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sources of Canadas constantly growing heritage, at the local and national levels. While news in print can be archived in its original form on a daily basis, for online its a different story. News websites rarely archive their old material beyond rudimentary search-based means of retrieval, making it difficult to examine the medium through which news is delivered to an online audience. The online news archiving project examines the logistical, legal and organizational possibilities of creating archives of digital content created by news providers in Canada preserving the multimedia format in which it is presented with the aim of recommending new heritage preservation policy to the federal government. Key ideas: 1. Difference between digitization and preservation 2. Differing approaches to preserving online content in different regions/across different media 3. Technology issues (changing technology, storage issues) 4. Ethical issues (archiving false information, traumatic information 5. Legal issues (libel, copyright) 6. Archiving priorities - local vs national 7. Provenance and responsibility issues 8. News as service or commodity? Key Questions: 1. What will have the most value in the future? How do we define value? 2. What is the most economical way of preserving information 3. What is the most technologically viable/durable? 4. What role do govs, NGOs, media orgs, foundations, public media play? 5. What format do we choose 6. What are the important first steps?

I. BOOK EXCERPTS MacLean, M. & Davies, B. H. (Eds.). (1998). Time & Bits: Managing Digital Continuity. Los

Angeles: Getty. This book explores the fundamental problems surrounding the disappearance of digital information and the lack of agreement, tools or standards for ensuring the survival of cultural heritage in digital form. A lot of information has already been lost and is now impossible to find and MacLean and Davies state that this loss is due to technological problems (obsoleting of storage forms, media disappearing) or from the media simply disappearing through error, neglect or apathy. The authors suggest that there is a need to use an open open, future-proof format when storing information such as websites. They also bring up the question regarding what to do with information that is rarely used, or data that is non-static and interactive (i.e. hyperlinks). They believe that using data continually is outlined as a key way to keep it well preserved; to exercise its condition. Regarding online newspapers, recent archives are rarely exercised. They also address the issue of responsibility over creating archives (libraries or IP rights holders etc.) and the tension between digital preservation and the commodification of digital knowledge (Alexa being one website that sells access to missing data online). II: ACADEMIC ARTICLES Allen, R. B., & Johnson, K. A. (2008). Preserving Digital Local News. The Electronic Library, 26(3), 387-99. This article examines how most of the attention regarding preserving digital news has been focused on national media outlets and therefore, there have been few attempts to archive local news. The authors state that there is a need to preserve local news for sociological research, historical, genealogical purposes etc. Also, the authors believe that disk and memory space for all local written and broadcasted news, the difficulty in finding local news and news selection etc., need to be taken into account when looking for viable archiving options. Futhermore, the authors briefly mention the benefits and detriments to different business models that can be used to preserve news including: Government (Library of Congress), news databases (ex. NEXIS), news search engines (Google) and private foundations (The Internet Archive). Conway, Paul. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas The Library Quarterly Vol. 80, No. 1 (January 2010), pp. 61-79 Conway discusses digitization for preservation, which is activities that result in the creation of digital products worthy of long-term preservation. Digital preservation is the creation of tools and operations that help ensure that the investment in the creation of long-term digital products. Not all digital resources are considered as having equal value, so many digital products are not considered reasonable investments - case in point, online news. Conway also differentiates between digitization and preservation stating that not all digitized information is preserved,

