Sie sind auf Seite 1von 79

Job Satisfaction of the University Teaching Staff: A case study of Sarhad University Peshawar Campus

Submitted by: Munazza Saleem MBA (HRM)

INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR

Session: 2008-2009

Job Satisfaction of the University Teaching Staff: A case study of Sarhad University Peshawar Campus

Research report submitted to the Institute of Management Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the Degree of Masters in Business Administration
2

May 2010

In The Name of

The Most Merciful and Compassionate The Most Gracious and Beneficent
3

The Most Omnipresent and Omnipotent Whose Help and Guidance I Always Solicit At Every Step and At Every Moment
INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR Job Satisfaction of the University Teaching Staff: A case study of Sarhad University Peshawar Campus

Supervisor:

Signature: _______________________ Name: Mr Zia -Ud-Din Designation: Coordinator of the Research and Development division. Organization: Institute of Management Studies University of Peshawar.
4

DEDICATION
I dedicate this humble effort to my parents who always prayed for my success and supported me spiritually and financially In Every stage of life
5

PREFACE

Institution is the first step toward knowledge. The environment has been conducive towards triggering my lust for knowledge. My research was an exhilarating endeavor. This study was conducted to determine the level of teachers job satisfaction as perceived by the teachers. This study included a sample of 30 teachers from Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology. In this investigation, the instrument was developed from the literature reviews, related researches, and experiences and based on questionnaire. Questionnaire was employed to evaluate teachers satisfaction and to identify areas of teachers satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The data collected was analyzed in accordance with the research objectives and hypotheses. The results of the study showed that the factors found as the causes of satisfaction or dissatisfaction are related either to the motivator factors or to the hygiene factors of the two factor theory. I believe that the process of learning never stops, this report is the first step towards the long journey of attaining knowledge. May Allah be with me in all the test of time. (AMEEN)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We bow before almighty for His might blessings.


First of all I am extremely indebted to almighty Allah Who favored me in every moment and granted me with knowledge, courage and wisdom to complete this report. I express my deepest thanks and gratitude to my project supervisor Sir Zia-Ud-Din due to his encouragement and motivation my report congregate to completion, who helped me through out my research while at the same time providing just the right amount of guidance to ensure that my efforts contribute to the mainstream of my research.

I would also like to appreciate the vital role of my family members, as they were the ones who laid the milestone of my academic career and helped me to achieve this pro ultimate goal of my career.

MUNAZZA SALEEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS
3.4.4 SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO JOB ITSELF 11 3.4.7 ALIGNMENT IN EMPLOYEES VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES 12 3.4.9 OPINION REGARDING THE POLICIES AND PRACTICES TOWARDS THE EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION 12 SECTION 1 14 SECTION 1 14 1 INTRODUCTION 15 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY..................................................................15 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 15 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.............................................................................16 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 16 SCOPE OF THE STUDY......................................................................................17 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 17 UNIT OF THE STUDY 18 8

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES 18 PRIMARY SOURCES 18 SECONDARY SOURCES 18 LIMITATIONS 19 2.5 THEORY FORMULATION 19 2..5.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 19 SCHEME OF THE REPORT 21 The report is divided into five chapters. 22 SECTION2.........................................................................................................26 LITERATURE REVIEW...................................................................................26 SECTION2 26 2 LITERATURE REVIEW...............................................................................27 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 27 2.1 INTRODUCTION 27 2.2 MOTIVATION 29 2.3 THEORY OF MOTIVATION 30 2.4 TEACHERS JOB SATISFACTION 31 2.6 VARIABLES 33 2.6.1 Dependent Variable 33 2.6.2 Independent Variables 35 2.6.2.1 Career prospect 36 2.6.2.2 Salary 36 2.6.2.3 Supervision 36 2.6.3 Moderating Variable 37 2.6.3.1 Culture and Policies 37 2.6.4 Intervening Variable 37 2.6.4.1 Working Environment 37 2.7 HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT37 SECTION3.........................................................................................................39 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS...........................................................................39 SECTION3 39 3 DATA ANALYSIS 39 3.1 INTRODUCTION 40 3.2 POPULATION AND SUBJECTS40 3.3 DATA COLLECTION 40 3.4 ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS 41 3.4.1 SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO CAREER PROSPECT 41 3.4.2 SALARY AS A FACTOR OF JOB SATISFACTION 43 3.4.3 JOB SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO SUPERVISION 44 3.4.4 SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO JOB ITSELF 47 3.4.5 WORK-LIFE BALANCE 48 3.4.6 EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION AND APPRECIATION 49 3.4.7 ALIGNMENT IN EMPLOYEES VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES 50 3.4.8 SATISFACTION IN RESPONSE TO EMPLOYEES VOICE 52 3.4.9 OPINION REGARDING THE POLICIES AND PRACTICES TOWARDS THE EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION 53 9

3.5 THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY 54 SECTION4.........................................................................................................57 SECTION4 57 4 CONCLUSION 58 4.1 INTRODUCTION 58 4.2 JUDGMENT OF HYPOTHESIS 58 4.3 CONCLUSION 59 4.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 61 4.4.1 INTRODUCTION 61 4.4.2 THE LINK BETWEEN WORK APPROACH AND JOB SATISFACTION 61 4.4.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 63 CHAPTER5........................................................................................................66 PROPOSED ACTION PLAN............................................................................66 CHAPTER5 66 5 INTRODUCTION 68 ACTION STEP 1 68 ACTION STEP 1 ASSESSMENT 69 ACTION STEP 2 69 ACTION STEP 2 ASSESSMENT 69 ACTION STEP 3 69 ACTION STEP 3 ASSESSMENT 71 THE TRICKLE-DOWN EFFECT 71

10

LIST OF FIGURES
1. 2. 3. 26 4. FIGURE 3.1 SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO CAREER PROSPECTS 35 5. FIGURE 3.2 SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO CAREER PROSPECTS 36 6. 7. FIGURE 3.3 SALARY AS A FACTOR OF JOB SATISFACTION 37 FIGURE 3.4 JOB SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO SUPERVISION 38 8. FIGURE 3.5 JOB SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO SUPERVISION 39 9. 10. 11. 12. FIGURE 3.6 SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO JOB ITSELF 40 FIGURE 3.7 WORK-LIFE BALANCE 41 FIGURE 3.8 EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION AND APPRECIATION 42 FIGURE 3.9 ALIGNMENT IN EMPLOYEES VALUES AND FIGURE 1.1 OUTLINE OF THE REPORT 19 FIGURE 1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 20 FIGURE 2.2 TWO FACTOR THEORY

11

ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES 43 13. FIGURE 3.10 SATISFACTION IN RESPONSE TO EMPLOYEES VOICE 44 14 FIGURE 3.11OPINION REGARDING THE POLICIES AND PRACTICES TOWARDS THE EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION 45

12

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Job satisfaction pertains to ones feelings regarding the job and the work place. The source of job satisfaction is not only the job; it is created from working environment, supervision style, interpersonal relationship, and organizational culture. At present job satisfaction has been an important issue. The researcher interest was to analyze job satisfaction from organizational perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to job satisfaction and the role of career prospects, salary, and supervision. Job satisfaction is subjective in nature and tracking job satisfaction is an elusive endeavor. Employees experience different levels of satisfaction throughout each workday. The unit of analysis is job satisfaction among faculty members in Sarhad University. There are many studies and literature about job satisfaction. But little literature is available on teachers job satisfaction. To look into job satisfaction is significant as it shapes performance. Here, efforts were given to frame all the insights of job satisfaction perceived by the teachers. Job satisfaction was taken as a dependent variable, where factors such as individual, organizational characteristics and mechanics of the job had effects on it. Of the 3 independent variables entered into the framework, salary clearly emerged as the most powerful determinant of variation in job satisfaction among Sarhad University employees. Herzberg viewed achievement, recognition, challenging work, responsibility and development as motivating factor for job satisfaction. Hygiene factors are environment, administration, supervision, working condition, interpersonal relation security, status and salary. In this study the teachers job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is caused by both the factors of motivation and hygiene. During the study the factors found as the causes of satisfaction or dissatisfaction are related either to the motivator factors or to the hygiene factors.

