International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research (IJEEER) ISSN 2250155X Vol.2, Issue 3 Sep 2012 3755 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.,
LOAD FLOW SOLUTION FOR UNBALANCED RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
^{1} K.JITHENDRA GOWD, ^{2} CH.SAI BABU& ^{3} S.SIVANAGARAJU ^{1} JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India ^{2} University College of Engineering, JNT University, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
This paper presents a simple three phase load flow method to solve threephase unbalanced radial distribution system (RDS). A three phase load flow solution with considering most of load modeling is presented which has good convergence property for any practical distribution networks with practical R/X ratio. It solves a simple algebraic recursive expression of voltage magnitude, and all the data are stored in vector form. The algorithm uses basic principles of circuit theory and can be easily understood. Mutual coupling between the phases has been included in the mathematical model. The proposed algorithm has been tested with several unbalanced distribution networks and the result of an unbalanced RDS is presented in the article. The application of the proposed method is also extended to find optimum location for reactive power compensation and network reconfiguration for planning and
daytoday operation of distribution networks.
KEYWORDS: Radial Distribution Networks, Load Flow, Circuit Model, ThreePhase FourWire, Unbalance.
INTRODUCTION
For any electrical system, the determination of the steady state behavior is the one of the most fundamental calculation. In power systems, this calculation is the steady state power flow problem, also called load flow. The majority of power flow algorithms in wide use in industry today, most notably, the NewtonRaphson method and its variants [1,2] have been developed specifically for transmission systems which have a meshed structure, with parallel lines and many redundant paths from the generation points to the load points.
The focus of this paper is on the solution of the power flow problem for the distribution system. Typically, a distribution system originates at a substation where the electric power is converted from the high voltage transmission system to a lower voltage for delivery to the customers. Unlike a transmission system, a distribution system typically has a radial topological structure. Unfortunately, this radial structure, along with the higher resistance/reactance (R/X) ratio of the lines, makes the fastdecoupled Newton method unsuitable for most distribution power flow problems. Various efficient distribution
38
K. Jithendra Gowd, CH. Sai Babu & S. Sivanagaraju
power flow algorithms which exploit the radial structure have been proposed in the literature. These algorithms can be classified into three groups:
• Network reduction methods [3]
• Backward/ forward sweep methods [49]
• Fast decoupled methods [1012]
All of the proposed methods have some limitations. Recently, many researchers presented techniques, especially to obtain the load flow solution for distribution networks. Das et al. [13] have proposed a load flow solution method by writing an algebraic equation for bus voltage magnitude. However, this method is suitable for singlephase analysis. A few researchers have proposed a load flow solution techniques to analyze unbalanced distribution systems. Zimmerman et al. [12] have formulated load flow problem as a set of nonlinear power mismatch equations as a function of the bus voltages. These equations have been solved by Newton’s method. Thukaram et al. [14] have proposed three phase power flow algorithm based on the forward backward walk along the network. The method considers some aspects of three phase modeling of branches and detailed load modeling. In recent years the three phase current injection method (TCIM) has been proposed [15]. TCIM is based on the current injection equations written in rectangular coordinates and is a full Newton method. As such, it presents quadratic convergence properties and convergence is obtained for all but some extremely illconditioned cases. Further TCIM developments led to the representation of control devices [16], [17]. Miu et al., [18] have also proposed method for solving threephase radial distribution networks.
The objective of this work is to develop a formulation and an efficient solution algorithm for the distribution power flow problem which takes into account the detailed and extensive modeling necessary for use in the distribution automation environment of a real world power system which is based on basic systems analysis method and circuit theory. The proposed method requires lesser computer memory, computationally fast and involves only recursive algebraic equations to be solved. The algorithm has been developed considering that all loads draw constant power. However, the algorithm can easily accommodate composite load modeling, if the composition of load is known. The algorithm has good convergence property for practical unbalanced radial distribution networks.
MODELLING 
OF 
COMPONENTS 
OF 
UNBALACED 
RADIAL 
DISTRIBUTION 
SYSTEM 
Unbalanced Three Phase Line Model
A three phase line section model between bus p and q is shown in Fig 1.
Load Flow Solution for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems
39
Fig 1 Three phase line section model