nor is all digital info well-designed for preservation. He notes a fundamental shift in perspectives towards preservation in the digital era: from a focus on the physical integrity of the preserved object, to an emphasis on the creation and then maintenance of the digital object. An important point: To fail to embrace digitization for preservation of collections, either locally or in collaboration with others, is to risk organizational obsolescence. He addresses dilemmas faced by the preservation community including investing in the proper training and recruitment of staff that use this cutting edge applications. Reilly Jr., & Bernard F. (2007). 'The Library and the Newsstand', Journal of Library Administration, 46(2), 79-85. This article explores the relationship between newspapers and libraries in disseminating information. Historically, libraries have been arenas where the worlds societies deposit their opinions and viewpoints, and libraries have gathered news from around the world to promote current awareness. One of the given examples is how non-mainstream newspapers wrote about the abolishment of slavery in the U.S. prior to the civil war. Furthermore, the article goes on to explain how with more people searching for news online, the role of libraries has been supplanted by the web (Google, Yahoo) and by massive knowledge aggregators (Lexis-Nexis, NewsBank, and Factiva) (82). The article concludes saying that the costly work of preserving electronic news should be supported by the national government and the private sector as well. The major international NGOs and foundations like UNESCO, Carnegie, Ford, Rockefeller, and others should recognize as development activity the enormous historic investment that U.S. and European universities and libraries have made to preserve the worlds memory. (84)
Quint, Barabara. (2009). Where Have All the Archives Gone? Information Today, 26(7) This article looks at some of the current challenges in the digital archiving of news. It focuses on the limitations of both the digital subscription services and the newspapers themselves. The authors conclusion is that nearly all the born-digital content of newspapers since the mid-1990s until today is probably lost forever, except in cases where their own in-house tech staff took the initiative to save it. Subscription services like ProQuest still rely on microfilming all incoming full text archives from newspapers through an outside service, even if they are pdfs, and in most cases they dont ensure the archiving of much more than the news text. ProQuest is expanding their full-image archiving of newspapers, but only from 2008 until the present. On the newspaper side, the author notes that most papers do not bother to capture and archive their web-only content, and as they switch to digital copies of their paper, they actually create new problems for the subscription and distribution services, which are structured to process ascii or hard copy, but not newer formats such as pdf, etc. The Internet Archive (which operates the Wayback Machine) has the technology to capture the full range of web content,

including photos, ads, comments, etc, but does not have the digital rights to news, and so focuses on rights-free web content. No mention of what format these full web captures are saved in. (Is it possible that the Internet Archive actually has all the web-based news content, but has no rights and so doesnt acknowledge or distribute it? As rights and policies are changed, this could prove to be the best resource for researchers in the future) Peters, Wayne D., & Turk, James L. (2011). Open Letter to Daniel Caron, Library and Archivist of Canada. Canadian Association of University Teachers. This is a letter from the Canadian Association of University Teachers to Library and Archives Canada head Daniel Caron. It lists a number of areas of concern on the part of CAUT regarding recent changes at LAC, which they say amount to a very significant cutting back of the mandate and services of LAC. They mention Carons background in HR instead of library science or history, and the perceived reduction in librarians in senior management positions at LAC. The authors claim that LAC is interpreting their mandate more narrowly than in the past, focusing on legal and federal government records as opposed to being a truly national institution to provide Canadians with access to the whole of their documentary heritage, and cite criticism of the narrowed mandate from former senior employees of LAC and other archivists and librarians, who compare LAC unfavourably to the U.S. Library of Congress, which continues to archive all the countrys published books. They claim a significant decrease in both quality and quantity of on-site services at LAC, including the deaccessioning of large portions of the reference materials and less access to expert assistance. With regards to newspaper archiving, they write that when compared to other national libraries and archives, LAC is far behind in terms of digitizing finding aids and other reference sources, particularly in digitizing newspapers. They condemn the ongoing moratorium on purchases of acquisitions, and rare books in particular, and claim that LAC has effectively stopped buying archives altogether, relying instead on passive acquisitions of legal deposits and federal government documents, noting that [s]ince, [sic] newspapers are not required on legal deposit and all Canadian and foreign newspapers including substantial amounts of retrospective newspapers on microfilm must be purchased, we suspect that the gaps in LACs holding are growing daily.(5) They refer to a perceived creeping bias against analog materials, claiming that announced digitization initiatives are a cover for cost-cutting measures. They also express concern that LAC attempts to partner with other organizations are another way to back off of taking a leadership role and fulfilling their mandate. They worry that the regionalization of these national collections will also mean increases in the costs of research for individual scholars.(7) They conclude by claiming that the LACs consultations with stakeholders in 2010 and 2011 were not taken seriously and that there is no evidence that LAC is acting on any of their recommendations. (This is potentially both good and bad for the prospect of a Canadian newspaper archiving project, because the reduction in LAC analog archives and services is being justified by partnerships and digitization, which could mean interest in an outside project to take care of all newspaper archiving)