13

SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION

14

1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


Job satisfaction is one of the most widely discussed and enthusiastically studied constructs in such related disciplines as industrial-organizational psychology, organizational behavior, personnel and human resource management and organizational management. It is a generalized affective orientation to all aspects of the job. In simple terms, it is the extent to which one feels good about the job. Job satisfaction pertains to ones feelings regarding the job and the work place. The source of job satisfaction is not only the job; it creates from working environment, supervision style, interpersonal relationship, and organizational culture also. At present job satisfaction has been an important issue. People are interested to work where they get job satisfaction. It is human behavior. But in reality how far such job satisfaction is ensured in different jobs. The researcher interest was to analyze job satisfaction from organizational perspective. This study has tried to reveal the job satisfaction among the faculty members of Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology (SUIT), Peshawar, is a renowned name in the educational circles of Pakistan and abroad. It was established in 2001 through an Ordinance of the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is duly recognized by the Higher Education Commission (HEC). Later, on 10th August 2008 the University was upgraded to the highest category (W) by HEC. Since its inception, the University has made commendable 15

achievements in disseminating quality education and, in a short span of time; it has become a leading institution of higher education in Pakistan. The University offers a wide range of programs from bachelor to doctoral level. These programs are executed through highly qualified and professionally groomed faculty holding PhD degrees from renowned institutions of Pakistan and abroad. The University is dedicated to imparting high quality education with emphasis on demand-oriented skill-development and training under excellent conditions of learning. Its educational programs are designed to enable the students and servicemen to develop skills and competence in their respective areas of specialization obtain broad-based, cross-functional education with due emphasis on developing critical, analytical and logical thinking, and knowledge of societal matters. The education is cost-based, but affordable. The University is devoted to students' welfare and intends to provide all support and guidance in their pursuit of successful careers and jobs. This study had examined how the faculty perceived the term job satisfaction and also marked the causes those make them either satisfied or dissatisfied.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY


The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to job satisfaction and the role of career prospect, salary, and supervision. The objectives guiding the study included: The first purpose of the study was to fulfill the requirements of Master of Business Administration Degree at the Institute of Management Studies. Human resource is considered as the most important Intellectual Asset of any organization. No longer can organizations afford to devalue and demoralize their workers to succeed at the expense of those who help make success possible. The second purpose of this study was to analyze 16

The Human Resource Practices in the Sarhad University of Science and information Technology, Peshawar and to assist the management of the Sarhad University in optimal utilization of its human resources in best possible manner.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION


Is the Teaching Staff of Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar Campus Satisfied with their Job.

1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES


In the research paper an emphasis has been directed towards the following objectives: To Analyze the current HR practices in Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar campus. To identify the level of Job Satisfaction in the teaching staff of Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology peshwar campus. Suggest best HR practices more precisely to improve the level of Job Satisfaction among the teaching staff of Sarhad university of Science and Information Technology Peshawar campus.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The scope of this study was confined to Institute of Management Studies, Peshawar. Its main focus was on human resource development section of Sarhad University and in this way emphasis had been laid to study their approaches towards the strategies to make work more gratifying for their employees. 17

Tracking job satisfaction is an elusive endeavor. Employees experience different levels of satisfaction throughout each workday. And job satisfaction is subjective in nature. Just as siblings born to and raised by the same parents can look on their upbringings as being totally different, employees who hold identical jobs in the same company, receive the same compensation, and report to the same management can have very different levels of job satisfaction. These differences are due in part to the individual worker's personality and perspective and to a multitude of variables that are directly related to, and have an overwhelming influence on, job satisfaction.

1.5

UNIT OF THE STUDY

The unit of analysis was job satisfaction among faculty members in Sarhad University. Responses from the staff had been analyzed.

1.6

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES
PRIMARY SOURCES

1.6.1

It is collected especially to address a specific research objective. The method employed to collect the data were Questionnaires and personal observations.

1.6.2

SECONDARY SOURCES

It refers to the data that is already available for purposes other than the present issues. It is useful because certain information is available only via secondary sources. Secondary sources significantly used for this research are journals; websites and articles extensively researched and analyzed.

18

1.7

LIMITATIONS

The study had several limitations but few are worth mentioning: o Time factor was one of the crucial limitations of the study. Collecting data requires a lot of time and is very difficult to conduct a thorough research in just a few a months. o Limited information was available because the employees were too busy and over worked to provide detailed information.

1.9 THEORY FORMULATION


1.9.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Job satisfaction is anchored in multiple theoretical frameworks regarding organizational and motivational psychology (Green, 2000). Green concluded that there were several historical frameworks (Adams, 1963; Glisson & Durick, 1988; Herzberg, 1966; Maslow, 1954; Quarstein, McAfee, & Glassman, 1992; Vroom, 1964) and can be thought of as: Content theorists, Process theorists,

Content theorists (e.g., Herzberg, 1966; Maslow, 1954) stated that need fulfillment leads to overall job satisfaction (Locke, 1976). Or to put it in more simple words these theories assume that all individuals possess the same set of needs and therefore prescribe the characteristics that ought to be present in jobs. Next, process theorists (e.g., Vroom, 1964; Adams, 1963) explained job satisfaction as the interaction between expectancies, values, and needs 19

(Gruneberg, 1979). These theories stress the difference in peoples needs and focus on the cognitive processes that create these differences. The theoretical approach used in this study to examine job satisfaction among Sarhad University faculty is Herzbergs (1966) two-factor theory of motivation. Herzbergs (1966) classic study of accountants and engineers was critical in developing his two-factor theory of motivation. In his book Work and the Nature of Man, he proposed hygiene factors (factors extrinsic to the job) and motivational factors (factors intrinsic to the job) as important factors that affected overall employee motivation and job satisfaction. Extrinsic factors were labeled dissatisfaction issues surrounding the job and included supervision, company policy and administration, working conditions, interpersonal relations with peers, and interpersonal relations with superiors, interpersonal relations with subordinates, status, job security, salary, and personal life. The intrinsic factors were identified as six needs or satisfaction issues. These six needs that motivate people to work are physiology, safety, belongingness, autonomy, selfunderstanding, and creativity. Herzberg further defined these six needs as achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and possibility for growth. Herzbergs research defined an individuals total needs and level of satisfaction within the realm of work, and his intrinsic and extrinsic factors focused attention upon the work itself as a principle source of job satisfaction (Green, 2000, p. 8). However, Smith et al. (1969) defined their construct of job satisfaction as the feelings a worker has about his job (p. 100). More specifically, as described by Kinicki, McKee-Ryan, Schriesheim, and Carson (2002), Smith et al. conceptualized satisfaction around two sub domains: 1. An evaluative-general-long-term domain, which is concerned with assessing how an individuals current job compares with other jobs over his or her lifetime, and 20

