Sie sind auf Seite 1von 55

CONTROL SYSTEM

NOTES
(ForBachelorofEngineering)

Notesby:
PROF. SHESHADRI G. S

(8) BodePlots
(7) RootLocusPlots
(6) SystemStability
(5) SignalFlowGraphs
(4) Blockdiagram
(3) Transferfunctions
(2) Mathematicalmodeloflinearsystems
(1) IntroductiontoControlsystem
SoftCopymaterialdesignedby:
KARTHIK KUMAR H P
Yourfeedbackscanbemailedto:
Index


1
Control Systems
Introduction to Control Systems
Contr ol System means any quanti ty of i nter est i n a machi ne or mechani sm i s mai ntai ned or al ter ed i n
accor dance wi th desi r ed manner . OR
A system whi ch contr ol s the output quanti ty i s cal l ed a contr ol system.
Definitions:
1. Controlled Variable:
I t i s the quanti ty or condi ti on that i s measur ed & contr ol l ed.

2. Controller:
Controller means measur i ng the val ue of the contr ol l ed var i abl e of the system & appl yi ng the
mani pul ated var i abl e to the system to cor r ect or to l i mi t the devi ati on of the measur ed val ue to the
desi r ed val ue.

3. Plant:
A plant i s a pi ece of equi pment, whi ch i s a set of machi ne par ts functi oni ng together . The
pur pose of whi ch i s to per for m a par ti cul ar oper ati on. Exampl e: Fur nace, Space cr aft etc.,

4. System:
A system i s a combi nati on of components that wor ks together & per for ms cer tai n obj ecti ve.

5. Disturbance:
A disturbance i s a si gnal that tends to affect the val ue of the output of a system. I f a di stur bance
i s cr eated i nsi de the system, i t i s cal l ed internal. Whi l e an external di stur bance i s gener ated outsi de the
system.

6. Feedback Control:
I t i s an oper ati on that, i n the pr esence of di stur bance tends to r educe the di ffer ence between the
output of a system & some r efer ence i nput.

7. Servo Mechanism:
A servo mechanism i s a feedback contr ol l ed system i n whi ch the output i s some mechani cal
posi ti on, vel oci ty or accel er ati on.

8. Open loop System:
I n an Open loop System, the contr ol acti on i s i ndependent of the desi r ed output. OR
When the output quanti ty of the contr ol system i s not fed back to the i nput quanti ty, the contr ol
system i s cal l ed an Open loop System.

9. Closed loop System:
I n the Closed loop Control System the contr ol acti on i s dependent on the desi r ed output, wher e
the output quanti ty i s consi der abl y contr ol l ed by sendi ng a command si gnal to i nput quanti ty.


2
Introduction to Control System
10. Feed Back:
Nor mal l y, the feed back si gnal has opposi te pol ar i ty to the i nput si gnal . Thi s i s cal l ed negati ve
feed back. The advantage i s the r esul tant si gnal obtai ned fr om the compar ator bei ng di ffer ence of the
two si gnal s i s of smal l er magni tude. I t can be handl ed easi l y by the contr ol system. The r esul ti ng si gnal
i s cal l ed Actuating Signal Thi s si gnal has zer o val ue when the desi r ed output i s obtai ned. I n that
condi ti on, contr ol system wi l l not oper ate.

Effects of Feed Back:
Let the system has open l oop gai n feed back l oop gai n Output si gnal &
I nput si gnal .
Then the feed back si gnal i s,










Wi th thi s eqn. , we can wr i te the effects of feed back as fol l ows.
(a) Overall Gain:
Eqn. shows that the gai n of the open l oop system i s r educed by a factor i n
a feed back system. Her e the feed back si gnal i s negati ve. I f the feed back gai n has posi ti ve val ue, the
over al l gai n wi l l be r educed. I f the feed back gai n has negati ve val ue, the over al l gai n may i ncr ease.

(b) Stability:
I f a system i s abl e to fol l ow the i nput command si gnal , the system i s sai d to be Stable.
A system i s sai d to be Unstable, i f i ts output i s out of contr ol . I n eqn. , i f the output of the
system i s i nfi ni te for any fi ni te i nput. Thi s shows that a stabl e system may become unstabl e for cer tai n
val ue of a feed back gai n. Ther efor e i f the feed back i s not pr oper l y used, the system can be har mful .

(c) Sensitivity:
Thi s depends on the system par ameter s. For a good contr ol system, i t i s desi r abl e that the system
shoul d be i nsensi ti ve to i ts par ameter changes.
Sensi ti vi ty, S
G
=

Thi s functi on of the system can be r educed by i ncr easi ng the val ue
of . Thi s can be done by sel ecti ng pr oper feed back.
G(S)
H(S)
R(S)
B(S)
E(S)
C(S)
-



&
Hence,

=
(1)


3
Control Systems
(d) Noise:
Exampl es ar e brush & commutation noise i n el ectr i cal machi nes, Vibrations i n movi ng system
etc.,. The effect of feed back on these noi se si gnal s wi l l be gr eatl y i nfl uenced by the poi nt at whi ch these
si gnal s ar e i ntr oduced i n the system. I t i s possi bl e to r educe the effect of noi se by pr oper desi gn of feed
back system.
Classification of Control Systems
The Contr ol System can be cl assi fi ed mai nl y dependi ng upon,
(a) Method of anal ysi s & desi gn, as Linear & Non- Linear Systems.
(b) The type of the si gnal , as Time Varying, Time Invariant, Continuous data, Discrete data systems etc.,
(c) The type of system components, as Electro Mechanical, Hydraulic, Thermal, Pneumatic Control systems etc.,
(d) The mai n pur pose, as Position control & Velocity control Systems.

1. Linear & Non-Linear Systems:
I n a l i near syst em, t he pr i nci pl e of super posi t i on can be appl i ed. I n non - l i near syst em,
pr i nci pl e & homogenei t y.

2. Time Varying & Time Invariant Systems:
Whi l e oper at i ng a cont r ol syst em, i f t he par amet er s ar e unaf f ect ed by t he t i me, t hen t he
syst em i s cal l ed Time Invariant Control System. Most physi cal syst ems have par amet er s
changi ng wi t h t i me. I f t hi s var i at i on i s measur abl e dur i ng t he syst em oper at i on t hen t he syst em
i s cal l ed Time Varying System.
I f t her e i s no non- l i near i t y i n t he t i me var yi ng syst em, t hen t he syst em may be cal l ed as
Linear Time varying System.

I f t he si gnal i s not cont i nuousl y var yi ng wi t h t i me but i t i s i n t he f or m of pul ses. Then
t he cont r ol syst em i s cal l ed Discrete Data Control System.
I f t he si gnal i s i n t he f or m of pul se dat a, t hen t he syst em i s cal l ed Sampled Data Control
System. Her e t he i nf or mat i on suppl i ed i nt er mi t t ent l y at speci f i c i nst ant s of t i me. Thi s has t he
advant age of Ti me shar i ng syst em. On t he ot her hand, i f t he si gnal i s i n t he f or m of di gi t al
code, t he syst em i s cal l ed Digital Coded System. Her e use of Di gi t al comput er s, p, c i s
made use of such syst ems ar e anal yzed by t he Z- t r ansf or m t heor y.

