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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: DATA ANALYSIS

This document lists a range of sources of information about data analysis for research using digital media methods. The sources listed include web pages, textbooks and journal articles. All web pages are free to access except where indicated. This resource was produced in 2012 for Young Digital: www.youngdigital.net

General data analysis

University of the West of England Data Analysis Online Learning Programme http://hsc.uwe.ac.uk/dataanalysis/index.asp Accessible introduction to both qualitative and quantitative analysis, designed to suit a wide range of practitioners. Qualitative branch contains subsections on visual and narrative data analysis, with practical exercises and suggestions for further reading. Quantitative section gives definitions of different data types and their uses, again offering exercises to introduce and refine technique.

David, M. and Sutton, C. (2011) Social Research (2nd ed.) London: Sage. http://www.uk.sagepub.com/books/Book232209 Comprehensive guide for social science researchers, covering qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative sections include strategies for research design and analysis relating to interviews, focus groups, secondary documents, semiotic analysis and ethnography. Quantitative chapters introduce primary concepts and build towards more advanced analysis, all with guided practical instruction. Discussions of analytical software are reasonably up to date, e.g. SPSS 18 and Nvivo 8.

NHS Education for Scotland Quantitative Research http://www.nes.scot.nhs.uk/nes_resources/ti/QuantativeResearch.pdf Beginners introduction to quantitative methods, highlighting key concepts and definitions. Distinguishes between different types of methodological approach and the contexts in which they are most useful. Although designed for health practitioners, this serves as a basic introduction for anyone new to quantitative analysis or needing a refresher on key terms and principles.

Methods@Manchester Survey-related Methods http://www.methods.manchester.ac.uk/methods/survey-related.shtml Thorough overview of different varieties of data modelling and analysis. Each method is described in detail with examples, and accompanied by video explanations and suggestions for further reading. Presented in an academic context, but widely applicable across disciplines and sectors.

Introduction to Qualitative Data Analysis http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/Intro_QDA/index.php Comprehensive guide to qualitative analysis methods, featuring a very useful A-Z introduction to particular approaches, some common (e.g., ethnography, discourse analysis, action research) others more specialist (e.g., objective hermeneutics, phenomenography). Offers guides on practical measures such as data coding, transcription and writing style. All sections contain links to further reading.

Crang, M. (2005) Analysing qualitative materials. In: Flowerdew, R. and Martin, D. (eds.) Methods in Human Geography. Harlow: Prentice Hall, pp. 218-232 http://www.pearsoned.co.uk/bookshop/detail.asp?item=100000000016071 An instructive introductory chapter on how to best organise, analyse and present various forms of qualitative data. Contains a section on software for qualitative analysis (though this will be somewhat dated, given its 2005 publication). Although presented in the context of human geography

research, the chapter takes a generalist approach with relevance for other disciplines and non-academic research.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://bit.ly/NaZGKh A thorough but accessible introduction to grounded theory. Addresses critical historical debates in the evolution of qualitative methods, making a case for the contemporary relevance of grounded theory. Advises on key practical techniques with widespread application throughout social science, while advocating a data-defined approach to analysis.

Fielding, N. (2012) The Diverse Worlds and Research Practices of Qualitative Software. Forum: Qualitative Social Research 13(2): 12 http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1845 This paper considers how new research communities or citizen researchers outside the academic realm have utilised qualitative research software. Gives an overview of specific software capabilities and their usefulness to individuals, communities and NGOs, while also arguing for the incorporation of the resultant data in academic research.

Hine, C. (ed.) (2005) Virtual Methods: Issues in Social Research on the Internet. Oxford: Berg. http://www.bergpublishers.com/?tabid=1094 Edited volume covering multiple methodologies and analytical techniques for online communication. Chapters include examples and practical discussions of e-mail interviewing, virtual ethnographies, content analysis and GIS, also touching upon questions of access, ethics and relations between researcher and subjects. Technical considerations may be somewhat dated but the broader themes are still relevant.

Visual methodologies

Pink, S. (ed.) (2012). Advances in Visual Methodology. London: Sage. http://www.uk.sagepub.com/books/Book235866#tabview=title A collection of essays on visual methodologies, aimed at refining theory, demonstrating practical techniques and setting an agenda for visual methods in interdisciplinary research. Pinks introductory essay grounds the array of practices collated under the visual methodology label in contemporary debates, while subsequent chapters explore its various implications and potentials. Considerable attention given to digital media.

Learn Higher Visual Research Methods http://www.brighton.ac.uk/visuallearning/visual-research-methods/ An introduction to visual methodologies aimed at researchers working across various disciplines and sectors. Links to several resources, including scholarly articles, cross-disciplinary research portals and examples of visually oriented projects. Intended as a general overview to acquaint researchers with specific methods and contextualise visual methodologies more generally.