2. A descriptive-specific-short-term domain, which focuses on assessing satisfaction within the day-to-day operations of an individuals current job. (p. 14) Smith et al.s book The Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement, attempted to clarify many of the overlapping terms that were used by the multiple job satisfaction researchers and define what ultimately were classified as job satisfaction factors. Working with Kendall and Hulin and following an extensive study that began at Cornell University in 1959, Smiths work was not a single study but an exploration of job satisfaction research. Out of that meticulous detail and their original framework, Smith et al. developed protocols for studying job satisfaction factors in what has become referred to by the name of the survey instrument, the Job Description Index (JDI). Many of the higher education studies conducted have included multiple job satisfaction factors for faculty members. Additionally, many researchers have examined job satisfaction among many professional groups, utilizing the job satisfaction factors that were established by Herzberg (1966) and Smith et al. (1969). For purposes of this study, as the researcher I combined Herzbergs and Smith et al.s frameworks to represent the best theoretical approach to job satisfaction among Sarhad University faculty. After entry into an organization like a university, a faculty member evaluates intrinsic and extrinsic factors within and around the university (Herzberg). During this interaction process, the faculty members experiences and feelings affect the faculty members level of satisfaction within the institution (Smith et al.). As a researcher I used these satisfaction frameworks in order to establish a foundation for understanding Sarhad University faculty job satisfaction. These two frameworks guided me as the researcher in measuring factors for Sarhad University faculty job satisfaction.

2.0 SCHEME OF THE REPORT

21

This report is divided into five sections. The first section comprises of introduction to the study as well as the report. The second section provides the reader with a literature review on previous research within the area of job satisfaction. Section three describes the analysis of the data and findings in this report. In section four we draw some conclusions about the findings from the analysis and also present some implications. And finally, in section five, we present the proposed action plan. The report is divided into five chapters. Section1 Section2 Section3 Section4 Section5 Introduction to the Report (Pre proposal) Literature Review Analysis Findings and Recommendation Proposed Action Plan

1. Introduction

2. Literature Review 3. Analysis and Findings

4. Conclusion and Recommendations

5. Proposed Action Plan

22

Figure 1.1 Outline of the Report

23

24

Working Environment Career Prospect


Independent Variable 1
(Social environment)

Intervening Variable

Salary

Job Satisfaction

Independent Variable 2

Dependent Variable

Supervision

Independent Variable 3

Culture and Policies

Moderating Variable

Figure 1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

25

SECTION2 LITERATURE REVIEW

26

2 LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter we would review earlier studies within the research purpose area. The aim of this section is to provide relevant literature in the field of job satisfaction. It is important and worthwhile to go through a number of different texts related to job satisfaction.

2.1 INTRODUCTION
The management of people at work is an integral part of the management process. To understand the critical importance of people in the organization is to recognize that the human element and the organization are synonymous. A well-managed organization usually sees an average worker as the root source of quality and productivity gains. Such organizations do not look to capital investment, but to employees, as the fundamental source of improvement. An organization is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals. An effective organization will make sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense of commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence. In order to make employees satisfied and committed to their jobs, there is need for strong and effective motivation at the various levels, departments, and sections. Since it was pioneered in the 1930s, the study of employees attitudes to their work and, more specially, of job satisfaction, has contributed a substantial body of knowledge about what makes people happy or unhappy with their jobs. (Locke, 1969) cited in Evans, p-3) Job satisfaction can be viewed as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job experience. (Locke, 1976) defined job satisfaction as When someone is satisfied with his or her job that is job satisfaction. There are two approaches of job satisfaction. According to Hackman (1975) if you want X from your work then you are satisfied to the extent that it provides you with X. On the other hand the 27

job characteristics model suggests the causes of job satisfaction are objective characteristics. Basically, job satisfaction is about liking your job and finding fulfillment in what you do. It combines an individuals feelings and emotions about their and how their job affects their personal lives. Paul Spectors (1985) define job satisfaction as a cluster of evaluative feelings about the job. He identified 9 facets of job satisfaction. 1. Pay- amount and fairness or equity of salary. 2. Promotion-opportunities and fairness of promotion. 3. Supervision-fairness and competence at managerial tasks by ones supervisor 4. Benefits- insurance, vacation, and fringe benefits 5. Contingent procedures-sense of respect, recognition and appreciation. 6. Operating procedure-policies, procedures, rules, perceived red tape. 7. Coworkers- perceived competence and pleasantness of ones colleagues. 8. Nature of work- enjoyment of the actual tasks themselves. 9. Communication- sharing information within the organization (verbally or in writing) There is no one definition that sums up job satisfaction but there are many theories on what contributes positively or negatively to those feelings. Stemple (2003) notes that Today the classic theories of Maslow (1943), Herzberg (1968) and Vroom (1964) on job satisfaction serve as the foundation for much of the modern day studies. These classic theories have doled out as a basis for the evolution of job satisfaction research and have served as a springboard for research inside and outside the field of education. Because these classic theories have transcended into the field of education, from a historical perspective, it is important to look at the classic theories of job satisfaction. In their book on theories of job satisfaction, Campbell, Dunnettee, Lawler and Weik (1970) divide the present day theories of job satisfaction into two groups, content theories which give an account of the factors that influence job satisfaction and process theories that try to give an account of the process by which variables such as expectations, needs, and values relate to the characteristics of the job to produce 28

job satisfaction. Maslow (1943) Needs hierarchy theory and its development by Herzberg into the Two Factor theory of job satisfaction are examples of content theories. Equity, fulfillment and Vrooms (1964) expectancy theory are examples of process theory. There are three important dimensions to job satisfaction. First, job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. As such, it cannot be seen; it can only be inferred. Second, job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. For example, if organizational participant feel that they are working much harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards, they will probably have a negative attitude toward the work, the boss, and/or coworkers. They will be dissatisfied. On the other hand, if they feel they are being treated very well and are being paid equitably, they are likely to have a positive attitude towards the job. They will be job satisfied. Third job satisfaction represents several related attitudes. Smith, kendall, and Hullin have suggested that there are five job dimensions that represents the most important characteristics of a job about which people have affective response. They are: 1. The work itself: the extent, to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning, and the chance to accept responsibility 2. Pay: The amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which this is viewed as equitable vis--vis that of others in the organization 3. Promotion opportunities: the chances for advancement in the hierarchy 4. Supervision: the abilities of the supervisor to provide technical assistance and behavioral support 5. Coworkers: the degree to which fellow workers are technically proficient and socially supportive (Luthans, 1995) organizational behavior, p-126

2.2 MOTIVATION

29

Motivation is a basic psychological process. A data-based comprehensive analysis concluded that competitiveness problems appear to be largely motivational in nature (Mine, Ebrahimi, and Wachtel, 1995). Along with perception, personality, attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important element of behavior. Nevertheless, motivation is not the only explanation of behavior. It interacts with and acts in conjunction with other cognitive processes. Motivating is the management process of influencing behavior based on the knowledge of what make people tick (Luthans, 1998). Motivation and motivating both deal with the range of conscious human behavior somewhere between two extremes:

reflex actions such as a sneeze or flutter of the eyelids; and learned habits such as brushing one's teeth or handwriting style (Wallace and Szilag 1982: 53). Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses,

energizes, directs, and sustains behavior and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. One way of stimulating people is to employ effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs. Money is not the only motivator. There are other incentives which can also serve as motivators.