III. REPORTS AND WHITE PAPERS Electronic Publications Pilot Project Team and Electronic Collections Committee. (1995). Electronic Publications Pilot Project (EPPP). Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada. This pilot project was conducted by National Library of Canada (NLC) to examine the issue of the deposit of online electronic publications. The final project report made recommendations on important issues such as selection, copyright, and long-term preservation of e-publications. This lead to the creation of Libraries and Archives Canadas Electronic Collection and subsequently Web Archives (2007). The NLC is charged with acquiring and preserving the Canadian published heritage, in perpetuity. Normal web documents, such as websites, are excluded from archiving if they do not suit requirements of undergoing the formal preparation activities tradtionally associated with the (offline) publishing process (p. 9). NB: This may explain why so little digital archiving is done in Canada today, and why online news sites straddle a grey line between formal published documents and normal websites. Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access. (2010). Sustainable Economics for a Digital Planet: Ensuring Long-Term Access to Digital Information. Joint research project between UK and US institutions into long-term access to digital information. See news brief (next section) for further description. Waters, Donald; Garrett, John. Preserving Digital Information, Report of the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information. 1996. (5/96, 59 pp.) ISBN 1-88733450-5 In this paper, the authors argue that more attention must be paid to digital preservation, lest the task be left to market forces rather than in the public interest. Like Conway, they make an important distinction between digitization and preservation. They also distinguish between libraries, which provide access to information, and archives, which preserve information. In regards to preservation, they focus on how hardware changes and storage means become obsolete. They also note there is a general anxiety and pessimism towards futility of preservation. They believe that the migration of information from one storage form to another is the key element to preservation. They argue that third-parties must become involved in preservation of products, so for example an online news website should involve a third party (e.g. national library) in its preservation of digital information. They also ask, what needs to be preserved in an artifact? If we are effectively to preserve for future generations the portion of this rapidly expanding

corpus of information in digital form that represents our cultural record, we need to understand the costs of doing so and we need to commit ourselves technically, legally, economically and organizationally to the full dimensions of the task.

Haigh, Susan. & Generoux, Samuel. (2010). Rethinking the Stewardship of Newspapers in a Digital Age: Draft Report of an LAC Pathfinder Project. This report proposes a framework for an updated Canadian newspaper archiving strategy for LAC and for the country as a whole. It addresses three major areas: Modernization of the existing LAC newspaper collection, modernization of current and future LAC newspaper acquisitions, and a collaborative national strategy for LAC and partner organizations. The report recommends an overall policy of moving away from print and toward digital newspaper archives, but notes that microforms remain at this time a key, stable, preservation format. It outlines conditions under which LAC could move from print to digital archives, and suggests how those conditions might be met. The report also recommends that LAC seek ways to foster appropriate collaboration and capacity building among other memory institutions elsewhere in Canada, with particular emphasis on provincial libraries and archives. One of the key challenges in transitioning to a new model of newspaper stewardship is bridging the analog and digital universes; or, simply put, stewarding the past while appropriately adjusting our approach to the future.(6) The report looks at the three major archival formats of print, microform and digital, and divides the strategies for each into near-term and longterm timeframes. It then applies this schema to the three areas of retrospective, current and future and collaborative archives of newspapers. For retrospective holdings, the report recommends that print be retained in the near-term and phased out long-term, that gaps in microform archives be filled near-term and digitized long-term, and suggests only modest digitization of archives near-term, but transition to an all-digital archive in the long-term. Current and future LAC newspaper collection in print should be reduced where possible near-term and ceased long-term, microform should be increased slightly near-term and transferred to digital formats long-term, and the report recommends that LAC only experiment with digitization in the near term, but transition to an all-digital archive in the long term. Finally, the report suggests that LAC consult with stakeholders about possibilities for national collaboration in the near term, but work toward a decentralized and federated model for newspaper archiving in partnership with provincial and other institutions. The report is fairly detailed in its assessments of the viability of digitization for the foreseeable future, pointing out that while the high level strategic direction is to transition to digital, the group agreed that this transition would take time and that microform offers a reliable interim solution, and noting that microform newspaper archives are subject to legal deposit since 2004, which enables passive collection on the part of LAC. The report also estimated that the digitization of the existing microform archives of Canadas 10 major dailies would take 5.5 years and cost $1.85 million, not including OCR, indexing, or zoning of the page areas, and acknowledged significant rights issues in transitioning from microform to searchable digital archives. When assessing possibilities for national collaboration, the authors note that beginning in 1985 the provinces were responsible for creating microform archives of their newspapers,

but this LAC program became inactive in the late 1990s, and the state of these provincial archives is unknown at this time. The key recommendations going forward are to continue to assess the completeness of these provincial archives in the near term, and to try to revive the decentralized approach of 1985-2000 (approx.) in the long term. (Interestingly, the authors remark that It is unclear that newspapers digitized by others are subject to legal deposit, and owing to the potential scale of that type of ingest, and the fact that LACs TDR is just now being implemented, LAC has not endeavoured to exercise that provision. This suggests that existing digital newspaper archives might be subject to legal deposit, which would be an option for LAC to exercise in the future, and which might result in this project coming to fruition faster and more cheaply than otherwise.)