4. Continuous Data Systems:
I f t he si gnal obt ai ned at var i ous par t s of t he syst em ar e var yi ng cont i nuousl y wi t h t i me,
t hen t he syst em i s cal l ed Continuous Data Control Systems.

5. Adaptive Control systems:
I n some cont r ol syst ems, cer t ai n par amet er s ar e ei t her not const ant or var y i n an
unknown manner . I f t he par amet er var i at i ons ar e l ar ge or r api d, i t may be desi r abl e t o desi gn
f or t he capabi l i t y of cont i nuousl y measur i ng t hem & changi ng t h e compensat i on, so t hat t he
syst em per f or mance cr i t er i a can al ways sat i sf i ed. Thi s i s cal l ed Adaptive Control Systems.
3. Discrete Data Systems:

4
Introduction to Control System









6. Optimal Control System:
Optimal Control System i s obt ai ned by mi ni mi zi ng and/ or maxi mi zi ng t he per f or mance
i ndex. Thi s i ndex depends upon t he physi cal syst em & ski l l .

7. Single Variable Control System:
I n si mpl e cont r ol syst em t her e wi l l be One i nput & One out put such syst ems ar e cal l ed
Single variable System (SI SO Si ngl e I nput & Si ngl e Out put ) .

8. Multi Variable Control System:
I n Multivariable control system t her e wi l l be mor e t han one i nput & cor r espondi ngl y
mor e out put - Mul t i pl e I nput s & Mul t i pl e Out put s) .
Comparison between Open loop & Closed loop Gain
Open Loop System Closed Loop System
1. An open l oop syst em has t he abi l i t y t o
per f or m accur at el y, i f i t s cal i br at i on i s good.
I f t he cal i br at i on i s not per f ect i t s per f or mance
wi l l go down.

2. I t i s easi er t o bui l d.

3. I n gener al i t i s mor e st abl e as t he f eed
back i s absent .

4. I f non- pr esent ; t he
syst em oper at i on i s not good.


5. Feed back i s absent .
Exampl e:
(i ) Tr af f i c Cont r ol Syst em.
(i i ) Cont r ol of f ur nace f or coal heat i ng.
(i i i ) An El ect r i c Washi ng Machi ne.
1. A cl osed l oop syst em has got t he abi l i t y t o
per f or m accur at el y because of t he f eed back.



2. I t i s di f f i cul t t o bui l d.

3. Less St abl e Compar at i vel y.


4. Even under t he pr esence of non-
l oop syst em.

5. Feed back i s pr esent .
Exampl e:
(i ) Pr essur e Cont r ol Syst em.
(i i ) Speed Cont r ol Syst em.
(i i i ) Robot Cont r ol Syst em.
(i v) Temper at ur e Cont r ol Syst em.

Note:
Any cont r ol syst em whi ch oper at es on t i me basi s i s an Open Loop System.

Compensator
System
H(S)
Identification & Parameter
adjustment
R(s)
E(s)
+
-
B(s)
C(s)


5
Control Systems
Block Diagram of Closed Loop System:









Ther mometer Bl ock Di agr am of Temper atur e Contr ol System:











Temperature Control of Passenger Compartment Car:









Control Elements
Feed Back elements
Ref. i/p
E(S)
Controlled
o/p
E(S)
Plant
Controller
Actuator
Desired
Temperature
i/p
Controller
Sensor
Radiation Heat Sensor
Air Conditioner Passenger Car
Sensor
O/p
Sun
Ambient
Temperature
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *



A/D Converter Interface
Relay Interface Amplifier
Programmed i/p
Electric Furnace
Heater
Thermo meter

1
Control Systems
Mathematical Models of Linear Systems
A physical system is a collection of physical objects connected together to serve an objective. An idealized
physical system is called a Physical model. Once a physical model is obtained, the next step is to obtain Mathematical
model. When a mathematical model is solved for various i/p conditions, the result represents the dynamic behavior of the
system.
AnalogousSystem:
The concept of analogous system is very useful in practice. Since one type of system may be easier to
handle experimentally than another. A given electrical system consisting of resistance, inductance &
capacitances may be analogous to the mechanical system consisting of suitable combination of Dash pot,
Mass & Spring. The advantages of electrical systems are,
1. Many circuit theorems, impedance concepts can be applicable.
2. An Electrical engineer familiar with electrical systems can easily analyze the system under
study & can predict the behavior of the system.
3. The electrical analog system is easy to handle experimentally.
TranslationalSystem:
It has 3 types of forces due to elements.
1. Inertial Force: Due to inertial mass,

2. Damping Force [Viscous Damping]: Due to viscous damping, it is proportional to velocity & is given by,

3. Spring Force: Spring force is proportional to displacement.

F
J
=
Jx
Jt
= . u
Damping force is denoted by either D or B or F
B
F
k

o - Accclcrotion.

M
F(t)
F
m
(t) = N . a = H
Ju
Jt
=H
J
2
x
Jt
2
Wheie, x - Iincor Jisploccmcnt.
u - Iincor Iclocity.
x
x
u
u
F
k
=k . x =k . _u d t

2
Mathematical Models of Linear Systems
Rotationalsystem:
1. Inertial Torque:

2. Damping Torque:

3. Spring Torque (I
0
) :

Analogousquantitiesintranslational&Rotationalsystem:
The electrical analog of the mechanical system can be obtained by,
(i) Force Voltage analogy: (F.V)
(ii) Force Current analogy: (F.I)

Sl.
No.
Mechanical Translational
System
Mechanical Rotational
System
F.V
Analogy
F.I
Analogy
1. Force (F) Torque (T) Voltage (V) Current (I)
2. Mass (M) Moment of Inertia (M) Inductance (L) Capacitance (C)
3. Viscous friction (D or B or F) Viscous friction (D or B or F) Resistance (R) Conductance (G)
4. Spring stiffness (k) Torsional spring stiffness
(k
0
)
Reciprocal
of Capacitance (1/C)
Reciprocal
of Inductance (1/L)
5. Linear displacement (x) Angular displacement (0) Charge (q) Flux ()
6. Linear velocity (u) Angular Velocity (w) Current (i) Voltage (v)

DAlembertsPrinciple:
The static equilibrium of a dynamic system subjected to an external driving force obeys the following principle,
Foi any bouy, the algebiaic sum of exteinally applieu foices iesisting motion in any given uiiection is zeio.
ExampleProblems:
(1) Obtain the electrical analog (FV & FI analog circuits) for the Machine system shown & also write the equations.

