2.3 THEORY OF MOTIVATION


Herzberg et al.s Two Factor Theory
Two-factor theory proposes that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are in fact two separate dimensions .Job satisfaction is seen as running along with a continuum anchored from job neutral (neither job satisfied nor dissatisfied) to job satisfied. According to Herzberg, people have two different categories of needs that are essentially independent of each other and effect behavior in different ways. He 30

found that when people felt dissatisfied with their jobs, they were concerned about the environment in which they were working. On the other hand when people felt good about their jobs, this had to do with the work itself. Herzberg called the first category of needs hygiene or maintenance factor. Hygiene because they describe people environment and serve the primary function of preventing job dissatisfaction. Maintenance-because they are not completely satisfied---they have to continue to be maintained, Herzberg called second category of needs motivators since they seemed to be effective in motivating people to superior performance. The motivator and the hygiene factors are as follows:

Motivator Factors
The job itself
Achievement Recognition and accomplishment Challenging work Increased responsibility Growth and development

Hygiene Factors
Environment
Policies and administration Supervision

Working condition Interpersonal relation Money, status, security

Figure 2.1

2.4 TEACHERS JOB SATISFACTION


There are many studies and literature about job satisfaction. But little literature is available on teachers job satisfaction. Nias (1989) p-83 comment on teachers job satisfaction I encountered several difficulties.The first was a conceptual one. 31

As a topic for enquiry, teachers job satisfaction has been largely ignored. Partly in consequence, it lacks clarity of definition. Linda Evans (1998) identified the factors affecting the teachers job satisfaction in some levels. Level I: Policy and condition of service. Pay structure. A well pay structure brings more satisfaction Level II: Leadership style. (Of the head (supervisor or the senior teachers)) Organizational climate: It includes the pattern of management of the institute, method of accountability of the teachers, level of local people interference, freedom of teachers etc. Level III: This level suggested determinants of job satisfaction are, typically, individuals needs fulfillment, expectations fulfillment or values congruence. Individuals norms, values, personality and emotion reflect in this level. Leadership plays an important role on job satisfaction. Head teachers who adopt laissez faire styles of leadership, for example may be considered to exert very little influence on the school-specific circumstances and situations that potentially affect teacher morale, job satisfaction and motivation. (Linda Evans -1998, Teachers moral and job satisfaction) Teachers are feeling disillusioned, demoralized and angry at being forced to carry out unpopular government policies, while being constantly blamed for societys ills. They are fed up with having to teach children in ever larger classes, working in schools which are dilapidated, under funded and overstretched (ibid P-3) How individual teachers view themselves as contributors to the whole school appears to be important to their level of satisfaction beyond the classroom, 32

and the formation of this view of teachers is related to their school culture environment (Lortie, 1975) Cultures with characteristics expressed in terms of collegiality and collaboration generally are those types that promote satisfaction and feelings of professional involvement of teachers (Hargreaves 1994; Leithwood, Leonard & Sharratt, 1998). Others types of cultures that creates, maintain, and reinforce isolation do little to help teachers resolve issues or to learn new techniques to help them teach. These cultures of isolation and balkanization (Hargreaves. 1994) actually contribute to teacher dissatisfaction and to a loss of certainty about their professional competence (Rosenhltz. 1989).

2.5 VARIABLES
This section is an attempt to develop a framework for analyzing job satisfaction among the staff of the above mentioned organization. To draw an analytical framework it seems necessary to establish the relationship between independent and dependent variables and to relate them with the theoretical perspective. Job satisfaction can be considered both as an independent and as a dependent variable. As an independent variable, job satisfaction is recognized as the cause of phenomena such as turnover, absenteeism, retention, and productivity. As a dependent variable, job satisfaction is seen as caused by factors such as individual, organizational characteristics, and mechanics of the job. In this study, job satisfaction was treated as a dependent variable and response of the teachers was congregated.

2.5.1 Dependent Variable

33

Job satisfaction is a very simple term when someone is satisfied with his job that is job satisfaction. It is like that when any job is fulfilled ones expectation that is job satisfaction. Porter, Lawler and Hackman (1975) define job satisfaction as a feeling about a job that is determined by the difference between all those things a person feels he should receive from his job and all those things he actually does receive. Basically, job satisfaction is about liking your job and finding fulfillment in what you do. It combines an individuals feelings and emotions about their job and how their job affects their personal lives. But it is only psychological expression. Our concern is job satisfaction from administrative, socio-economic and organizational context. Paul Spectors (1985) define job satisfaction as a cluster of evaluative feelings about the job. He identified 9 facets of job satisfaction.

1. Pay- amount and fairness or equity of salary. 2. Promotion-opportunities and fairness of promotion. 3. Supervision-fairness and competence at managerial tasks by ones supervisor 4. Benefits- insurance, vacation, and fringe benefits 5. Contingent procedures-sense of respect, recognition and appreciation. 6. Operating procedure-policies, procedures, rules, perceived red tape. 7. Coworkers- perceived competence and pleasantness of ones colleagues. 8. Nature of work- enjoyment of the actual tasks themselves. 9. Communication- sharing information within the organization (verbally or in writing) Job satisfaction is directly linked with some organizational phenomena, like hierarchy, supervision. Workers preferred decentralized administration. Participation in decision making can bring job satisfaction. Smith, Kendall, and Hullin have suggested that there are five job dimensions that represent the most important characteristics of a job about which people have affective response. They are 34

1. The work itself: the extent, to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning, and the chance to accept responsibility 2. Pay: The amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which this is viewed as equitable vis--vis that of others in the organization 3. Promotion opportunities: the chances for advancement in the hierarchy 4. Supervision: the abilities of the supervisor to provide technical assistance and behavior support 5. Coworkers: the degree to which fellow workers are technically proficient and socially supportive (Luthans, 1995) organizational behaviour, p-126. Evans identified the levels of job satisfaction which indicate some factors of job satisfaction for teacher. Level I: Policy and condition of service. Pay structure: A well pay structure brings more satisfaction Level II: Leadership style. (Of the head (supervisor or the senior teachers)) Organizational climate: It includes the pattern of management of the school (university), method of accountability of the teachers, level of local people interference, freedom of teachers etc. Level III: This level suggested determinants of job satisfaction are, typically, individuals needs fulfillment, expectations fulfillment or values congruence. Individuals attitude, norms, values, personality and emotion reflects in this level.

2.5.2 Independent Variables


This study has tried to determine teachers job satisfaction. It is dependent upon some factors those are termed as independent variables like, career prospects, remuneration/salary, and supervision.

35

2.5.2.1 Career prospect


In very simple term career prospect means how far a job can ensure ones career in a job. It means whether the job is supporting the employee to be established or give scope to develop ones career. Career has some phases. It starts with Recruitment and selection. The other phases are: promotion, training and transfer as well as placement. Their satisfaction and dissatisfaction depends upon these factors through which a teacher can reach to the ultimate goals of the job. Fairness of recruitment process and on time promotion to the higher position brings satisfaction to the teachers. If any one gets positive support from their job it will create job satisfaction. If there is no fairness of recruitment, training and promotion system overall limited career prospect it will bring dissatisfaction to every one. Thus career prospect of a job is highly interlinked with job satisfaction.

2.5.2.2 Salary
One of the most important purposes to do a job is getting remuneration. If one gets a attractive salary by which one can afford the living may cause job satisfaction. But if the salary cannot bear ones expenditure one should not be satisfied with the salary. Thus salary directly impacts on job satisfaction.

2.5.2.3 Supervision
Dogmatism of the supervisor or nuisance in the name of supervision many time cause dissatisfaction to the subordinates. This is linked to environment and the culture of the organization. Its protraction brings the teachers dissatisfied to their profession.