A 4X4 matrix, which takes into account the self and mutual coupling effects of the unbalanced threephase line section, can be expressed as
(1)
After Kron’s reduction is applied, the effects of the neutral or ground wire are still included in this model and (1) can then be rewritten as
(2)
The relation between branchy voltages and branch currents in Fig.1 can be expressed as
(3)
For any phases fail to present, the corresponding row and column in this matrix will contain null entries. The general forms of showing the branch voltage and branch current are
40
Line Shunt Admittance Model
K. Jithendra Gowd, CH. Sai Babu & S. Sivanagaraju
Fig 2 Shunt admittances of the line sections
In the Fig.2, the shunt admittances (capacitances) are modeled. It represents the shunt admittances connected to each phase and the admittances connected between the phase and ground. Since the currents are injected into the line, the directions of the injected currents are as represented in the figure. These current injections for representing the line charging, which should be added to the respective compensation current injections at nodes p and q are given by
Shunt Capacitor Model
(4)
Shunt capacitors, often used for reactive power compensation in a distribution network, are modeled as constant capacitance devices. Capacitors are often placed in distribution networks to regulate voltage levels and to reduce real power loss. As with loads, they can be connected in a grounded wyes configuration or an ungrounded delta configuration. In fact, they are treated in exactly the same way as a purely reactive constant impedance load. It is assumed that shunt capacitors in grounded sections of the network are wye connected and those in ungrounded sections are three phase and delta connected. The constant model parameter, in this case, is the admittance which is computed from the given nominal reactive power injection. The Fig. 3 and Fig 4 represent the capacitors placement in star and delta connections
Load Flow Solution for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems
41
Fig 3 Capacitors connected in wye connection.
I _{a} = Y ^{a}^{a} V _{a}
I _{c} = Y ^{c}^{c} Vc
I _{b} = Y ^{b}^{b} V _{b}
(5)
Fig 3 Capacitors connected in delta connection.
I _{a} = I _{a} =
I _{a} = Y _{a}_{b} /3
Y _{a}_{b} /3 Y _{a}_{b} /3
Load Model
(2V _{a} +V _{b} +V _{c} ) (2V _{a} +V _{b} +V _{c} ) (2V _{a} +V _{b} +V _{c} )
(6)
All the loads are assumed to draw constant complex power (S = P+jQ). It is further assumed that all threephase loads are star connected and all double and singlephase loads are connected between line and neutral. A node in a radial system is connected to several other nodes. However, owing to the structure, in a radial system, it is obvious that a node is connected to the substation through only one line that feeds the node. The equations (7) to (9) can be written refer to the power at the receiving end node q.
=
=
(7)
(8)
(9)
42
StarConnected Loads
K. Jithendra Gowd, CH. Sai Babu & S. Sivanagaraju
In the case of loads which are connected in star is single phase loads connected linetoneutral, the load current injections at the K ^{t}^{h} bus can be given by
,m € [a,b,c ]
(10 )
Where and denote real power, reactive power and complex conjugate of the voltage
phasor of each phase, respectively. For simplicity for a constant power consumption at each bus was assumed during the simulation tests.
Fig 4 Loads connected in star connection
DeltaConnected Loads
The current injection at the K ^{t}^{h} bus for threephase load connected in Delta are singlephase load connected linetoline can be expressed by
I _{c} =
(11)
(12)
(13)
Fig 5. Loads connected in delta connection
Load Flow Solution for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems
Transformer Model
43
The impact of the numerous transformers in a distribution system is significant. Transformers affect system loss, zero sequence current, grounding method, and protection strategy. Although the transformer is one of the most important components of modern electric power systems, highly developed transformer models are not employed in system studies. In this thesis a transformer model and its implementation method are shown, so that largescale unbalanced distribution system problems such as power flow, short circuit, system loss, and contingency studies, can be solved.
Recent interest in unbalanced system phenomena has also produced a transformer model adaptable to the unbalanced problem which is well outlined in [19]. The model developed thus far can be applied directly to distribution power flow and shortcircuit analysis. However, it is still not accurate for system loss analysis because the transformer core loss contribution to total system loss is significant [20, 21]. To calculate total system loss, the core loss of the transformer must be included in the model. The complete transformer model combines the unbalanced and loss models from [20] and [21] in order to integrate system loss analysis in power flow or shortcircuit studies.
It is important to note that the unbalanced transformer model derived by Dillon in reference [20] cannot be applied directly to either the factorized YBus or direct inverse Y _{B}_{u}_{s} method because of numerical considerations. For some connections such as grounded wyedelta, delta grounded wye, these models make the system Y _{B}_{u}_{s} singular. Therefore, the application of the factorized or direct inverse methods becomes impossible. To solve this problem, this thesis introduces an implementation method in which artificial injection currents are used to make the system Y _{B}_{u}_{s} nonsingular.
