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Presentation

DEVELOPMENTS IN HEAT ACTIVATED PROTECTIVE COATINGS AND REPAIR COMPOSITES TO ADDRESS CORROSION UNDER INSULATION ISSUES IN THE HYDROCARBON INDUSTRY

Presenter
Mr Ron Campbell Senior Vice President Belzona Asia Pacific

Corrosion Under Insulation Root Causes and Effects

Water Ingress
Trapped during construction

Leakage of weather-proofing
Sprinkler Systems

Exacerbating Factors
Chemicals
Contaminants in the insulation material ( Chlorides)

Atmospheric pollutants ( Acid Rain )


Decomposition of organic materials ( Bird Droppings ) Spillage ( Production Chemicals and Cleaners )

Temperature
Equipment operating at 5 200 C Cyclic wetting/drying (concentration mechanism)

Corrosion Under Insulation Root Causes and Effects

Carbon steels
Accelerated corrosion/pitting
SCC (low risk: hot nitrate)

Stainless steels
Crevice/pitting corrosion SCC (high risk: chloride + T>60 C)

Other Metallic substrates


Comparatively little experience

Corrosion Under Insulation Root Causes and Effects

Lobster backs

Joints in saddles

Vertical risers act As watersheds

Low elevation

Saddles trap water Heat sink attracts vapour Mid joints

Water penetration into Insulation is the primary cause of CUI if the water can be prevented from entering the Insulation CUI can be negated.

Corrosion Under Insulation Root Causes

Corrosion Implications of Insulation Types


Type
Calcium silicate Fibre glass Cellular glass Ceramic fibre Mineral wool Organic foams neutral (pH 6-7) acid (pH 2-3) low (~2 mg/l) possibly high

Water Extract
alkaline (pH 7-10)

Chloride
possibly high

Chemical extraction from Insulation can accelerate CUI

Corrosion Under Insulation Results


CUI exists in every Hydrocarbon Processing Plant Worldwide

How can CUI problems be Repaired and then Negated On Line ?

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions


Non-Compliant Repair and Protection Where there is no internationally recognized standard required for the application but they are effective and have been and are currently in use within industries worldwide and are widely accepted based on historical performance.

Compliant Repairs Where there is a accepted International Standard for the use of composite materials for repair of pipe - work and tanks and where the client requires certification: - ASME PCC-2-2008 - ISO / TS 24817

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions

Non Compliant Solutions

Non Compliant Solution Build a New One !

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions


Product Development Parameters
Can Be applied to Hot Surfaces Surface Temperatures of 30C 180C Minimal Surface Preparation High Adhesion Resist Insulation Saturation / Immersion Simple to Use Long Service Period

Product Profiles
Single Component Heat Activated Repair Material ( 70 180 C ) Single Component Heat Activated Coating Material ( 70 180 C ) Two Component Heat Activated Coating Material ( 30 80 C )

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Profile Adhesion on cold surfaces is best achieved through mechanical locking ( Surface Roughening / Blasting )

Coating

Substrate

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Profile

Adhesion on hot surfaces achieved by penetration of pores in metal which increase in size on heating

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Profile

Adhesion on contaminated hot metal surfaces


Achieved by displacement of moisture

Absorption of contaminant oil


And penetration of pores before cure in place which provides a mechanical lock
Heat Activated Coating

Contaminated Porous Metal Substrate

Corrosion Under Insulation Simulated Testing


Custom Built CUI test Rig Disposable steel sleeve fitted over a cylindrical oil-filled heater Sleeve is manually prepared and then coated in-situ with test coating Coated pipe then surrounded with a cylinder of insulation material (glass fibre) and a cylinder of metal cladding Water (or salt water) is then introduced into the rig via a hole in the cladding

Test temperature (and coating temperature) can be selected Rig dismantled and coating examined for attack periodically Accurately replicates CUI environment, but more aggressive due to frequency and amount of water added

Corrosion Under Insulation Simulated Testing

Corrosion Under Insulation Simulated Testing

Corrosion Under Insulation Performance Testing

Partially rusty test sleeve manually abraded using P36 abrasive paper is placed over heater Test coating is applied onto the hot sleeve End flange is bolted on and sealed Mineral fiber insulation taped into place Outer cladding/water funnel attached/sealed