36

2.5.3 Moderating Variable


2.5.3.1 Culture and Policies
Culture is mental software of the mind. It is learned, not innate. It derives from ones social environment rather than from ones genes. Culture should be distinguished from human nature on one side and from an individuals personality on the other (Hofstede -2005). Organizational culture is the social glue that binds members of the organization together (Kreitner 1995). The relationship between superior and subordinate, decision making, delegation of authority, types of leadership, and bureaucratic power are part of organizational culture. Job satisfaction is related to these criteria. Like if decision making process is participative every one should be satisfied on the other hand undemocratic decision making process creates dissatisfaction.

2.5.4 Intervening Variable


2.5.4.1 Working Environment
The social environment covers teacher student relationship, interpersonal relationship among the colleagues, head teacher assistant teachers relationship, and teachers - guardian relationship attitudes of the university managing committee as well as the local elites. If such relation is good some one can be satisfied with the job, but because of antagonistic relation one may be dissatisfied with their job. Thus environment plays a vital role in context of job satisfaction.

2.6 HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT


Job satisfaction is commonly defined as the extent to which employees like their work. It is an attitude based on employee perceptions (negative or positive) of their jobs or work environments. Most efforts to explain job satisfaction have 37

been dominated by the person-environment fit paradigm. Simply stated, the more a person's work environment fulfills his or her needs, values, or personal characteristics, the greater the degree of job satisfaction. Several of the most popular theoretical applications of the person-environment fit approach to the study of job satisfaction have looked at fulfillments, job characteristics, met expectancies, value attainment, equity, organizational justice, and personal traits. Based on the review of literature, 3 hypotheses were formulated for the study: They are as follows:

Hypothesis 1: There is a relationship between opportunities for career


advancements and job satisfaction of personnel.

Hypothesis 2: There is a relationship between salary and job satisfaction of


personnel.

Hypothesis 3: There is a relationship between supervision and job satisfaction


of personnel.

38

SECTION3 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

3 DATA ANALYSIS
39

3.1 INTRODUCTION
The main purpose of this study was to look into job satisfaction of the faculty members of Sarhad University. The rationale was to explore the relationship between selected variables and job satisfaction.

3.2 POPULATION AND SAMPLE


For this purpose the responses of the concerned faculty members was gathered through questionnaires. To test the hypotheses on factors influencing variation in job satisfaction, data was collected from a population of 55 by selecting a sample size of 30. The questionnaires were designed to assess employees perception about 3 different facets of the workplace these were career advancement opportunities, supervision, and salary. Job satisfaction was measured by using different indicators for this purpose.

3.3 DATA COLLECTION


The questionnaire was constructed in a way so that the researcher could get scientific data.

40

3.4 ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS

3.4.1 SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO CAREER PROSPECTS

Opportunities to learn and grow in the organization

No, 11, 37% Yes No Yes, 19, 63%

Figure 3.1

41

The analysis revealed that career prospects was a significant factor of job satisfaction. As conjectured, the availability of career advancement opportunities exerted powerful effects on job satisfaction. 63 % of the employees opined that the organization does offer chances of career- advancement opportunities.

The most important factor that attracts employees toward this organization

Structure and culture, 6, 20% Salary, 1, 3% Motivation, 1, 3%


Structure and culture Salary Motivation Career Prospect

Career Prospect, 22, 74%

42

Figure 3.2 Moreover, when asked about the most important factor that attracts employees towards this organization 74% of the employees believed that it is the career prospects that serves as a significant reason of appeal.

3.4.2 SALARY AS A FACTOR OF JOB SATISFACTION

Salary as a factor of Job Satisfaction

Satisfied, 9, 30% Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Dissatisfied, 20, 67% Average, 1, 3%

43

Figure 3.3 Salary is the top most factor which causes dissatisfaction amongst the faculty members. Here Job satisfaction is found to be directly linked with compensation. Any job must have some sort of financial outcome. The higher the reward, the higher will be the employee satisfaction level. As shown in the pie chart teachers opined that they feel their salary in acknowledgement to their responsibilities is not equitable. According to Herzbergs two factor theory, salary is a hygiene factor which causes dissatisfaction. If salary is low the employees become dissatisfied with their jobs. Thus the inequitable salary structure causes dissatisfaction among the faculty members.

3.4.3 JOB SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO SUPERVISION

44

Supervisor as an effective M anager

Dissatisfied, 2, 7%

Average, 13, 43%

Satisfied, 15, 50%

Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

Figure 3.4 Supervision is a factor that affects job satisfaction. Supervisors have the potential to influence working conditions and the existence of a collegial environment. Perhaps the manner in which supervision is carried out is more important than whether it is carried out. When the respondents were asked whether they feel their supervisor was an effective manager, 50% of them opined that they are satisfied with their supervisors management skills.

45

Supervisor's Care toward Employees

Dissatisfied, 2, 7%

Average, 9, 30% Satisfied, 19, 63%

Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

Figure 3.5 When a teacher gets recognition of his or her work through praise from his/her supervisor, is then satisfied with the person in charge. The respondents claimed that personality, attitude and management skills of head teachers shape their job satisfaction. According to Lindas (1998) five significant factors regarding supervision which affect subordinates job satisfaction; personality, interpersonal behavior, mission, professionalism and management skills. We observe from the statistics (63% satisfied), employees are pretty pleased with the kind of treatment they have from the person in charge and as hypothesized, a relationship between supervision and job satisfaction exerted powerful effects on job satisfaction.

46

3.4.4 SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO JOB ITSELF

Extent to which Employees Value their Work

No, 1, 3%

Yes No

Yes, 29, 97%

Figure 3.6 For any organization to succeed, it is vital that employees are able to exert the required effort to produce the desired output. However, this is easier said than done. (Engagement is a term used to describe a situation where employees are motivated to help the organization succeed and know how to help it achieve its goals.). Employees in this organization value their work, 97% of employees opined that they have a positive attitude toward their work, so we witness a promising situation since the organization is cashing an opportunity to motivate and focus on employees in ways that is having and will continue to have a real impact on efficiency and performance. 47

3.4.5 WORK-LIFE BALANCE

Work-life Balance

Yes, 12, 40% Yes No

No, 18, 60%

Figure 3.7

Work/life balance as being "about helping teachers combine work with their social life outside work". This includes a sense of control, personal fulfilment, career development, work flexibility, physical and emotional wellbeing, and the will of both employers and employees to ensure that the staff enjoy a work/life balance. But from the satistics it is obvious that there is a severe need for the management to provide flexibility in the work. A great number of employees (60%) have shown their reservations regarding the work load and their inability

48

to have a balance between the work and social life. Implementing work/life balance initiatives is about improving the lives of staff.

3.4.6 EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION AND APPRECIATION

Employees recognized and appreciated for their work

D issatisfied, 1, 3%

Average, 15, 50%

Satisfied, 14, 47%

Satisfied Average D issatisfied

49

Figure 3.8

It is sad but true. We tend to take those closest to us for granted. The employees are occasionally acknowledged for the things and deeds they perform to make the organization a success. From the above statistics we see there is a lot of room for improvement when employee recognition and appreciation is given consideration. Most of the employees opined an average response (15%) to their efforts being appreciated. The organization is required to come up with a proper system where the employees good deeds are acknowledged by the management.