I = [
J
2
0
Jt
2
= [
Jw
Jt

I
d
= B
J0
Jt
= B . w
I
0
= k 0 = k _w J t
w - Angulor Iclocity
0 - Angulor isploccmcnt
[ - Homcnt o Incrtio
Wheie,
B - Rototionol omping

1
J
Jt
(x
1
- x
2
)
D
2

D
1

u
2
(t)
x
2
(t)
u
1
(t)
x
1
(t)
F(t)
Free Body diagram
M
1

2
Jx
1
Jt

1

J
Jt
(x
1
- x
2
)
F(t)
M
1

k x
2

1
Control Systems

G(S)
R(S)
C(S)
G(S) =
C(s)
R(s)

R(S) = I {o(t)] = 1
Transfer Functions
The input- output relationship in a linear time invariant system is defined by the transfer function.
The features of the transfer functions are,
(1) It is applicable to Linear Time Invariant system.
(2) It is the ratio between the Laplace Transform of the o/p variable to the Laplace Transform of the i/p variable.
(3) It is assumed that initial conditions are zero.
(4) It is independent of i/p excitation.
(5) It is used to obtain systems o/p response.
An equation describing the physical system has integrals & differentials, the step involved in obtaining the
transfer function are;
(1) Write the differential equation of the system.
(2) Replace the terms
d
dt
by S & ] Jt by 1/S.
(3) Eliminate all the variables except the desired variables.
ImpulseResponseoftheLinearSystem:

Taking L
-1


Here G(t) will be impulse response of the Linear System. This is called Weighing Function. Hence LT of the impulse
response is the Transfer function of the system itself.
PROBLEMS:
(1) ObtaintheTransferFunction(TF)ofthecircuitshownincircuit1.0

Solution:




i.e., the Laplace Transform of the system o/p will be simply the Transfer function of the system.
C(S) = 0(S). R(S) = 0(S). 1
In a control system, when there is a single i/p of unit impulse function,
then there will be some response of the Linear System.
The Laplace Transform of the i/p will be R(S) = 1
C(S) = 0(S) =
C(t) = 0(t)
R
C
i
Circuit 1.0
R
i(S)
Laplace Transformed network
1
CS

2
Transfer Functions
i. c., I
o
(S) =
1
CS
I(S) & I

(S) = I (S) jR +
1
CS
[







(2) ObtaintheTFofthemechanicalsystemshownincircuit2.











= C S . I
o
(S) = I(S)
CS . I
o
(S) =
I

(s)
|R +
1
CS
]

IF =
I
o
(S)
I

(s)
=
1
1 + S

Where, = RC

3
Control Systems
(3) TransferFunctionofanArmatureControlledDCMotorincircuit3.0:


The air gap flux is proportional to the field current.
i.e., I
]

= K
]
. I
]
Where, K
f
is a constant.
The torque developed by the motor T
m
is proportional to the product of the arm current & the air gap flux.
I
m
= K
]
K
u
I
]
I
u
Where, K
a
& K
f
are the constants.
Since the field current is constant, I
m
= K
1
I
u
Where, K
T
is Motor torque constant.
The motor back e.m.f is proportional to the speed & is given by,
E
b
=K
b
J0
Jt
Where, K
b
is back e.m.f constant.
The differential equation of the armature circuit is, I

= i
u
R
u
+ I
u

d
c
dt
+ E
b

The torque equation is, I
m
= [
J
2
0
Jt
2
+ F
J0
Jt

Taking LT for above equation, we get
I

(S) = R
u
I
u
(S) + I
u
S I
u
(S) + E
b
(S) ------------------------------- (1)
I
o
(S) =
I
i
(S)- E
b
(S)
R
o
+ I
o
S
(A)
I
m
(S) = [ S
2
0(S) + F S 0(S)
Taking LT for the torque equation & equating, we get
K
1
I
u
(S) = [ S
2
0(S) + F S 0(S)
R
a
L
a
i
a
i
a
V
i E
b
F
I
f
= Constant
V
f
T
m
0
N
E
b

Let,
R
a
Resistance of armature in s.
L
a
Inductance of armature in Hs.
i
a
Armature current. & i
f
Field current.
V
i
Applied armature voltage.
E
b
Back e.m.f in volts.
T
m
Torque developed by the motor in N-m.
0Angular displacement of motor shaft in radians
J Equivalent moment of inertia of motor & load referred to the motor shaft.
F Equivalent Viscous friction co-efficient of motor & load referred to the motor shaft.
circuit 3.0
I I
u

J,
F

4
Transfer Functions
I
o
(S) =
_[ S
2
+ F S _ 0(S)
K
I
------------------------------ (2)
0(S) =
K
T
I
c
(S)
] S
2
+P S
-------------------------- (B)
Taking LT for back e.m.f equation, we get
E
b
(S) = K
b
S 0(S) ------------------------------- (C)
Substituting the values of I
a
(S) & E
b
(S) from equation (C) & (2) in equation (1), we get
I

(S) = |R
u
+ I
u
S]
[ S
2
+ F S
K
1
0(S) + K
b
S 0(S)
I

(S) =
|(R
c
+ L
c
S )(] S
2
+ P S)+ K
b
S .K
T
]
K
T
0(S)


TheblockdiagramrepresentationofarmaturecontrolledDCMotorcanbeobtainedasfollows,
From equation (A),



From equation (B),



From equation (C),


The complete block diagram is as shown below,


0(S)
I

(S)
=
K
1
|(R
u
+ I
u
S )([ S
2
+ F S ) + K
b
K
1
S]

1
R
u
+ I
u
S

V
i
(S)
E
b
(S)
-
I
a
(S)
K
1
[ S
2
+ F S
0(S) I
a
(S)
K
b
S
E
b
(S) 0(S)
K
I
[ S
2
+ F S
0(S)
1
R
u
+ I
u
S

V
i
(S)
E
b
(S)
-
I
a
(S)
K
b
S

5
Control Systems

(4) TransferfunctionofFieldControlledDCMotorincircuit4.0:










In the field controlled DC motor, the armature current is fed from a constant current source.
I
m
= K
]
K
u
I
]
I
u
Where, K
a
& K
f
are the constants.
The KVL equation for the field circuit is,
I
]
= i
]
R
]
+ I
]

Ji
]
Jt

On Laplace Transform,
I
]
(S) = R
]
I
]
(S) + I
]
S I
]
(S)
I
]
(S) = I
]
(S) . |R
]
+ I
]
S ] ---------------------------------- (1)
I

(S) =
I

(S)
|R

+ I

S ]
--------------------------------- (A)

The torque equation is , I
m
= K
1
I
]
Where, K
T
is Motor torque constant.
I
m
= [
J
2
0
Jt
2
+ F
J0
Jt

On Laplace Transform,
I
m
(S) = K
1
I
]
(S) = [ S
2
0(S) + F S 0(S)
K
1
I
]
(S) = ( [S
2
+ F S ) . 0(S)
I