Rothenberg, Jeff. (1999). Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation, Council on Library and Information Resources. This report addresses the challenges of preserving digital archival documents for access in the future. It is divided into three areas: It explores the technical depth of the problem of long-term digital preservation, analyzes the inadequacies of a number of ideas that have been proposed as solutions, and elaborates the emulation strategy.(v) The emulation strategy is based on the idea that it is better to preserve digital documents in their original encodings and forms (though not necessarily on their original physical media) and to rely on the ability of presentday and future computers to successfully emulate the documents original software environments, allowing for retrieval of the full range of their original attributes. The problems of long-term digital preservation include the ongoing process of obsolescence of digital formats, along with the software and hardware required to access them, the surprisingly short lifespan of physical digital formats, which necessitates the frequent copying and recopying of digital documents, and the absence of standardized policies for how to address this ongoing obsolescence even as the various digital media decay. Proposed solutions have included the printing of digital documents, which can result in the loss of their unique functionality (such as dynamic interaction, nonlinearity, and integration, eliminates its machine readability and does not fully capture the look and feel of the digital original. Translation into other digital formats and the extraction of only the relevant data also eliminate much of the meaning and value of the original document. These solutions are also very labour intensive, and need to be continually updated as standards change. The author proposes hardware and software emulation as the best solution. The only adequate specification of the behavior of a digital document is the one implicit in its interaction with its software. The only way to recreate the behavior of a digital document is to run its original software.(22) The emulation strategy also eliminates the need to keep changing and transferring documents from one format to another, instead preserving their original digital architecture and relying on computers to do the adapting. (This is presumably the strategy of the Internet Archive/Wayback Machine It would be interesting to know how they preserve the physical original data for future retrieval, which is the major remaining issue of the emulation strategy) Various. (2011). Archiving of Digital Content: Status Report & Discussion Paper (Redacted), CBC.

This is a redacted version of an internal report drafted by the CBCs working group on digital archiving. The report outlines the questions for consideration, including what should be archived and why, who would have access both within the CBC and externally, how it should be selected and indexed, and how long it should be retained. The results of a peer review (ncluding e.g. BBC) indicate that other major news organizations are grappling with similar challenges, and asking the same questions, as CBC.(2) Following a review of the relevant literature on archiving of web content, the authors state that there doesnt seem to be one best practice or approach regarding web archiving.(2) Particular attention is given to the Arizona model, but notes that the model was developed in 2003 when static webpages were the norm, and its heirarchical structure is less applicable to todays dynamic, database-driven websites. The authors also note that CBCs existing web archives lack the consistent taxonomy to apply this type of model. The report concludes that remain to be addressed before practicable recommendations about web(site) archiving can be advanced.(3)

IV. BLOGS AND NEWS ARTICLES Butcher, Mike. (2002). Store the front page. The Guardian. Butcher notes how publishers are turning content preservation into a profitable market, therefore outlining the tension between content access and copyright law. As a Forrester report[1] says, paid archived online content retrieval is a lucrative and still growing business market. Such control over the past is problematic, as it leads to a control of the presents access to information. Sites that are archived in services like the Internet Archive can be removed upon request, if a publisher prefers to restrict access (either to sell that content themselves or censor the past). Brewster Kahles quotes show another argument for news archiving, that might convince more papers to get involved: that there's a direct correlation between open archives and the long-term brand image of a news organisation. Media firms which close their digital archives in order to charge for access will prevent their brands becoming "papers of reference" because "many stories live on in links. Deards, H. (2009). Online archiving: historically essential or potentially damaging? Editors This blog post examines the right of an individual to have an article removed from a news organizations website due to the article being potentially defamatory. The editor at the Birmingham Post asked readers their opinion about whether newspapers should not archive defamatory pieces and their opinions/responses were evenly mixed. Also another issue in the U.K. is that there is a precedent that allows publishers to be sued for libel without any time limit. I dont know if this is the same thing in Canada. Hoyt, C. (2007). When Bad News Follows You. The New York Times.