3.4.7 ALIGNMENT IN EMPLOYEES VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES

50

Alignment in employees' values and the organizational values

Dissatisfied, 4, 13% Satisfied, 10, 33% Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

Average, 16, 54%

Figure 3.9 It has become almost stereotyped, in this day and age for organizations to proclaim, "Our employees are our most important asset.Stereotyped because everyone is saying it, and because, for most organizations, it is so patently and obviously true. The workforce the sum total of the intellectual capital, the alignment of human resources with organizational goals, and the commitment of employees is the Institutes only sustainable competitive advantage. Maintaining this advantage will become more challenging in the future as the competition for scarce knowledge and skills increases. And talking of values it is obvious from the figures that the organization has to work in value building, things are not that alarming but so not pleasing though. On the whole we can see about (16%) of the employees feel their sentiments being aligned with the organizational values. This could change if the organization starts taking some initiatives. 51

3.4.8 SATISFACTION IN RESPONSE TO EMPLOYEES VOICE

Satisfaction in response to Employees Voice

Dissatisfied, 7, 23%

Satisfied, 10, 33% Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

Average, 13, 44%

Figure 3.10 It is also critical to initiate communication by asking for employees input and appropriately responding to that input when it is received. The most effective method for gleaning opinions from employees and formulating a response is a formal survey. According to the above pie chart (44%) of the employees feel that their voice needs to be heard as the satisfaction level is lagging behind. Employee voice if heard is necessary for communication process in the workforce.

52

3.4.9

OPINION

REGARDING

THE

POLICIES

AND

PRACTICES TOWARDS THE EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION

Opinion Regarding The Policies And Practices Towards The Employees In The Organization
Policies regarding service structure, and proper schedule for employees regarding their leaves and deduction No Comments

2, 7% 2, 7% 5, 17%
Policies are not clear neither properly communicated

9, 29%

Policies need to improve on the whole

5, 17%

7, 23%

Policies regarding Training And Development

No Consistency in Policies

Figure 3.11 There was one query concerning the opinion of employees about organizations policies and practices in general and about employees in particular. Majority of the employees opined that the organization should mold some solid practices and policies regarding employees service structure and furthermore having an appropriate schedule for employees with reference to the leaves and salary deduction. Then some employees articulated about training and development 53

policies of the organization Learning helps people improve their overall performance rather than just enhancing their job skills. Organizations and individuals should value knowledge as they do money. Individuals must value learning as much as the organization does. It is the role of organization to provide opportunities, but individuals must take the initiative to utilize those opportunities and position themselves for future career success. Some members orated about the need for proper communication between the management and the employees. In addition to all this there were many employees that showed their helplessness to remark on this question.

3.5 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY


1. The analysis revealed career prospects was a significant factor of job satisfaction. Majority of the employees opined that the organization offers chances of career- advancement opportunities. 2. Teachers are highly dissatisfied with meager salary in proportion to their responsibilities. It does not impel them to be dedicated to this profession. Salary must be consistent with present socio-economic condition. It means one have to muddle through with the society with ones remuneration. An array of salary must have capability to meet up ones vital need in existence. When ones salary can not meet up that, they have to look for other means. As most of the teachers are highly dissatisfied with stumpy salary they tried to supplement income by private teaching. It makes the teacher less heartfelt towards their profession. 3. Teacher supervision has as its primary purpose the improvement of teaching and student learning. For teaching and student learning to improve a professional culture must exist in which teachers are engaged in the activities which identify areas of strength and areas of growth, and which support efforts to improve teaching practice, pedagogy, and content knowledge to improve student learning. Supervision is a factor that 54

affects job satisfaction. Supervisors have the potential to influence working circumstances and the existence of a collegial environment. Perhaps the manner in which supervision is carried out is more important than whether it is carried out. When a teacher gets recognition of his or her work through praise from his/her supervisor, is then satisfied with the person in charge. We saw from the statistics, employees are pretty pleased with the kind of treatment they have from the person in charge (supervisor) and as hypothesized, a relationship between supervision and job satisfaction exerted powerful effects on job satisfaction. 4. For an organization to thrive, it is fundamental that human resources are able to exercise the required effort to produce the desired output. We witnessed a promising situation as the organization is cashing a prospect to motivate and focus on employees in the ways that is having and will continue to have a real impact on efficiency and performance. 5. A great number of employees have shown their reservations regarding the work load and their inability to have a balance between the work and social life. Implementing work/life balance initiatives is about improving the lives of staff. By embedding explicit work boundaries, extended services can be developed in ways that are consistent with the tenets of workforce reform and do not place additional workload pressures on staff. 6. We see there is a lot of room for improvement when employee recognition and appreciation is concerned in the organization. Most of the employees opined that their efforts were appreciated and treasured. Here the organization should intensify to appreciate the employees and all that they do, in a more convincing way. 7. The workforce the sum total of the intellectual capital, the alignment of human resources with organizational goals, and the commitment of employees is the institutes only sustainable competitive advantage. 55

Maintaining this advantage will become more challenging in the future as the competition for scarce knowledge and skills increases. Talking of values it is obvious from the figures that here the organization has to work in value building; things are not that alarming but so not pleasing though. On the whole we saw an average response of the employees feeling their sentiments being aligned with the organizational values. 8. It is also critical to initiate communication by asking for employee input and appropriately responding to that input when it is received. The most effective method for gleaning opinions from employees and formulating a response is a formal survey. But here we saw an average response of the employees feel that their voice needs to be communicated as the satisfaction ration is lagging behind. Employee voice if heard is crucial to the communication process. 9. When employees were asked to give their opinion about the organizational policies and practices in general and regarding employees in particular a combination of views were obtained. Some employees were concerned about the policies about the salary structure and employee schedule of leaves and deduction. Some said there should be practices of employees training and development, some emphasized on having proper communication channels and proliferation of policies among all the employees in a clear way.

56

SECTION4

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

57

4 CONCLUSION 4.1 INTRODUCTION


This study can be phrased as an exclusive one. To look into job satisfaction is significant as it shapes performance. The primary purpose was to enhance our knowledge of the determinants of job satisfaction among employees and has tried to work out the concept of job satisfaction through the faculty of Sarhad University. Here, efforts were given to frame all the insights of job satisfaction perceived by the teachers. In this expedition it was also tried to mark the causes that make the teachers satisfied or dissatisfied. The study conclusion and recommendations have avowed in this section.

4.2 JUDGMENT OF HYPOTHESIS


The 3 hypothesized relationships were confirmed. Of the 3 independent variables entered into the framework, salary clearly emerged as the most powerful determinant of variation in overall job satisfaction.. The first hypothesis was about the relationship between with opportunities for career advancements and job satisfaction. As speculated, the 58

availability of career advancement opportunities wielded powerful effects on job satisfaction. Thus independent variable impacted on the dependent variable in the direction hypothesized. The second hypothesis catered the relationship between remuneration and job satisfaction. As an independent variable added to the job satisfaction, the significance of salary reflected its importance in the workplace on employee attitudes in the direction hypothesized. While the third and final hypothesis was about supervision. We saw from the statistics, employees were contented with the kind of treatment they had had from the person in charge and as conjectured, a relationship between supervision and job satisfaction exerted powerful effects on job satisfaction.