(S) =
_ [S
2
+ F S ] .0(S)
K
I
--------------------------- (2)
0(S) =
K
T
I
F
(S)
( ]S
2
+ P S )
------------------------- (B)
Substituting the value of I
]
(S) from equation (2) in equation (1), we get
R
f
L
f
i
f
V
f
T
m
0
I
a
= Constant
Let,
R
f
Field winding resistance.
L
f
Field winding inductance.
V
f
Field control voltage.
I
f
Field current.
T
m
Torque developed by motor.
J,
F
J Equivalent moment of inertia of motor & load referred to the motor shaft.
F Equivalent Viscous friction co-efficient of motor & load referred to the
motor shaft.
0 Angular displacement of motor shaft.
circuit 4.0

6
Transfer Functions
I
]
(S) =
_ [S
2
+ F S ] .0(S)
K
I
|R
]
+ I
]
S ]



TheblockdiagramrepresentationoffieldcontrolledDCMotorcanbeobtainedasfollows,
From equation (A),



From equation (B),


The complete block diagram is as shown below,



(5) ObtaintheTF
F
u
(S)
F
|
(S)
forthenetworkshownincircuit5.0:
Solution:


Applying KVL to this circuit,
I

(S) = I(S) jR +
1
CS
[ + I
o
(S)

----------------
------------------ (1)
I(S) = I
1
(S) + I
2
(S)
I(S) =
I
o
(S)
R
+ I
o
(S). C S = I
o
(S) _
1
R
+ C S _
(1) = I

(S) = I
o
(S) j
1
R
+C S[ . jR +
1
CS
[ + I
o
(S)

I
o
(S)
I
i
(S)
=
R C S
(1+RCS)
2
+ RCS


0(S)
I

(S)
=
K
I
[ [S
2
+ F S ( R

+ I

S )

K
1
[ S
2
+ F S
0(S) I
f
(S)
1
R
]
+ I
]
S

V
f
(S)
I
f
(S)
1
R
]
+ I
]
S

V
f
(S)
I
f
(S)
K
1
[ S
2
+ F S
0(S)
circuit 5.0
R C
R C V
i
V
o
Laplace Transformed network
R
R
1
CS

1
CS

V
i
(S) V
o
(S)
I(S) I
1
(S) I
2
(S)
I
o
(S)
I
i
(S)
=
S
[1+ S
2
+ S

Let,RC =

7
Control Systems

(6) FindtheTF
F
u
(S)
F
|
(S)
forthenetworkshownincircuit6.0:
Solution:





Writing KVL for loop (1), we get
I
i
(S) = I
1
(S) _ 1u
S
+
1u
S
S
_ - I
2
(S)
1u
S
S

= I
1
(S) =
I
i
(S) . S
1u
S
(S+1)
+
I
2
(S)
S+1
------------------------------------------- (1)
Writing KVL for loop (2), we get
-I
1
(S)
10
S
S
+ I
2
(S) j
10
S
S
+ 1u
6
+
10
6
S
[ = u
= I
2
(S) =
I
1
(S)
1u S+11
-------------------------------------------- (2)
I
o
(S) = I
2
(S).
1u
6
S
= I
2
(S) =
I
o
(S) . S
1u
6
--------------------------------- (3)
Substituting for I
1
(S) from equation (2) in (1), we get
= I
2
(S). (1u S +11) =
I
i
(S) . S
1u
S
(S+1)
+
I
2
(S)
(S+1)

S I
i
(S)
1u
S
(S+1)
= I
2
(S) j
(1u S+11) (S+1)- 1
(S+1)
[
From equation (3) the above equation becomes,
S I
i
(S)
1u
S

=
I
o
(S) . S
1u
6
[ 1u S
2
+ 21 S +1u








Laplace Transformed network
Circuit 6.0
100 k 1M
10 p F
1 p F
V
i
V
i
(S) I
1
(S) I
2
(S)
1u
6
1u
5

1u
5
S

1u
6
S

V
0
(S)
Loop 1 Loop 2
I
o
(S)
I
i
(S)
=
1u
1u S
2
+ 2 1 S + 1 u
1u
6
S

V
0
(S) 1
1uS +11

I
1
(S)
+
I
2
(S)
1
S+ 1

S
1u
5
(S + 1)

V
i
(S)

8
Transfer Functions



1
Control Systems

Block Diagrams
I t i s a r epr esentati on of the contr ol system gi vi ng the i nter -r el ati on bet ween the tr ansfer functi on of
var i ous components. The bl ock di agr am i s obtai ned after obtai ni ng the di ffer enti al equati on & Tr ansfer
functi on of al l components of a contr ol system. The ar r ow head poi nti ng towar ds the bl ock i ndi cates the i /p
& poi nti ng away fr om the bl ock i ndi cates the o/p.


After obtai ni ng the bl ock di agr am for each & ever y component, al l bl ocks ar e combi ned to obtai n a
compl ete r epr esentati on. I t i s then r educed to a si mpl e for m wi th the hel p of bl ock di agr am al gebr a.
The fol l owi ng bl ock di agr am r educti on al gebr a i s used,
(1) Blocks in Cascade [Series] :


(2) Combining blocks in Parallel:




(3) Eliminating a feed back loop:




(4) Moving a take-off point beyond a block:




(5) Moving a Take-off point ahead of a block:








I f i s the TF,





G
2
(S)










G(S)
C(S)

(2)
(2)
(3)
(6)




(2)
(2)
(3)
(6)


G(S)

(3)
(6)
(2)
(6)



(3)
(2)
(2)
(6)

(6)





2
Block Diagrams

PROBLEMS:
Reduce the Block Diagrams shown below:

(1)





Sol uti on: By el i mi nati ng the feed-back paths, we get





Combi ni ng the bl ocks i n ser i es, we get




El i mi nati ng the feed back path, we get

















+
-
- -

+
-




+

C(S)
-









3
Control Systems

(2)





Sol uti on: Shi fti ng the take-off beyond the bl ock , we get







Combi ni ng and el i mi nati ng (feed back l oop), we get





El i mi nati ng the feed back path , we get





Combi ni ng al l the thr ee bl ocks, we get







R(S)
-
-


-



C(S)



R(S)
-
-


-



C(S)


R(S)
-
-


C(S)
R(S)
C(S)



R(S)
-


C(S)



4
Block Diagrams


(3)


Sol uti on: Re-ar r angi ng the bl ock di agr am, we get





El i mi nati ng l oop & combi ni ng, we get





El i mi nati ng feed back l oop





El i mi nati ng feed back l oop , we get






C(S) R(S)
-
- -



C(S) R(S)
- -




R(S) C(S)
-

C(S) R(S)