\Derivation of Transformer Models
A threephase transformer is presented by two blocks shown in Fig. 6.One block represents the per unit leakage admittance matrix Y _{T} ^{a}^{b}^{c} , and the other block models the core loss as a function of voltage on the secondary side of the transformer.
Fig 6 Overall Proposed Transformer Model
The presence of the admittance matrix block is the major distinction between the proposed model and the model used in [14]. In the proposed model, Dillon's model is integrated with the admittance matrix part. As a result, the copper loss, core loss, system imbalance, and phase shift
44
K. Jithendra Gowd, CH. Sai Babu & S. Sivanagaraju
characteristics are taken into account. The implementation method is introduced in the following sections.
Core Loss
The core loss of a transformer is approximated by shunt core loss functions on each phase of the secondary terminal of the transformer. These core loss approximate functions are based on the results of EPRI load modeling research which state that real and reactive power losses in the transformer core can be expressed as functions of the terminal voltage of the transformer. Transformer core loss functions represented in per unit at the system power base.
Where A = 0.00267 
B=0.734 x 10 ^{}^{9} 
C=13.5 
D = 0.00167 
E= 0.268 x 10 ^{}^{1} 
F= 22.7 
is the voltage magnitude in per unit.
It must be noted that the coefficients A, B, C, D, E and F are machine dependent constants. For this work, core losses are represented by the functions and typical constants shown above.
Admittance Matrix
The admittance matrix part of the proposed threephase transformer models follows the methodology derived by Dillon, but a novel implementation is introduced here in. For simplification, a single threephase transformer is approximated by three identical singlephase transformers connected appropriately. This assumption is not essential; however, it simplifies the ensuing derivation and explanation. Based upon this assumption, the characteristic sub matrices used in forming the three phase transformer admittance matrices can be developed.
Where
Load Flow Solution for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems
SOLUTION METHODOLOGY
45
The proposed powerflow technique is used for solving radial distribution networks by calculating the total real and reactive power fed through any node. A unique node, branch and lateral numbering scheme, which help to evaluate exact real and reactive power loads fed through any node and receivingend voltages is proposed. It is assumed that the threephase radial distribution networks are balanced and can be represented by their equivalent singleline diagrams.
Identification of Nodes Beyond All The Branches
The detailed flowchart for identifying the nodes beyond all branches is presented in Fig 2.12. This procedure is very easy in finding the nodes of the system, to find the number of branches and to find the exact current flowing through all the branches.
Fig 2.12 Flowchart for identifying nodes
46
Load Flow Calculation
K. Jithendra Gowd, CH. Sai Babu & S. Sivanagaraju
The load flow solution is carried out by considering a branch which consists of three phases in the network as shown below.
The receivingend node voltage can be written as
Where
The equation (1) can be evaluated for p = 1,2
ln.
where ln is the total number of branches.
Current through branch i is equal to the sum of the load currents of all the nodes beyond branch i plus the sum of the charging currents of all the nodes beyond branch i plus the sum of all injected capacitor currents of all the nodes, i.e.
(14)
The real and reactive power losses of p ^{t}^{h} node is given by
(15)
Load Flow Solution for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems
47
Initially, a constant voltage of all the nodes is assumed and load currents, charging currents and capacitor currents are computed. After currents have been calculated, the voltage of each node is then calculated. The real and reactive power losses are calculated. Once the new values of voltages of all the nodes are computed, convergence of the solution is checked. If it does not converge, then the load and charging currents are computed using the recent values of the voltages and the whole process is repeated. The convergence criterion of the proposed method is that if, in successive iterations the maximum difference in voltage magnitude (D _{v}_{m}_{a}_{x} ) is less than 0.0001 p.u., the solution has then converged. This solution method is known recursive voltage computation method
The power flow calculation explained can be easily understood by representing in the form of flow chart shown in Fig 2.13
2.13 Flowchart for load flow solution
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
The proposed method is illustrated with two IEEE test systems consisting of 13 bus and 37 bus Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems on on PIV computer with 2.4 GHz frequency
48
K. Jithendra Gowd, CH. Sai Babu & S. Sivanagaraju
Example 1: The proposed algorithm is tested on 13 bus URDS. For the load flow, the base voltage and
base kVA are chosen as 4.16 kV and 100 kVA respectively.
Table 2.2 Voltages and phase angles of a 13 node radial distribution system
Bus 
Phase A 
Phase B 
Phase C 