4.3 CONCLUSION
This study can be termed as a distinctive one as this was the study regarding teachers job satisfaction. It is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job experience. But expectation of people may not be homogeneous. It may differ from person to person, place to place, job to job, context to context, organization to organization. So, job satisfaction can not be generalized. From organizational perspective, policy and administration of organization, culture of that organization, working environment and supervisory style affects the job satisfaction. The theories by Herzberg, Evans were used in this study. Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people's attitudes about work. He concluded that such factors as company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary are hygiene factors rather than motivators. According to the theory, the absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. In contrast, he determined from the data that the motivators were 59

elements that enriched a person's job; he found five factors in particular that were strong determiners of job satisfaction: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, and advancement. These motivators (satisfiers) were associated with long-term positive effects in job performance while the hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) consistently produced only short-term changes in job attitudes and performance, which quickly fell back to its previous level. In summary, satisfiers describe a person's relationship with what he or she does, many related to the tasks being performed. Dissatisfiers, on the other hand, have to do with a person' relationship to the context or environment in which he or she performs the job. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation. The problems with Herzberg's work are that it occurred in 1959--too long ago to be pertinent--and did not cover teachers. The data from the research clearly indicate that the participants were as influenced by motivation factors as by hygiene factors, contrary to Herzberg's position that hygiene factors do not motivate. In this study the teachers job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is caused by both the factors of motivation and hygiene. During the study the factors found as the causes of satisfaction or dissatisfaction are related either to the motivator factors or to the hygiene factors. Linda Evans theory of job satisfaction covers almost all these factors which are linked with job satisfaction especially salary and leadership style (supervision). Teachers were highly dissatisfied with meager salary. It did not impel them to be dedicated to their profession. Supervision was a factor that affects job satisfaction. Supervisors have the potential to influence working circumstances and the existence of a collegial environment. Education is the backbone of a nation. If the astute of that backbone is discontented and dissatisfied with the jobs what would be the potential of that realm. So, we need to be concerned about our teachers state. We have to take the 60

paramount step to make them satisfied with the jobs. Whenever we talk about job satisfaction, the most common sentence we use is "It is impossible to find job satisfaction". At the same time some people say that find a job we love and we will never have to work a day in our life. It is not easy to follow our passions but those who can chase their passion have the power to make the most out of their career. If we have the zeal to work and live in what we do, we must convert our passions into our regular job or find something more interesting to replace our passion.

4.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
4.4.1 INTRODUCTION
Job satisfaction pertains to ones feelings regarding the job and work place. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors, e.g., the quality of one's relationship with their supervisor, the quality of the environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc. Stress mounts when work is no longer satisfying. Depending on the underlying cause of lack of job satisfaction, there may be several ways to increase job satisfaction. 4.4.2 THE LINK BETWEEN WORK APPROACH AND JOB

SATISFACTION Work is often approached from three perspectives. Usually all three perspectives are important for job satisfaction, but one is often the priority:

61

It is a job. If we approach work as a job, we focus primarily on the

financial rewards. In fact, the nature of the work may hold little interest for us. What is important is the money. If a job with more pay comes our way, we will likely move on.

It is a career. If we approach work as a career, we are interested in

advancement. We want to climb the career ladder as far as possible. We are motivated by the status, prestige and power that come with the job.

It is a calling. If we approach our job as a calling, we focus on the work

itself. We work less for the financial gain or career advancement than for the fulfillment the work brings. A simple approach is not necessarily better than the others but it is helpful to reflect on why we work if we are unsatisfied with our job and are ready to move on. We should try to think about what originally drew us to our current job, and whether it may be a factor in our lack of job satisfaction.

62

4.4.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
4.4.3.1 Career Advancement
Reward loyalty and performance with advancement. When feasible, support employees by allowing them to pursue further education, which will make them more valuable to their practice and more fulfilled professionally.

4.4.3.2 Salary/Remuneration
The old adage "you get what you pay for" tends to be true when it comes to staff members. Employees do want to be paid equitably. If individuals believe they are not compensated well, they will be unhappy working for the organization. See whether the salaries and benefits offered are comparable to those of others. In addition, make sure there are clear policies related to salaries, raises and bonuses. Workers who believe that they are fairly compensated for their job and that report receiving more benefits have higher job satisfaction.

4.4.3.3 Supervision
To decrease dissatisfaction in this area, begin by making wise decisions when appointing someone to the role of supervisor. Be aware that good employees do not always make good supervisors. The role of supervisor is extremely difficult. It requires leadership skills and the ability to treat all employees fairly. Inform supervisors to use positive feedback whenever possible and should establish a set means of employee evaluation and feedback so that no one feels singled out.

4.4.3.4 Work itself

63

Perhaps most important to employee motivation is helping individuals believe that the work they are doing is important and that their tasks are meaningful. Emphasize that their contributions to the practice result in positive outcomes. Find certain tasks that are truly unnecessary and can be eliminated or streamlined, resulting in greater efficiency and satisfaction.

4.4.3.5 Administrative policies


An organization's policies can be a great source of frustration for employees if the policies are unclear or unnecessary or if not everyone is required to follow them. Although employees will never feel a great sense of motivation or satisfaction due to policies, organization can decrease dissatisfaction in this area by making sure that their policies are fair and apply equally to all. Also, make printed copies of policies-and-procedures manual easily accessible to all members of staff. If there is not a written manual, create one, soliciting staff input along the way. If there is already a manual, consider updating it (again, with staff input). Also compare policies to those of similar practices and check whether particular policies are unreasonably strict or whether some penalties are too harsh.

4.4.3.6 Interpersonal relations


Remember that part of the satisfaction of being employed is the social contact it brings, so allow employees a reasonable amount of time for socialization (e.g., over lunch, during breaks, prayer time). This will help them develop a sense of teamwork.

4.4.3.7 Work/life Balance


Taking a look at the number of hours employees are working will give some indication of how they rank in the work-life balance area. Many people on the 64

track to burnout arent even aware of it, so the management should help employees gauge their balancing work with other activities and obligations. These could be done by offering them increased benefits or if thats not possible at least try to compensate them by extending the weekend to Saturday and Sunday. And more importantly put things in perspective.

4.4.3.8 Training and Development


Training has been defined as any management practice that can be controlled or managed to extract a desired set of unwritten, reciprocal attitudes and behaviors, such as job satisfaction. Sarhad University should consider the implication for training and development investment returns for itself as the relationship between training and development opportunities, and associated factors (job satisfaction) can be significant among participants. The employees of this institute themselves have identified training and development as an antecedent to perceived organizational support.

4.4.3.9 Recognition
Individuals at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for their achievements on the job. Their successes don't have to be monumental before they deserve recognition, but praise should be sincere. If employees doing something well, take the time to acknowledge their good work immediately, or give them a bonus, if appropriate.

65

CHAPTER5

PROPOSED ACTION PLAN

66

67

5 INTRODUCTION
People learn in many different ways and in many different places. In addition to the formal learning that occurs in traditional classrooms and post-secondary institutions, valuable learning also occurs in workplaces, family businesses and regular daily life. What is learned informally or experientially is often the same or similar to what may be learned in traditional formal learning environments. There are many reasons why recognizing experiential learning is a viable educational option, more so in today's economy than ever before. Savings of both time and money can increase the efficiency by freeing resources. Increased levels of learners' personal satisfaction and self esteem contribute to additional and more avid learning and a more highly-motivated workforce. Professional satisfaction measures will include questions about opportunities for growth, degree to which job flexibility enhances satisfaction, degree to which job evaluations are tied to job expectations, degree to which pursuit of a shared mission results in a sense of community, degree to which pay is acceptable, etc. It is possible for employer and employees to be happy on the job. The key is in how you handle the situation.

5.1 ACTION STEP 1


Determine the level of professional satisfaction, and identify and address significant concerns. 1. Convene a task force to poll faculty and staff to determine areas of job satisfaction, key job related frustrations, and employee proposed solutions to reduce and eliminate these frustrations. 2. Determine which of the proposed solutions would have the greatest impact and are the most cost effective. 3. Implement these solutions. The simple act of gathering this information may improve morale on campus; however this will be short lived if no 68

visible progress is seen on implementing solutions. For this reason the task force should address first those items that are easiest to implement and will have the largest impact.

5.1.1 ACTION STEP 1 ASSESSMENT


Establish a benchmark of job satisfaction. Conduct annual surveys to determine if progress has been made.