C(S) R(S)
-
- -





1 Control Systems
Signal Flow Graphs
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
CIT, Gubbi.
For compl i cated systems, Bl ock di agr am r educti on method becomes tedi ous & ti me consumi ng. An
al ter nate method i s that si gnal fl ow gr aphs devel oped by S.J. Mason. I n these gr aphs, each node r epr esent s
a system var i abl e & each br anch connected between two nodes acts as Si gnal Mul ti pl i er . The di r ecti on of
si gnal fl ow i s i ndi cated by an ar r ow.
Definitions:
1. Node: A node i s a poi nt r epr esenti ng a var i abl e.
2. Transmittance: A tr ansmi ttance i s a gai n between two nodes.
3. Branch: A br anch i s a l i ne j oi ni ng two nodes. The si gnal tr avel s al ong a br anch.
4. Input node [Source]: I t i s a node whi ch has onl y out goi ng si gnal s.
5. Output node [Sink]: I t i s a node whi ch i s havi ng onl y i ncomi ng si gnal s.
6. Mixed node: I t i s a node whi ch has both i ncomi ng & outgoi ng br anches (si gnal s).
7. Path: I t i s the tr aver sal of connected br anches i n the di r ecti on of br anch ar r ows. Such that no node
i s tr aver sed mor e than once.
8. Loop: I t i s a cl osed path.
9. Loop Gain: I t i s the pr oduct of the br anch tr ansmi ttances of a l oop.
10. Non-Touching Loops: Loops ar e Non-Touchi ng, i f they do not possess any common node.
11. Forward Path: I t i s a
once.
12. Forward Path Gain: I t i s the pr oduct of br anch tr ansmi ttances of a for war d path.
MASONS GAIN FORMULA:
The r el ati on between the i /p var i abl e & the o/p var i abl e of a si gnal fl ow gr aphs i s gi ven by the net
gai n between the i /p & the o/p nodes and i s known as Over al l gai n of the system.
Mas

Wher e, Path gai n of for war d path.
Deter mi nant of the gr aph.




The val ue of the for that par t of the gr aph not touchi ng the for war d path.
T Over al l gai n of the system.





2 Signal Flow Graphs
Problems:
(1) Obtain the closed loop TF, by using Masons gain formula.






Sol uti on:

No. of for war d paths:




No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:





No. of thr ee non-touchi ng l oops = 0.







(2) Obtain the closed loop TF, by using Masons gain formula.










Sol uti on:


For war d Paths:








Gai n Pr oducts of al l possi bl e combi nati ons of two non-touchi ng l oops:

Contd......
R(S)






C(S)





R(S)
C(S)










3 Control Systems
No. of i ndi vi dual l oops: Two Non-touchi ng l oops:











(3) Construct a signal flow graph from the following equations. Obtain overall TF using Masons gain formula.




Wher e i s i /p var i abl e & i s o/p var i abl e.

Sol uti on:







No. of for war d paths:



I ndi vi dual l oops: Two non-touchi ng l oops:






Thr ee non-touchi ng l oops = 0






(4) Obtain by Block Diagram Reduction method & verify the result by signal flow graph.




























Contd......





+


R(S)


+
+
C(S)
-


4 Signal Flow Graphs
Sol uti on: Re-ar r angi ng the summi ng poi nts,












Si gnal fl ow gr aphs:






No. of for war d paths:





No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:







(5) Obtain the TF & Verify by signal flow graph.








Sol uti on: Shi fti ng the take-off poi nt ahead of the bl ock . The BD r educes to,
















-

-
R(S)
C(S)

R(S)


-


-

C(S)
R(S)

C(S)
Contd......

R(S) C(S)






C(S)
+


- -
R(S)


+


5 Control Systems


















Si gnal fl ow gr aph:







No. of for war d paths:



No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:




(6) Reduce the Block Diagram shown.











Sol uti on:
Shi fti ng beyond , we get







C(S)
R(S)






C(S)


R(S)



-

-
R(S)

-
+
C(S)


-

-
R(S)

-
+
C(S)

R(S)
-



C(S)

R(S) C(S)


6 Signal Flow Graphs
El i mi nati ng feed back l oop , we get





El i mi nati ng feed back l oop , we get



















El i mi nati ng the another feed back l oop , we get














Si gnal fl ow gr aph:









-

R(S)

-
+
C(S)


-
R(S)

+
C(S)



-
R(S)

+
C(S)


R(S)
+
C(S)


C(S) R(S)

R(S)
C(S)








Contd......


7 Control Systems
No. of for war d paths:



No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:






(7) Obtain the closed loop TF by using Masons gain formula.






Sol uti on:
No. of for war d paths:



No. of i ndi vi dual l oops: Two non-touchi ng l oops:








(8) Obtain the TF of the closed loop control system represented by the Block Diagram shown below using
block diagram reduction method.









Sol uti on:
Shi fti ng the take off poi nt of beyond bl ock & Si mpl i fyi ng for the bl ocks , we get











R(S) C(S)











- -

-



- -



8 Signal Flow Graphs
El i mi nati ng l oop, we get










(9) Using Masons gain rule, obtain the overall TF of a control system represented by the signal flow graph
shown below.





Sol uti on:
No. of for war d paths:


I ndi vi dual l oops:




Two non-touchi ng l oops = 0









(10) Construct signal flow graph from the following equations & obtain the overall TF.
















-





Contd......












9 Control Systems
Sol uti on:










No. of for war d paths:







No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:







Thr ee non-touchi ng l oops:





Four non-touchi ng l oops = 0







(11) Obtain the TF using Masons gain formula.





















Two non-touchi ng l oops:






































Contd......


10 Signal Flow Graphs
Sol uti on:
No. of for war d paths:



No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:






Thr ee non-touchi ng l oops = 0





(12) Obtain the TF using Masons gain formula.









Sol uti on:
No. of for war d paths:






Two non-touchi ng l oops:





(13) Obtain the TF using Masons gain formula.















Two non-touchi ng l oops:





No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:











Contd......









11 Control Systems
Sol uti on:
No. of for war d paths:




No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:












(14) Draw the signal flow graph for the Block Diagram shown in fig. Hence obtain , Using
Masons gain formula.













Sol uti on:











No. of for war d paths:










Two non-touchi ng l oops:

Thr ee non-touchi ng l oops = 0































No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:

Two non-touchi ng l oops:
Contd......


12 Signal Flow Graphs
Thr ee non-touchi ng l oops = 0




(15) Obtain TF, using block diagram algebra & also by using Masons Gain Formula. Hence Verify
the TF in both the methods.















Sol uti on:
Same bl ock di agr am can be r e-ar r anged as shown bel ow.















Shi fti ng the take-off poi nts beyond we get




























-





































13 Control Systems

























Si gnal fl ow gr aph:










No. of for war d paths:


No. of i ndi vi dual l oops: Two non-touchi ng l oops = 0










(16) Obtain TF, using block diagram algebra & also by using Masons Gain Formula. Hence Verify
the TF in both the methods.
































Contd......


14 Signal Flow Graphs








Sol uti on:
Same Bl ock Di agr am can be wr i tten as,

































Si gnal fl ow Gr aph:






























































15 Control Systems
No. of for war d paths:



No. of i ndi vi dual l oops: Two non-touchi ng l oops = 0










(17) Find the output












Sol uti on:
(i ) Let then we can fi nd












No. of for war d paths:



No. of i ndi vi dual l oops: Two non-touchi ng l oops:



Thr ee non-touchi ng l oops = 0



























































16 Signal Flow Graphs
(i i ) Let Deter mi ne
No. of for war d paths:












No. of i ndi vi dual l oops:









(i i i ) Let Deter mi ne












No. of for war d paths:

remains same.