In this article, the public editor, Hoyt, examines that sometimes by preserving news this can harm the subject matter of that news, especially if what was written is false. The New York Times uses search engine optimization which drives traffic to its web site and in doing so, this increases the likelyhood that false pieces of information will be consumed. The assistant manager states that theres nothing we can do. Removing anything from the historical record would be like airbrushing Trotsky out of the Kremlin picture. However, some believe that the fact that this information is archived and retrievable shows that the New York Times has a new obligation to minimize harm. Geist, M. (2007). Preserving printed and digital heritage. BBC News. This article is written by an internet law professor from the University of Ottawa. Geist explains that Canada is one of the first countries to address concerns regarding digital rights management and preservations. He gives a brief account regarding the mandatory legal deposits that Canada introduced in 1953, making it necessary for publishers to provide copies of all published books to the National Library of Canada. He goes on to explain how this process overtime started to include serial publication, microfilms, CD-ROMs sound recording and electronic publications on all physical formats. He states that the Canadian Criminal Code has a section for publishers who do not comply. In 2004, the government granted the Library and Archives Canada, the successor the National Library, the right to sample web pages in an effort to preserve noteworthy Canadian websites. The internet sampling provision has been used to gather copies of political party websites as well as a handful of notable blogs. But on January 1, 2007, the Government of Canada introduced regulations to address online publication and Digital Rights Management-encoded books. Now this includes a person who makes a publication available in Canada that the person is authorized to reproduce or over which the person controls the content (Library and Archives of Canada, publisher). This also includes blog posts but the Library and Archives of Canada do not require publishers to deposit blog posts e-mails or press releases. Geist, Michael. (2011). Geist: Ottawa awol but others busy digitizing Canadas heritage. The Toronto Star. Compares other countries digital preservation efforts to Canadas. Canadas government efforts are lacking, but libraries, museums and universities are making individual efforts to digitize media for preservation (images, print newspapers, etc). Quint, B. (2009). Where have all the archives gone? Information Today. The author examines some of the challenges facing newspapers as more of them go online. She talks briefly about a Supreme Court case between the New York Times and Tasini in 2001, whereby newspapers in the U.S. had to either close [their] archives completely or plow through back copies pulling out freelance articles or anything for which they did not have a clear copyright title. This article goes

further to talk about strengths and weaknesses of ProQuest, the Internet Archive, and the Christian Science Monitor which became the first nationally circulated newspaper to replace its print edition with its website.

V. NEWS BRIEFS Centre for Research Libraries, The. (2009). Preserving Electronic News. Focus On Global Resources, 29(1), 1-3. This article recaps what was discussed at the Library of Congress workshop (Sept. 2-3, 2009) that focused on strategies for collecting and preserving digital news on a national basis (Centre for Research Libraries, 2). At this meeting, their main priority was digital newspaper websites, television and radio broadcasts on the internet, blogs, podcasts, photographs, videos. They primarily focused on larger organizations such as New York Times, Washington Post, CBS, CNN, blogs, twitter feeds etc.) Also the Library of Congress has proposed a revision so that electronic copies of any serial published in the United States (Centre for Research Libraries, 3) would also be sent to the Library of Congress. This does not necessarily mean that news publications will be achieved but rather this new change means that the Library of Congress might be able to acquire news articles. "LC announces digital preservation partnerships." American Libraries 38.8 (2007): 40. CPI.Q (Canadian Periodicals). Web. 3 Jan. 2011. News brief on Library of Congress partnerships to create digital preservation initiatives. None include news; more focus on cultural creations. Task force to address Digital Preservation. American Libraries 38.10 (2007): 29. CPI.Q (Canadian Periodicals). Web. News brief on the creation of the International Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access. International just seems to mean the US and UK, as organisations involved are from both countries: US Library of Congress, JISC. Focus on preserving academic articles. Top 10 Digital Preservation Developments of 2010, The. (2010). Digital Preservation. Useful guide to stories about new initiatives in digital preservation throughout 2010. Nothing specifically on news archiving and the gamut here runs from the preservation of forensics to virtual worlds but it demonstrates that new developments in digital preservation are occurring in higher quantities now than ever before.