No 
Va 
deg 
Vb 
deg 
Vc 
deg 
1 
1 
0 
1 
120 
1 
120 
2 
 
 

0.99734 
0.14 
1 
120.2 
0.9984 
119.84 

3 
 
 

0.99172 
0.88 
1 
120.2 
0.9887 
119.26 

4 
 
 

0.99172 
0.88 
1 
120.2 
0.9887 
119.26 

5 
 
 

0.99655 
0.16 
1 
120.2 
0.9978 
119.82 

6 
 
 

0.99655 
0.16 
1 
120.2 
0.9978 
119.82 

7 
 

0 
0 
0.99 
120.3 
0.9997 
119.84 

8 
 

0 
0 
0.99 
120.4 
1.0003 
119.84 

9 
 
 

0.99172 
0.88 
1 
120.2 
0.9887 
119.26 

10 
 
 

0.99013 
0.94 
1 
120.2 
0.9882 
119.27 

11 
 

0.99121 
0.89 
0 
0 
0.9882 
119.24 

12 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0.9877 
119.2 
13 
 

0.98979 
0.87 
0 
0 
0 
0 
Table 2.3 Power losses of 13 node radial distribution system
Description 
Phase A 
Phase B 
Phase C 
Total Active 
13.4527 
18.816 
16.4604 
Power Loss 

(kW) 

Total 
12.7443 
35.0432 
32.3409 
Reactive 

Power Loss 

(kVar) 
Load Flow Solution for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems
49
Table 2.4 Summary of test results of 13 bus radial distribution system
Proposed method 

Branch 
Phase A 
Phase B 
Phase C 

kW 
kVar 
kW 
kVar 
kW 
kVar 

1 
2.2522 
0.8919 
0.9955 
8.954 
3.96 
8.8135 
2 
1.5601 
0.9494 
7.9322 
17.69 
0.28 
16.941 
3 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
4 
0.1966 
0.0324 
0.2581 
0.75 
0.24 
0.094 
5 
7.8779 
5.8727 
7.6779 
5.872 
7.98 
5.8727 
1E 

6 
0 
3.449 
0 
0 
2.48 
04 
7 
0 
0.9825 
0 
0 
0.9 
0 
8 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
9 
0.9846 
0.5664 
0.7641 
0.842 
0.61 
0.003 
10 
0.2712 
0 
0.2923 
0.459 
0 
0.3965 
11 
0 
0 
0.8959 
0 
0 
0.2262 
12 
0.3101 
0 
0 
0.48 
0 
0 
The Total Active Power losses are 48.72911 kW
The Total Reactive Power losses are 80.1294 kVar
For the proposed method, the maximum deviation of voltage and its phase angle from the
Forward backward sweep method is 0.0001 p.u and 0.01 deg.
When the tolerance
limit is set as 0.0001, the number of iterations required for the convergence is 3 for Forward backward
sweep method and 2 for proposed method. The execution time is 0.048 seconds for the Forward
backward sweep method and 0.016 seconds.
The load flow is converged in 2 iterations for the tolerance of 0.001 p.u
Example – 2:The proposed algorithm is also tested
on IEEE 37 bus URDS . The feeder consists of
threewire delta operating at a nominal voltage of 4.8
kV.
50
K. Jithendra Gowd, CH. Sai Babu & S. Sivanagaraju
Table 2.5 Voltages and phase angles of a 37 node radial distribution system
Bus 
Proposed method 