(i v) Let Deter mi ne

(fi gur e i s i n next page)
No. of for war d paths:

remains same.


























































17 Control Systems











Hence,






























1
Control Systems

System Stability
Whi l e consi der i ng the per for mance speci fi cati on i n the contr ol system desi gn, the essenti al &
desi r abl e r equi r ement wi l l be the system stabi l i ty. Thi s means that the system must be stabl e at al l ti mes
dur i ng oper ati on. Stabi l i ty may be used to defi ne the useful ness of the system. Stabi l i ty studi es i ncl ude
absol ute & r el ati ve stabi l i ty. Absol ute stabi l i ty i s the qual i ty of stabl e or unstabl e per for mance. Rel ati ve
Stabi l i ty i s the quanti tati ve study of stabi l i ty.
The stabi l i ty study i s based on the pr oper ti es of the TF. I n the anal ysi s, the char acter i sti c equati on i s
of i mpor tance to descr i be the tr ansi ent r esponse of the system. Fr om the r oots of the char acter i sti c equati on,
some of the concl usi ons dr awn wi l l be as fol l ows,
(1) When al l the r oots of the char acter i sti c equati on l i e i n the l eft hal f of the S-pl ane, the system
r esponse due to i ni ti al condi ti on wi l l decr ease to zer o at ti me Thus the system wi l l be ter med as
stabl e.

(2) When one or mor e r oots l i e on the i magi nar y axi s & ther e ar e no r oots on the RHS of S-
pl ane, the r esponse wi l l be osci l l ator y wi thout dampi ng. Such a system wi l l be ter med as cr i ti cal l y stabl e.

(3) When one or mor e r oots l i e on the RHS of S-pl ane, the r esponse wi l l exponenti al l y i ncr ease
i n magni tude; ther e by the system wi l l be Unstabl e.

Some of the Definitions of stability are,
(1) A system i s stabl e, i f i ts o/p i s bounded for any bounded i /p.

(2) A system i s stabl e, i f i t s r esponse to a bounded di stur bi ng si gnal vani shes ul ti matel y as ti me


(3) to a bounded di stur bi ng si gnal r esul ts i n an o/p of
i nfi ni te ampl i tude or an Osci l l ator y si gnal .

(4) I f the o/p r esponse to a bounded i /p si gnal r esul ts i n constant ampl i tude or constant
ampl i tude osci l l ati ons, then the system may be stabl e or unstabl e under some l i mi ted constr ai nts. Such a
system i s cal l ed Li mi tedl y Stabl e system.

(5) I f a system r esponse i s stabl e for a l i mi ted r ange of var i ati on of i ts par ameter s, i t i s cal l ed
Condi ti onal l y Stabl e System.

(6) I f a system r esponse i s stabl e for al l var i ati on of i ts par ameter s, i t i s cal l ed Absol utel y Stabl e
system.


Routh-Hurwitz Criteria:
A desi gner has so often to desi gn the system that sati sfi es cer tai n speci fi cati ons. I n gener al , a
system befor e bei ng put i n to use has to be tested for i ts stabi l i ty. Routh-Hur wi tz stabi l i ty cr i ter i a may be
used. Thi s cr i ter i on i s used to know about the absol ute stabi l i ty. i .e., no extr a i nfor mati on can be obtai ned
r egar di ng i mpr ovement.
As per Routh-Hur wi tz cr i ter i a, the necessar y condi ti ons for a system to be stabl e ar e,
(1) None of the co- Char acter i sti c equati on shoul d be mi ssi ng or zer o.

(2) Al l the co-



2
System Stability

A suffi ci ent condi ti on for a system to be stabl e i s that each & ever y ter m of the col umn of
the Routh ar r ay must be posi ti ve or shoul d have the same si gn. Routh ar r ay can be obtai ned as fol l ows.
The Char acter i sti c equati on i s of the for m,




0
0
0 0
0 0 0



Si mi l ar l y we can eval uate r est of the el ements,
The fol l owi ng ar e the l i mi tati ons of Routh-Hur wi tz stabi l i ty cr i ter i a,
(1) I t i s val i d onl y i f the Char acter i sti c equati on i s al gebr ai c.

(2) I f any co-effi ci ent of the Char acter i sti c equati on i s compl ex or contai ns power , thi s cr i ter i on
cannot be appl i ed.

(3) I t gi ves i nfor mati on about how many r oots ar e l yi ng i n the RHS of S-pl ane; val ues of the r oots ar e
not avai l abl e. Al so i t cannot di sti ngui sh between r eal & compl ex r oots.

Special cases in Routh-Hurwitz criteria:
(1) When the ter m i n a r ow i s zer o, but al l other ter ms ar e non-zer oes then substi tute a smal l posi ti ve
number for zer o & pr oceed to eval uate the r est of the el ements. When the col umn ter m i s zer o, i t
means that ther e i s an i magi nar y r oot.

(2) Al l zer o r ow: I n the case, wr i te auxi l i ar y equati on fr om pr ecedi ng r ow, di ffer enti ate thi s equati on &
substi tute al l zer o r ow by the co- uati on. Thi s case
occur s when the r oots ar e i n pai r s. The system i s l i mi tedl y stabl e.

Problems:
COMMENT ON THE STABILITY OF THE SYSTEM WHOSE CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION IS GIVEN BELOW:

(1)

1 21 20
6 36 0
15 20 0
28 0 0
20 0 0





Wher e,

The no. of si gn changes i n the col umn = zer o.
No r oots ar e l yi ng i n the RHS of S-pl ane.
The gi ven System i s Absol utel y Stabl e.
: :


3
Control Systems


(2)

4 2
3 5
-4.66 0
5 0

(3)

1 1 5
2 4 0
-1 5 0
14 0 0
5 0 0

(4)

1 2 3 +ve
2 4 1 +ve

0 2.5 0 +ve



1 0 -ve
0 0 +ve
1 0 0 +ve

(5)

1 2 3

2 4 6


2 6 0

-16 0 0

6 0 0

(6)


1 8 20 16
2 12 16 0
2 12 16 0

6 16 0 0
2.66 0 0 0
16 0 0 0
The no. of si gn changes i n the col umn = 2
Two r oots ar e l yi ng i n the RHS of S-pl ane.
The gi ven System i s unstabl e.
The no. of si gn changes i n the col umn = 2
Two r oots ar e l yi ng i n the RHS of S-pl ane.
The gi ven System i s unstabl e.
The no. of si gn changes i n the
col umn = 2
Two r oots ar e l yi ng i n the RHS
of S-pl ane.
The gi ven System i s unstabl e.
Al l Zer o r ow. A.E. i s


The no. of si gn changes i n the col umn = 2
Two r oots ar e l yi ng i n the RHS of S-pl ane.
The gi ven System i s unstabl e & l i mi tedl y stabl e.
A.E. i s


The no. of si gn changes i n the col umn = 0
The System i s l i mi tedl y stabl e.
(Because, i n the r ow al l the el ements ar e
zer o).



