BY: PRATIK SOLANKI (1002)

WRM

## S. S. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BHAVNAGAR

MEASURMENT IN RESEARCH

Measurement means assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to some set of rules.

Measurement is relatively complex and demanding task, specially so when it concerns qualitative phenomenon.
The numbers convey information about the property being measured.
Communication and Research Skills (C&RS)

MEASURMENT IN RESEARCH

When numbers are used, the researcher must have a rule for assigning a number to an observation in a way that provides an accurate description. The most widely used classification of measurement scales are:

## Communication and Research Skills (C&RS)

NOMINAL SCALE

Nominal scales represent the most elementary level of measurement. A nominal scale assigns a value or number to an object for identification or classification purposes only. Such numbers cannot be considered to be associated with an ordered scale; the numbers are just convenient labels for the particular class of events and as such have no quantitative value. Nominal scales provide convenient ways of keeping track of people, objects and events.
Communication and Research Skills (C&RS)

NOMINAL SCALE

The usual example of this is the assignment of numbers of basketball players in order to identify them. Ben wears number 7, while Smith wears number 77. This does not mean that Marvel is 11 times better than Ben.
Communication and Research Skills (C&RS )

NOMINAL SCALE

Sometimes numbers are used to designate category membership Example: Country of Origin 1 = India 3 = United States 2 = Mexico 4 = Other However, in this case, it is important to keep in mind that the numbers do not have intrinsic meaning.
Communication and Research Skills (C&RS )

ORDINAL SCALE

An ordinal scale is one that arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitude. An ordinal scale is a ranking scale. Can determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object, but not how much more or less. More sensitive than nominal data, but still lacking in precision.
Communication and Research Skills (C&RS )

ORDINAL SCALE
Does not assume that the intervals between numbers are equal. Example: finishing place in a race (first place, second place)

1 hour

2 hours

3 hours

4 hours

5 hours

6 hours

7 hours

8 hours

ORDINAL SCALE

Examples:
Career

Top

## Communication and Research Skills (C&RS )

INTERVAL SCALE

Interval scales have both nominal and ordinal properties, but they also capture information about differences in quantities of a concept. Interval scale allow us not only to rank order the items that are measured, but also to quantify and compare the sizes of differences between them. In the case of interval scale, the intervals are adjusted in terms of some rule that has been established as a basis for making the units equal.
Communication and Research Skills (C&RS )

INTERVAL SCALE

The primary limitation of the interval scale is the lack of a true zero; it does not have the capacity to measure the complete absence of a characteristic. Examples: Consumer Price Index Temperature Scale in Fahrenheit

## Communication and Research Skills (C&RS )

INTERVAL SCALE

The classic example of an interval scale is temperature. Consider the following weather: June 6 was 80 F December 7 was 40 F we can convert Fahrenheit temperatures to Celsius scale. Then, the following would result: June 6 was 26.7 C December 7 was 4.4 C
Communication and Research Skills (C&RS )

RATIO SCALE

Ratio scales represent the highest form of measurement in that they have all the properties of interval scales with the additional attribute of representing absolute quantities. Interval scales possess only relative meaning, whereas ratio scales represent absolute meaning. For example, the zero point on a centimeter scale indicates the complete absence of length or height. But an absolute zero of temperature is theoretically unobtainable and it remains a concept existing only in the scientists mind.
Communication and Research Skills (C&RS )

RATIO SCALE

Ratio measures contain the most precise information about each observation that is made. examples:
Time

as a unit of measure Distance as a unit of measure Weight and height as units of measure

## Communication and Research Skills (C&RS )

MEASUREMENT SCALES
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales

Provide
Different Information

## SOURCES OF ERROR IN MEASUREMENT

Measurement should be precise and unambiguous in an ideal research study. The following are the possible sources of error in measurement: Measurer: Respondent: Situation: Instrument:

## SOURCES OF ERROR IN MEASUREMENT

Measurer:
The

interviewer can distort responses by rewording or reordering questions. His behaviour, style and looks may encourage or discourage certain replies from respondents. Careless mechanical processing may distort the findings.

## SOURCES OF ERROR IN MEASUREMENT

Respondent:
At

times the respondent may be reluctant to express strong negative feelings or it is just possible that he may have very little knowledge but may not admit his ignorance.

## SOURCES OF ERROR IN MEASUREMENT

Situation:
Situational

factors may also come in the way of correct measurement. Any condition which places a strain on interview can have serious effects on the interviewer-respondent rapport.

## SOURCES OF ERROR IN MEASUREMENT

Instrument: Error may arise because of the defective measuring instrument.

The use of complex words, Beyond the comprehension of the respondent, Ambiguous meanings, Poor printing, Inadequate space for replies, etc.

Thank You