5.2 ACTION STEP 2


Increase the sense of community and shared mission among employees. 1. Create an easily identified gathering area for faculty/staff. Informal discussions with faculty/staff suggest that a faculty/staff gathering area was a feature of campus that existed in the past and they missed having it now. 2. Use this site for information-sharing meetings, professional development and recognition ceremonies and other activities related to building community. 3. Expand the recognition activities from celebrating individual accomplishments to include celebrations of group achievements, such as program accreditation, etc.

5.2.1 ACTION STEP 2 ASSESSMENT


Tally people using the gathering space and measure the perception of community and shared mission using a survey. An increase in perceived sense of community over time would indicate success.

5.3 ACTION STEP 3


Develop policies that enable job satisfaction among employees. 69

1.

An organization's policies can be a great source of nuisance for employees if the policies are uncertain or unnecessary or if not everyone is required to follow them. Make sure policies are fair and apply equally to all. Also, make printed copies of policies-and-procedures manual easily accessible to all members of staff. If there is not a written manual, creating one, soliciting staff input along the way.

2. Establish a working group to propose policies regarding job flexibility for faculty and staff. The final policies should address flexibility in work day/week as well as alternative job arrangements, for example reduced loads for faculty, or sharing a single job between more than one employee. Implementing work/life balance initiatives is about improving the lives of staff. Benefits often include: reduced stress and sickness greater motivation, morale and physical and emotional wellbeing increased job satisfaction and improved recruitment and retention improved teaching and learning, better time management, and greater efficiency open and honest relationships and greater awareness of staff and pupil needs increased quality of leadership and management and more trust between management and other staff greater cohesion and communication between governors, senior management and all staff 3. Consider the implication for training and development investment returns for itself as the relationship between training and development opportunities, and associated factors (job satisfaction) can be significant among participants. 4. Avoid the dissatisfaction in the area of policies by making sure that the policies are properly disseminated and communicated. 70

5.3.1 ACTION STEP 3 ASSESSMENT


New policies are in place that enable job flexibility and employees report that increased job flexibility improves job satisfaction.

5.4 THE TRICKLE-DOWN EFFECT


While there is no simple way to manage people, all of whom have different needs, backgrounds and expectations; Herzberg's theory offers a reasonable starting point. By creating an environment that promotes job satisfaction, developing employees who are motivated, productive and fulfilled. This, in turn, will contribute to higher satisfaction.

"The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating. The paths are not to be found, but made, and the activity of making them changes both the maker and the destination." John Schaar, Futurist

71

REFERENCES
Hackman (1975), Motivation and Job Satisfaction, page8. Stemple (2003), Job Satisfaction of Principals, page 9 Smith, kendall, and Hullin, (1969) Measures of Job Satisfaction (from Handbook of Organizational Measurement ), page 10. Mine, Ebrahimi, and Wachtel, (1995), Work motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of library personnel in academic and research libraries in Oyo state, Nigeria, page 10. Paul Spectors (1985), Job Satisfaction Survey, JSS, page9. Campbell, Dunnettee, Lawler and Weik (1970), Predictors of Managerial Performance: More Than Cognitive Ability, page 9.

Victor, Vroom (1964), Expectancy Theory, page9.


Fred, Luthans, (1995), Organizational Behaviour, page 10. Linda, Evans, (1998), Teacher Morale, Job Satisfaction and Motivation, page 12. 72

Linda, Evans, (1999), Managing to Motivate: A Guide for School Leaders, page 12. J, Nias, (1989), Primary Teachers Talking: A Study of Teaching as Work, page 12. Fredrick, Herzberg, et.al (1959): The Motivation to Work, page 14.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Boeve, Wallace D., (2007), A national study of job satisfaction factors among faculty in physician assistant education. Evans, L, (1998), Teacher Morale, Job Satisfaction and Motivation, Paul Chapman Pub. Evans, L, (1999), Managing to Motivate: A Guide for School Leaders, Continuum International Publishing. Hersey, Paul & Blanchard, Kenneth H. (1993), Management of organizational Behavior. Herzberg, Fredrick, et.al (1959), The Motivation to Work. Luthans, Fred (1995), Organizational Behaviour, McGraw Hill, New York. Nias, J, (1989), Primary Teachers Talking: A Study of Teaching as Work, Routledge Pub. Tasnim, S (2006), Job Satisfaction among Female Teachers: A study on primary schools in Bangladesh. 73

Tella, A, Ayeni, C. O., Popoola, S. O. (April 2007), Work motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, 2007 University of Idaho Library Yin, R K. (2003), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Third Edition, Sage Publications, London.

APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE OF JOB SATIFACTION
OBJECTIVE Please take a few minutes to complete this questionnaire. The purpose of this questionnaire is to fulfill the requirements of Master of Business Administration Degree at the Institute of Management Studies. Your answers to the questions and all other information you give us will be held in strictest confidence.

PERSONAL INFORMATION Name_______________________________________ (optional)

1. GENDER: 2. What is your age?

Male

Female

21 to 34............................................................ 35 to 44............................................................ 74

45 to 54............................................................ 55 or older....................................................... 3. Qualification: _________________________________________________________________ ___ _________________________________________________________________ ____ 4. What is your present designation? _____________________________________

_________________________________________________________________ ____ 5. What are your job responsibilities? _________________________________________________________________ ____

_________________________________________________________________ ____ 6. How long have you been on your present job? ______________ Years ___________ Month

Directions: On the following pages you will find questions dealing with factors like: career advancement, salary, supervision, and working environment of your job. Read each statement carefully.

Decide how you feel and complete the questionnaire, your views are extremely important.

1. Do you look forward to go to work every morning? 75

Ye

No

2. Do you have a positive attitude towards your work?

Ye

No

3. After work do you have time for social activities?

Ye personal life? Ye

No

4. Can you keep a reasonable balance between work and

No

5. Do you have good friends at work place?

Ye

No

6. Do you feel valued at work?

Ye

No

7. Do you feel recognized and appreciated for your work? Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

8. Do you think your knowledge and skills are fully utilized in

your job?
Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

9. Do you value your work? Ye


10.

No

Do you feel your job is fulfilling in terms of your expectations?


Satisfied Average Dissatisfied 76

11. Do you think that your values fit with the organizational

values?
Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

12. Do you feel you are associated with the organizational

mission? Ye organization? Yes organization? Ye s No No s No

13. Do you feel you have a clearly established career path in the

14. Are there enough opportunities to learn and grow in the

15. Do you feel you are involved in decisions that affect you?

Ye
16.

No

Do you feel informed about whats going on in the organization? Ye s No

17. Does the organization ensure supplying of the materials and

equipment that is needed in order to do the work properly?


Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

18. Do you have trust in your leader?

Yes

No

19. Do you feel your supervisor is an effective manager? 77

Satisfied

Average

Dissatisfied

20. Does the supervisor care about you as a person? Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

21. Do you feel your opinions count? Satisfied Average Dissatisfied

22. Do you think your salary is fair for your responsibilities in

the organization? Ye s No

23. Do you see your chances of advancement in the organization?

24. Your opinion regarding the policies and practices towards

the employees in the organization. ____________________________________________________ ____ ____________________________________________________ ____


25. What do you think is the most important factor that attracts

towards this organization? (Rank according to your preference) Structure and Culture Salary Motivation
78

Career Prospect

______________________________________________________ ____ ______________________________________________________ ____ Give yourself two points for each statement you answered positively. Use the following scale to evaluate your job. 50-60 points: Great Job 40-49 points: Good Job 30-39 points: OK Job 20-29 points: Bad Job 1-19 points: Depressing Job

Thank You

79