4
System Stability

(7) The open loop TF of a unity feed back system is . Find the restriction on K, So that
the closed loop is stable.
Sol uti on:





10 1
6.5 K

0
K 0

For , the cl osed l oop system i s stabl e.


(8)
Sol uti on:
1 4 K
3 1 0
K 0
0 0
K 0 0

For , the cl osed l oop system i s stabl e

(9) Determine the value of K & b, So that the system open loop T.F. oscillates at a
frequency of 2 radians. ( Assuming unity feed back i.e., H(S)=1 )
Sol uti on:
The char acter i sti c equati on i s

1 (3+K)
b (1+K)


0
(1+K) 0


Fr om equati ons (9.1) & (9.2)

Ei ther fr om (9.1) or (9.2)





For Stabl e system,
(i )
(i i )







For Stabl e system,
(i )
(i )















5
Control Systems

(10) The open-loop TF of a unity feed back system is given by the above
expression. Find the value of K for which the system is just stable.
Sol uti on:
The char acter i sti c equati on i s


1 23 2K
9 (15+K) 0


2K 0
0 0
2K 0 0

When t

(11) Using Routh-Hurwitz criteria, find out the range of K for which the system is stable. The
characteristic equation is
Sol uti on:
1 (2K+3)
5K 10


0
10 0



(12) A proposed control system has a system & a controller as shown. Access the stability of the system
by a suitable method. What are the ranges of K for the system to be stable?




Sol uti on: The char acter i sti c equati on i s



16 (1+K)
8 K

0
K 0

(13)

(i ) K > 0
(i i ) 192 K > 0
K < 192

(i i i ) (192 K)(15+ K) 162K > 0
(for the max. val ue of K)
Fr om thi s eval uate for K,
Usi ng,
Consi der i ng the posi ti ve val ue of K

So, 0 < K < 61.68


(i ) K > 0
(i i )
Consi der i ng the posi ti ve val ue of K






(i ) K > 0
(ii)

The r ange of K i s,





6
System Stability














(14)








(15)






(16) The open-loop TF of a control system is given by Find the range of
the gain constant K for stability using Routh-Hurwitz criteria.
Sol uti on:
The char acter i sti c equati on i s












No. of si gn changes = 2,
Two r oots l i e on RHS of
S-pl ane.
The system i s Unstabl e.


Auxi l i ar y Equati on:
No si gn changes i n the
col umn.
Li mi tedl y



(i )
(i i )

For the system to be stabl e the r ange of the K i s,






(i )
(i i )
(i i i )
(i v)

The Range of K i s for
the system to be stabl e.



7
Control Systems

(17)

1 4 6
2 5 2

1.5 5 0
-1.666 2 0
6.8 0 0
2 0 0

(18)
Sol uti on:

1 11
6 6
10 0
6 0

(19)
Solution:

No. of si gn changes = 1
The system i s Unstabl e.


(20)

+ve 1 2 4
+ve 1 2 1
+ve
3 0
-ve
1 0
+ve

0 0
+ve 1 0 0

(21)

+ve 2 6 1
+ve 1 3 1
+ve -1 0
+ve

1 0
-ve

0 0
+ve 1 0 0


(22)

1 -5
2 -6
-2 0
-6 0
(i ) No. of si gn changes = 2.
(i i ) Two r oots l i e on RHS of
S-pl ane.
(i i i ) The system i s Unstabl e.

No si gn changes.
The system i s Absol utel y Stabl e.
No. of si gn changes = 2.
The system i s Unstabl e.
No. of si gn changes = 2.
The system i s Unstabl e.



8
System Stability

1 -2 -7 -4
1 -3 -4 0
1 -3 -4 0


-1.5 -4 0 0
-16.66 0 0 0
-4 0 0 0

(23)

1 5 8
4
2 8 8 0
1 4 4 0

2 4 0 0


4 0 0 0

(24)
1 2 0.5
0
(4)
0
(4)
0
(0)

1 0.5 0
2 0 0
0.5 0 0

(25)
1 2 2

0.8 1.6 0
- 4 2 0
2 0 0
2 0 0

(26)

1 7500
34.5 7500K


0
7500K 0







Auxi l i ar y equati on:
No. of si gn changes = 1.
The system i s Unstabl e &
Li mi tedl y Stabl e.


Auxi l i ar y equati on:


Auxi l i ar y equati on:
No. of si gn changes = 0
The system i s Li mi tedl y Stabl e.

Auxi l i ar y Equati on:

No. of si gn changes = 0
The system i s Li mi tedl y Stabl e.
Auxi l i ar y Equati on:

No. of si gn changes = 2
The system i s Unstabl e.

(i )
(i i )
For a stabl e cl osed l oop system ther e shoul d not be any si gn change among the el ements of the col umn i n the Routh-
Hur wi tz tabl e. Thi s r equi r es &
for the system to be stabl e.


9
Control Systems

(27) Given , .
Sol uti on:
The char acter i sti c equati on i s


1 (21+K)

10 13K


0

13K 0

(28) ,
Sol uti on:
The Char acter i sti c equati on i s

1 15 2K
7 25+K 0

2K 0


0 0
2K 0 0

(29)
Sol uti on:
1 5 15
20K 10 0

15 0


0 0
15 0 0

(30) Determine the values of K & a. Such that the system oscillates at a frequency of 2 rad/sec.




Sol uti on: The char acter i sti c equati on i s


1 (2+K)
a (1+K)


0
(1+K) 0


(31)

(i)
(i i )

The r ange of K i s , for the system
to be stabl e.

(i )
(i i )
(i i i )

To sol ve for the K val ue,
By si mpl i fyi ng,

Hence, the r ange of K i s


(i )
(i i )
(iii)
quanti ty.
Hence thi s system i s al ways Unstabl e.



, becomes



Fr om (1) & (2), &






10
System Stability

1 2 3
1
-2 0


5 0


0 0
5 0 0

(32)

9 10 -9

0
0
0 0
0 0

(33)

1 24 24 23
9 24 24 15
21.33 21.33 21.33 0
15 15 15


7.5 15 0 0
0 0 0
15 0 0 0

(34)

1 9 4 36
5 9 20 36
7.2 0 28.8 0



36 0 0


0 0 0
36 0 0 0

(35) ,

Solution: The Characteristic equation is

1 2
3 K

0
K 0
No. of si gn changes = 2
The system i s Unstabl e.
No. of si gn changes = 3
The system i s Unstabl e.
Auxi l i ar y equati on:


No. of si gn changes = 2
The system i s Unstabl e.
Auxi l i ar y equati on:


No. of si gn changes = 2
The system i s Unstabl e.

