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Nguyn Trng Bng TA36C Nhm 2: Politeness and interaction Part 5: Say something: off and on record 5. 2. Bald On record 1. What does on record mean? According to the book Pragmatics (G.Yule,1995:63), On record is interpreted as: In contrast to off record statements, you can directly address the other as a mean of expressing your needs. Those direct address forms are technically described as being on record. In short, on record means that you will directly say something and it clearly shows the others your demands/ means. Eg: Send me your report via email! -> this utterance directly shows your demand of getting the report from the other by using imperative form. 2. What is Bald on record strategy? The most direct way of saying something by using imperative forms to ask the others for something. Bald on record strategy usually does not lessen the threat to the hearers face although in some situation it can be used to minimize the face threatening acts.

3. How is it used?
Bald on record is normally used when the speaker assumes that he/she has the power over the hearer and can control the other with words such as in military. Bald on record is used whenever the speaker would like to do the FTAs more than she/he wants to satisfy the hearers face. There are two basic kind of usage of Bald on record : Type 1: Where face is ignored and so the face threatening actions are not minimized. This type is the standard or main use of the Bald on record usages where ones demands are over the face threats. Type 2: In some specific situations where it aims to no one: Familiar: Lock the door!, the father told his son. or Urgence: Finish it, times up!. or Emergency: Help!, a boy is drowning and asking for help.

4. In which situation can it be regarded as a polite way?

Firstly, when using mitigating devices- expressions for minimizing the speakers direct demands (please, would you, may I) aiming at minimizing the threats to the hearers face. Eg: Please, would you Please lend me your pen! Would you please turn on the lights! -> These devices make the statements be more polite and save the hearers face. Secondly, Bald on record usually imposes the threats to the addressees face (Face threatening actions- FTAs) in everyday interaction. However, in some situations that people knows each other well or has a close/familiar relationship like close friends or family, it is considered as politeness. Eg: a. Wash your hands! The mother says to her little son, for instance. b. Do me a favor!, a girl asks her classmate. Also in the emergency situations like danger or risk, bald on record is viewed as appropriate ways. Eg: Go! Go away!, a man warns a girl to go away from the rail. Task-oriented: Eg: Give me that pot!, the mother says to her daughter to pass her something during cooking a meal. Alert: Turn your lights on! (when driving) 5. Note: In general speaking, Bald on record is the most direct way of expressing ones needs to the other. Despite some appropriate uses in some specific situations as abovementioned of Bald on record, it is normally considered as a threat to the hearers face. It should be, consequently, avoided being used as face threatening actions in casual interaction or if being used, it is essential to consider careful so that it can be bring the most effectiveness in conversation./.