No. 
Phase A 
Phase B 
Phase C 

Va 
deg 
Vb 
deg 
Vc 
deg 

1 
1 
0 
1 
 
1 
120 
120 

2 
0.99862 
0.026 
0.999 
 
1 
119.95 
120 

3 
0.99703 
0.126 
0.99656 
 
1 
119.87 
120 

4 
0.99489 
0.268 
0.99325 
 
0.99 
119.76 
120 

5 
0.9924 
0.314 
0.99185 
 
0.99 
119.71 
120 

6 
0.99148 
0.325 
0.99138 
 
0.99 
119.71 
120 

7 
0.99148 
0.325 
0.99138 
 
0.99 
119.71 
120 

8 
0.99808 
0.037 
0.9983 
 
1 
119.95 
120 

9 
0.99721 
0.049 
0.99729 
 
1 
119.96 
120 

10 
0.99732 
0.025 
0.99556 
 
1 
119.95 
120 

11 
0.9986 
0.011 
0.99784 
 
1 
119.93 
120 

12 
0.99853 
0.002 
0.99692 
 
1 
119.92 
120 

13 
0.99445 
0.274 
0.99317 
 
0.99 
119.77 
120 

14 
0.99412 
0.281 
0.99315 
 
0.99 
119.77 
120 

15 
0.9939 
0.286 
0.9932 
 
0.99 
119.77 
120 

16 
0.99148 
0.3 
0.99039 
 
0.99 
119.7 
120 

17 
0.99055 
0.361 
0.99149 
 
0.99 
119.71 
120 

18 
0.99058 
0.362 
0.99149 
 
0.99 
119.7 
120 

19 
0.9973 
0.003 
0.99244 
 
0.99 
120 
120 

20 
0.99728 
0.021 
0.9914 
 
1 
119.99 
120 

21 
0.99731 
0.019 
0.99538 
 
1 
119.94 
120 

22 
0.99731 
0.017 
0.9953 
 
1 
119.94 
120 

23 
0.99698 
0.054 
0.9973 
 
1 
119.96 
120 

24 
0.99557 
0.092 
0.99766 
 
1 
119.98 
120 

25 
0.99865 
0.013 
0.99784 
 
1 
119.92 
120 
Load Flow Solution for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems
51
26 0.99399 
0.28 
0.99302 
 
0.99 
119.77 
120 

27 0.98961 
0.396 
0.9916 
 
0.99 
119.7 
120 

28 0.9885 
0.439 
0.99161 
 
0.99 
119.69 
120 

29 0.98711 
0.499 
0.99216 
 
0.99 
119.7 
120 

30 0.9973 
0.03 
0.9922 
 
0.99 
120 
120 

31 0.98858 
0.426 
0.99088 
 
0.99 
119.67 
120 

32 0.98688 
0.514 
0.99229 
 
0.99 
119.69 
120 

33 0.987 
0.519 
0.99229 
 
0.99 
119.68 
120 

34 0.98706 
0.524 
0.99229 
 
0.99 
119.67 
120 

35 0.98854 
0.393 
0.98913 
 
0.99 
119.66 
120 

36 0.98862 
0.428 
0.99088 
 
0.99 
119.67 
120 

37 0.98704 
0.52 
0.99229 
 
0.99 
119.67 
120 
Table 2.6 Power losses of 37 node radial distribution system
Branch 
Proposed method 