(i )
(i i )

The r ange of K i s
9 0 36


11
Control Systems

(36) The open-loop transfer function of a unity feed back control system is given by,
, using Routh-Hurwitz criteria. Discuss the stability of the closed loop-
control system. Determine the value of K which will cause sustained oscillations in the closed loop
system. What are the corresponding oscillating frequencies?
Sol uti on:
The char acter i sti c equati on i s
1 69
12 198 0
52.5 0

0 0
0 0

Hence,

(37) A feed back system has open-loop transfer function Determine the
maximum value of K for stability of the closed-loop system.
Sol uti on:
Gener al l y contr ol systems have ver y l ow Band wi dth whi ch i mpl i es that i t has ver y l ow fr equency
r ange of oper ati ons. Hence for l ow fr equency r anges, the ter m can be r epl aced by . i .e.,


The char acter i sti c equati on i s ,

1
5 K

0
K 0








(i )
(i i )
(i i i ) The Auxi l i ar y equati on for the r ow i s

When



(i )
(ii)
The r ange of K i s for the system to be
stabl e.

1
Control Systems
Root Locus Plots
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
CIT, Gubbi.
It gives complete dynamic response of the system. It provides a measure of sensitivity of roots to the
variation in the parameter being considered. It is applied for single as well as multiple loop system. It can be defined as
follows,
It is the plot of the loci of the root of the complementary equation when one or more parameters of the open-loop
Transfer function are varied, mostly the only one variable available is the gain K The negative gain has no physical
significance hence varying K from 0 to , the plot is obtained called the Root Locus Point.
RulesfortheConstructionofRootLocus
(1) The root locus is symmetrical about the real axis.
(2) The no. of branches terminating on equals the no. of open-loop pole-zeroes.
(3) Each branch of the root locus originates from an open-loop pole at K = 0 & terminates at open-loop zero
corresponding to K = .
(4) A point on the real axis lies on the locus, if the no. of open-loop poles & zeroes on the real axis to the right of this
point is odd.
(5) The root locus branches that tend to , do so along the straight line.
Asymptotes making angle with the real axis is given by 0 =
n 18u
u
P-Z
, Where, n=1,3,5,
P = No. of poles & Z =No. of zeroes.
(6) The asymptotes cross the real axis at a point known as Centroid. i.e., o =
polcs-zcrocs
P-Z

(7) The break away or the break in points [Saddle points] of the root locus or determined from the roots of the
equation
Jk
Js
= u.
(8) The intersection of the root locus branches with the imaginary axis can be determined by the use of Routh-
Hurwitz criteria or by putting S = [ in the characteristic equation & equating the real part and imaginary to
zero. To solve for & K i.e., the value of is intersection point on the imaginary axis & K is the value of
gain at the intersection point.
(9) The angle of departure from a complex open-loop pole(0
d
) is given by, 0
d
= 18u
0
+z 0 E
1








1
Control Systems
Bode Plots
By: Sheshadri.G.S.
CIT, Gubbi.
Si nusoi dal tr ansfer functi on i s commonl y r epr esented by Bode Pl ot. I t i s a pl ot of magni tude agai nst
fr equency. i .e., angl e of tr ansfer functi on agai nst frequency.

The fol l owi ng ar e the advantages of Bode Pl ot,
(1) Pl otti ng of Bode Pl ot i s r el ati vel y easi er as compar ed to other methods.
(2) Low & Hi gh fr equency char acter i sti cs can be r epr esented on a si ngl e di agr am.
(3) Study of r el ati ve stabi l i ty i s easi er as par ameter s of anal ysi s of r el ati ve stabi l i ty ar e gai n & phase
mar gi n whi ch ar e vi si bl y seen on sketch.
(4) I f modi fi cati on of an exi sti ng system i s to be studi ed, i t can be easi l y done on a Bode Pl ot.
Initial Magnitude:
If ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
















Phase Plot: Magnitude Plot:
GCF
+ ve PM
GCF
GCF
GCF
-ve PM
l i ne
l i ne
PCF
PCF
PCF
PCF
+ ve GM
-ve GM
0 dB l i ne
0 dB l i ne



2
Bode Plots
Problems:
(1) To find the angle for the quadratic term
Sol uti on: Put,



(2) Determine the transfer function. Whose approximate plot is as shown.








Sol uti on:
The cor ner fr equenci es ar e & at , the sl ope changes fr om to .
Ther efor e ther e must be a factor . Si nce the i ni ti al sl ope i s , Ther e must be a pol e at the
or i gi n i .e., at
The sl ope at changes fr om to due to a factor . Open-l oop TF i s,

To find the value of K :







(3) Find the open-loop TF of a system, whose approximate plot is as shown.









dB
B
A
40 dB
C







D

A
B
C









20

dB

A
B
C








3
Control Systems
Sol uti on:
Cor ner fr equenci es ar e
To find the value of K :
but




Si nce the has a sl ope of , the cor r espondi ng factor i s
Pl ot between & , I t i s havi ng a sl ope of . Ther efor e at , ther e must be a zer o & the
factor i s i n the numer ator .
At ,the sl op i s changi ng fr om to & the cor r espondi ng factor i s
i n the Numer ator .
At , the sl ope has changed fr om to due to a factor
i n the denomi nator .
Ther efor e the open-l oop tr ansfer functi on i s,


(4) Find the open-loop TF of a system, whose approximate plot is as shown.








Sol uti on:

(1) Sl ope of the fi r st l i ne = i ndi cati ng the ter m
(2) At sl ope changes fr om to i ndi cati ng a ter m i n the
numer ator .
(3) At sl ope changes to i ndi cati ng a ter m i n the Numer ator .
(4) At sl ope changes to i ndi cati ng a ter m i n the Denomi nator .
(5) At sl ope changes to i ndi cati ng a ter m i n the
Denomi nator .
(6) At sl ope changes to i ndi cati ng a ter m i n the
Denomi nator .



dB

















4
Bode Plots
Cal cul ati on of :


Cal cul ati on of :


The Open-l oop tr ansfer functi on i s,



(5) Find the open-loop TF of a system, whose approximate plot is as shown.







Sol uti on:
To find the value of K :
Let , be the or i gi n.




(6) Derive the Transfer function of the system from the data given on the Bode diagram given below.








[ [
Sol uti on: Between ther e i s a decr ease of ther e i s a decr ease of
dB,


To find the value of K :





Ther efor e, the Open-l oop tr ansfer functi on i s,




dB



A
B






dB


















5
Control Systems
Examination Problem (Mar/Apr 99):
(7) The sketch given shows the Bode Magnitude plot for a system. Obtain the Transfer function.






Sol uti on: Si nce the i ni ti al sl ope i s ther e must be zer o at the or i gi n.
&






Examination Problem (Sep/Oct 99):
(8) Estimate the Transfer function for the Bode Magnitude plot shown in figure.









Sol uti on:









dB

A
B
40
(Z)
C
D
E
(P)
(P)





(DZ)



dB

(Z)


















6
Bode Plots
Examination Problem (97):
(9) The bode plot (magnitude) of a unity feed back control system is as shown in the fig. Obtain the
phase plot.









Sol uti on:









dB