Visual Methodologies Companion Website http://www.sagepub.com/rose/home.htm A website developed to accompany Rose, G. (2011) Visual Methodologies (3rd ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Most effective when used in conjunction with the book, but also useful as a standalone resource. Numerous components of visual methodologies are introduced and explained, supported by examples and links to complementary websites. Practical exercises are provided for techniques such as semiology, discourse analysis, audience research and compositional interpretation.

Video analysis

Jewitt, C. (2012) An introduction to using video for research. NCRM working paper (Unpublished). NCRM.

http://eprints.ncrm.ac.uk/2259/ Thorough guide to using video in research, addressing theoretical and practical issues in detail. Provides an outline of varied applications of video analysis before highlighting key theoretical debates and questions concerning video's 'potentials and constraints'. The paper's final section focuses on technical and practical considerations, from footage types to camera position.

Pink, S. and Mackley, K. (2012) Video and a Sense of the Invisible: Approaching Domestic Energy Consumption Through the Sensory Home. Sociological Research Online 17(1): 3 http://www.socresonline.org.uk/17/1/3.html An exploratory exercise in which video tours of research participants homes are used to uncover otherwise invisible or unacknowledged patterns of energy use. Serves as an instructive example of how video can capture the spontaneous interaction often edited out of other presentational formats, as well as how video footage can be integrated into written research results.

Visible Voices (2009) Changing Lives http://www.methodspace.com/profiles/blogs/using-video-for-research A short film (16 minutes) about the use of video as a research tool and community development strategy in Kyrgyzstan. Integrates extracts from participatory video projects into a broader narrative about methodology and the potential for communities to steer the direction of research through a participatory approach utilising digital camcorders.

Garrett, B. (2011) Videographic geographies: Using digital video for geographic research. Progress in Human Geography 35: 521. http://phg.sagepub.com/content/35/4/521.short (subscription required) A review paper that considers the historical use of video analysis in the social sciences (particularly human geography), arguing for a stronger recognition of its potential. Garrett suggests that digital video can reconfigure the power relations in research by mimetically revealing

relationships and events, thus depriving an author of exclusive claims to (textual) representation.

Laurier, E., Strebel, I. and Brown, B. (2008) Video Analysis: Lessons from Professional Video Editing Practice. Forum: Qualitative Social Research 9(3): 37 http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1168/2579 The authors explore how observing the professional editing process can contribute to improved research analysis when using video methods. The paper offers a brief but helpful overview of the uses of video data in social science before taking a more technical turn by revealing how editing constructs (or changes) meaning from the raw material of recorded footage.

Online media analysis

Miller, D. (2011) Tales from Facebook. London: Polity Press. http://politybooks.com/book.asp?ref=9780745652092 Less a study of Facebook itself than one of how socio-cultural phenomena are mediated through the digital network, and in turn how the presentation of information on Facebook reciprocally impacts individuals and wider society. Limits analysis to Trinidad in an attempt to demonstrate the malleability and particularity of social networks when adopted by specific user groups.

Digital Youth Research (2012) http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/ Portal for a multi-institutional research programme concerning youth and digital technology. Several research strands are represented, with content presented in various formats. There are numerous examples of online content analysis among the different projects, employing multiple methodologies and analytical techniques. Extensive publications list.

Murthy, D. (2008) Digital Ethnography: An Examination of the Use of New Technologies for Social Research. Sociology 42: 837-855. http://soc.sagepub.com/content/42/5/837.short (subscription required) An intervention aimed at justifying the relevance of digital content in telling social stories, the familiar remit of traditional ethnography. Looks specifically at online questionnaires, social networking websites, digital video and blogs, offering examples of how each technology can be productively utilised in research, while noting that disparities of technological access can limit the reach of these methods.

Hogan, B. (2008) Analysing social networks via the Internet. In: Fielding, N., Lee, R. and Blank, G. (eds.) The Handbook of Online Research Methods. Sage: Thousand Oaks, pp. 141-160 http://bit.ly/Mhphg9 Combines network theory with relatively advanced technical instruction for purposes of analysing the large, publicly accessible datasets contained within online social networks. Potentially very useful for researchers hoping to access the data repositories of expansive social networks but lacking the requisite technical knowledge. URL links to a pre-release version of book chapter.

Snickars, P. and Vonderau, P. (eds.) (2009) The YouTube Reader. Stockholm: National Library of Sweden. http://www.youtubereader.com/ A large volume containing numerous analyses of YouTube as a social, technological and cultural phenomenon, as well as an abundant source of research data. While early sections of the book focus primarily on the significance of YouTube, latter parts consider the site's content as a research tool or easily accessible 'digital archive'. Free pdf copy of the book available through website.

Produced in 2012 for Young Digital www.youngdigital.net