VI. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Hall, E. & Maitland, C. (2006) Cryogenics and Creativity: The Frankenstein Factor in Cultural Preservation. Lit Linguist Computing, 21(3), 327-339. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Quote: The more components, elements, processes and parties there are involved in the production of a digital resource or work of art, the more complex the management of its future will be. Gladney, Henry M. (2007). Preserving Digital Information. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Gwinn , Nancy E. (1991). The Fragility of Paper: Can Our Historical Record Be Saved? Preservation Technology. 13, (3), 33-53. California: University of California Press. Levitz, Stephanie. (2011). Google-like search site connects 60 million pages of Canadian history. The Globe and Mail. Article that looks at, an independent (though government funded now) effort at digitizing Canadas past. Dubbed a google of Canadian history. Mills, T. F. (1981). Preserving Yesterday's News for Today's Historian: A Brief History of Newspaper Preservation, Bibliography, and Indexing. The Journal of Library History (1974-1987), 16 (3), 463-487. Texas: University of Texas Press. Game Preservation Special Interest Group, IGDA. (2009). Before It's Too Late: A Digital Game Preservation White Paper. Useful example of a white paper asking for preservation of a different form of new media; in this case, videogames. Kantor, Jonathan (2009). Crafting White Paper 2.0: Designing Information for Today's Time and Attention Challenged Business Reader. Denver, Colorado: Lulu Publishing. pp. 167. Reiger, O. (2008). Preservation in the Age of Large-Scale Digitization. Washington: Council on Library and Information Resources. FURTHER RESOURCES

NB: The following resources served as context and background reading information for the literature review of this project. Links PADI or Kessler, S. - Quote: Unlike libraries in some other countries, the Library of Congress has no legal mandate to preserve the web. Therefore, the web archive team cant collect everything they would like to without asking permission. Because news sites and blogs earn money on their content, the Library needs to get consent before it includes their pages in the archives [...] few news organizations that the web archive team contacts for permission ever respond, which means that not much of the content in the web archives comes from news sites. US Academic Dan Gillmor looks into proper online news website (and blog, general website) preservation. Talks about trend in news websites being treated differently to print; content holders and legal powerholders feel they have right to withhold or delete information as they desire (judges ordering online news stories to be deleted). Archives / organisations / preservation institutes: Getty Information Institute JSTOR - nonprofit for storage of academic journals. Funded by individual institutions. The Internet Archive Google caching / news history Library and Archives of Canada (LAC) Library and Archives of Canada; put in charge of preservation, didnt do much.


Quotes from Daniel Caron related to our project Key Quotes Carons remarks on 150 years of Canada: Memory, Literacy and Democracy By public memory, I mean the nature and constitution of our foundational "civic goods" (the original documents of our decisions and actions, and the knowledge in our books and other documentary media and artifacts), which are required within society to articulate, express and share common goals, assumptions, values and ethics; to provide individuals and groups with the capacities of social literacy necessary to enable their democratic participation within communities; and to ensure accountable public administration and responsible governance under the rule of law. In essence, I mean the continuing "civism" of our society expressed through the purposeful preservation of an associated public memory whose documentary context explores the dimensions of why we remember, what we remember, and how we remember together as individuals and communities over time. His remarks-specifically on how internet has changed medium First, the landscape of "information resource" and memory development has almost entirely shifted from the controlled, ordered, formal experiences and limited relationships established within the physical space of official mediators, repositories and analogue communication to the uncontrolled, disordered, informal experiences and unlimited communications relativity of cyberspace permitted by the Web and networks. His remarks- specifically having to do with commidifying information New sources, producers and distributors of information content (e.g., Google, YouTube, Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, etc.) have emerged to exponentially expand the scale of documentary output and thereby the dimensions of public memory. Using the Web and networks within cyberspace, these forces have completely transformed the environment of public memory by (1) "commodifying" information resources for delivery to consumers on a previously unparalleled and unimagined scale, by (2) enabling the participation of consumers simultaneously in the creation and production of information resource content, and finally by (3) establishing new forms of intermediation through websites and social media. His remarks- specifically having to do with the necessity of preserving civic information My current sense of the public memory challenge is that this is an immediate matter for all of us to consider together as a collective social responsibility. The decisions about the constitution and preservation of the "civic goods" of public memory--especially those which provide the continuing foundation of our society, consensus, and democracy--are far

too important to be simply and exclusively assigned to a small group of dedicated memory specialists. Key Ideas In September 2010 in Oslo, at the annual ICA/CITRA (International Conference on Archives) conference, Caron recently spoke regarding Modernisation and the documentation of Society in the Digital Environment. The theme of the conference was centered on Digital Archives: Managing records and Archives in the Digital Age.[i] History of the Library and Archives of Canada The National Library of Canada and the National Archives of Canada became the Library and Archives of Canada (LAC) on May 21, 2004. At this time the government had passed the Library and Archives of Canada act and Ian E. Wilson became the first Librarian and Archivist of Canada in July 2004.[ii] Since Wilson retired, he has held the title of Librarian and Archivist of Canada Emeritus as President of the International Council on Archives.[iii] End Notes

[i] [ii] PgNm=TCE&Params=a1ARTA0009814 [iii]

Addenda **