Phase A 
Phase B 
Phase C 

kW 
kVar 
kW 
kVar 
kW 
kVar 

1 
1.2301 
0.8762 
1.2541 
0.9863 
0.9989 
1.4117 
2 
0.6697 
0.8688 
0.7869 
1.3336 
0.7275 
0.8825 
3 
0.9163 
1.1762 
1.0888 
1.639 
1.0071 
1.2059 
4 
1.6254 
0.4763 
1.5154 
0.7072 
0.2596 
0.5594 
5 
0.4339 
0.1498 
0.1259 
0.2107 
0.1372 
0.0568 
6 
0.6433 
13.9297 
0.6233 
13.9297 
0.6433 
13.9297 
7 
0.096 
0.2098 
0.136 
0.0394 
0.1268 
0.0752 
8 
0.1546 
0.3033 
0.1241 
0.0461 
0.2184 
0.0479 
9 
0.0071 
0.4697 
0.1599 
0.0017 
0.1739 
0.1682 
10 
0.0011 
0.1979 
0.0055 
0.0039 
0.0562 
0.0169 
11 
0.0011 
0.1573 
0 
0.0036 
0.0586 
0 
12 
0.0491 
0.0036 
0.0184 
0.0213 
0.0011 
0.0016 
13 
0.0356 
0 
0.005 
0.0206 
0.0028 
0.0011 
14 
0.0106 
0 
0 
0.0039 
0 
0 
15 
0.0008 
0.1677 
0 
0 
0.0618 
0 
16 
0.3015 
0.0083 
0.1071 
0.2098 
0.0117 
0.008 
17 
0 
0 
0.0041 
0 
0 
0.0015 
18 
0.0031 
0.754 
0.2824 
0.0001 
0.2191 
0.101 
19 
0.0006 
0.086 
0 
0 
0.0305 
0 
52
K. Jithendra Gowd, CH. Sai Babu & S. Sivanagaraju
20 
0.0003 
0.0049 
0 
0 
0.0025 
0 
21 
0 
0.0022 
0 
0 
0.0011 
0 
22 
0.0438 
0.0007 
0 
0.0144 
0.0009 
0 
23 
0.2353 
0 
0 
0.0871 
0 
0 
24 
0 
0 
0.0122 
0 
0 
0.0045 
25 
0.0061 
0.0058 
0.0056 
0.0019 
0.0017 
0.002 
26 
0.3106 
0.0082 
0.0768 
0.2035 
0.0145 
0.0021 
27 
0.2578 
0.0004 
0.1428 
0.1937 
0.2143 
0.0338 
28 
0.3378 
0 
0.055 
0.2387 
0 
0.023 
29 
0 
0.0381 
0.0446 
0 
0.0092 
0.0164 
30 
0.2019 
0.0592 
0.2156 
0.0006 
0.0108 
0.0163 
31 
0.2188 
0 
0.2402 
0.2227 
0 
0.0102 
32 
0.0004 
0 
0.0404 
0.0005 
0 
0.0231 
33 
0 
0 
0.0093 
0.0001 
0 
0.0049 
34 
0.0019 
0.1446 
0 
0.0001 
0.0517 
0 
35 
0 
0 
0.0103 
0 
0 
0.0038 
36 
0 
0 
0.0103 
0 
0 
0.0038 
Table 2.7 Summary of test results of 37 bus radial distribution system
Description 
Phase A 
Phase B 
Phase C 
Total Active Power Loss (kW) 
7.7946 
7.1 
5.0412 
Total Reactive Power Loss (kVar) 
20.0987 
20.0994 
18.5589 
The Total Active Power losses are 19.9358 kW
The Total Reactive Power losses are 58.7570 kVar
Table 2.5 shows comparison of the voltage magnitudes obtained by Forward backward sweep method [21] and proposed method. For proposed method, the maximum deviation of voltage and its phase angle from the Forward backward sweep method is 0.0001 p.u and 0.01 deg. Thus, the two discussed methods are quite accurate. For both the methods, load flow converged in 2 iterations for the tolerance of 0.001 p.u. When the tolerance limit is set as 0.0001, the number of iterations required for the convergence is 4 for Forward backward sweep method and 3 for proposed method. The summary of test results is given in Table 2. The execution time is 0.016 seconds for the Forward backward sweep method and 0.00659 seconds for the proposed method on PIV computer with 2.4 GHz frequency.
CONCLUSIONS
Load Flow Solution for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems
53
In this chapter, a simple and efficient computer algorithm has been presented to solve unbalanced radial distribution networks. A three phase load flow solution is proposed considering most of load modeling. The proposed method has good convergence property for any practical distribution networks with practical R/X ratio. Computationally, this method is extremely efficient, as it solves simple algebraic recursive equations for voltage phasors. Using the proposed method, the node identification will be easy where as it is difficult for existing method. Another advantage of the proposed method is all the data is stored in vector form, thus saving enormous amount of computer memory when tested for large systems.
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[3] R. Berg, Jr., E. S. Hawkins, and W. W. Pleines, “Mechanized Calculation of Unbalanced Load Flow on Radial Distribution Circuits”, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS86, No. 4, April 1967, pp. 415421.
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K. Jithendra Gowd, CH. Sai Babu & S. Sivanagaraju
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AUTHOR BIBLIOGRAPHY
Load Flow Solution for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems
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K. Jithendra Gowd completed is B.Tech from JNT University, Hyderabad in 2002, M.Tech from JNT University, Kakinada in 2006 and pursuing his Ph.D. Presently working as Assistant Professor in Dept. of EEE, JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapur . His areas of interest are Distribution Systems, HVDC Transmission.
Dr. Ch. Sai Babu received the B.E from Andhra University (Electrical & Electronics Engineering), M.Tech in Electrical Machines and Industrial Drives from REC, Warangal and Ph.D in Reliability Studies of HVDC Converters from JNTU, Hyderabad. Currently he is working as a Professor in Dept. of EEE in University College of Engineering, JNT University, Kakinada. He has published several National and International Journals and Conferences. His area of interest is Power Electronics and Drives, Power System Reliability, HVDC Converter Reliability, Optimization of Electrical Systems and Real Time Energy Management.
Dr. S.Sivanagaraju is graduated in 1998, Masters in 2000 fron IIT Kharaghpur and did his Ph.D in JNT University, Hyderabad in 2004 and working as a Associate Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering, University College of Engineering, Kakinada. He received two national awards (Pandit Madhan Mohan memorial Prize and best paper) for the year 200304. His areas of interest are Distribution and Automation.
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