Corrosion Under Insulation Performance Testing

Two litres of water added each week 1 litre of water and 1 litre of 5% salt water solution Results ( Heat Activated Coating System ) No attack or corrosion at 70C to 90C o Negligible attack/corrosion at 100C to 150 C Very slight surface erosion in full immersion area

Corrosion Under Insulation Performance Testing


Steel test panels prepared by abrading manually (no profile) HA Coating applied onto hot panels and oven cured Panels exposed for 1000 hours at 35C (95F) in saturated salt fog atmosphere

Results No field blistering or corrosion Minimal corrosion creep under the scribe mark

Corrosion Under Insulation Performance Testing


Substrates: Unprepared Steel Unprepared, uncorroded steel direct from the manufacturers Ground millscale Surface covered in firmly attached Steel

Unprepared steel ground using belt sander (with P36 abrasive) Rusty Steel Clean metal surface exposed, but negligible profile Wire-Brushed Rusty Steel Abraded Rusty Steel Started with rusty steel panel (ISO 8501-1 grade C) TSteel weathered externally for 3 months Rusted to ISO 8501-1 grade C, i.e. significant rusting with some Started with rusty steel panel (ISO 8501-1 grade C) pitting abraded with wire brush, then further abraded by hand with P36 abrasive Initially paper surface rust brushed away, but no other preparation Loose to ISO 8501-1 St 3 Surface a combination of firmly attached rust with some clean steel showing through horoughly abraded with wire brush to ISO 8501-1 St 2 Pitted surface covered in firmly attached rust

Corrosion Under Insulation Performance Testing

Adhesion
Manually Abraded Wire Brushed Rusty Ground Unprepared

Two Pack HA / Single Pack HA


2600 psi 2410 psi 1720 psi 1240 psi 1380 psi 830 psi 3490 psi 2320 psi 2940 psi 2280 psi 2800 psi 3200 psi

Blasted SA2.5

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Shell UK Date : Year 2000 Equipment : Process pipe work handling waste gas at a temperature of 130C

Problem : Loss of wall thickness and unable to shut down the process
Solution: Manual preparation followed by repair and protective coating with single component heat activated system

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Total Fina Elf , UK Date : Year 2004 Equipment : Process vessel in refinery operating at 90 120C

Problem : Corrosion and loss of wall thickness

Solution: Manual preparation followed protective coating with single component heat activated system

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Exxon , Singapore Date : Year 2001 Equipment : Fractionator Tower T102 operating at 120C

Problem : Loss of wall thickness and unable to shut down the process
Solution: Manual preparation followed by repair and protective coating with single component heat activated system

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Shell , New Zealand Date : Year 2003 Equipment : De-asphalting Column operating at 120 C

Problem : Severe corrosion and unable to shut down the process


Solution: Water Jetting preparation followed by protective coating with single component heat activated system

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Chevron Power , Philippines Date : Year 2002 Equipment : Steam Extraction pipe from Geothermal well operating at 165C

Problem : Loss of wall thickness and unable to shut down the process
Solution: Manual preparation followed by repair by sleeve bonding and protective coating with single component heat activated system

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Kerr McGee , China Date : Year 2007 Equipment : Process line on FPSO operating at 95C

Problem : Pitting Corrosion and unable to shut down the process


Solution: Manual preparation followed by repair and protective coating with single component heat activated system

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : ConocoPhillips , UK Date : Year 2008 Equipment : Distillation Columns operating at 100 - 135 C

Problem : Pitting corrosion and unable to shut down the process


Solution: Water Jetting preparation followed by protective coating with single component heat activated system

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Offshore Gas Company , UK Date : Year 2005 Equipment : Gas Process pipe work operating at 90 115C

Problem : Pitting corrosion and unable to shut down the process


Solution: Water Jetting preparation followed by repairs to pitting and protective coating with and single component heat activated system

Corrosion Under Insulation Client Testimonials


Emlyn Roberts Works Engineer Total Refinery , UK

Bertrand Van Der Hayden Fixed Equipment Reliability Inspector Caltex South Africa

Bob van den Beuken Maintenance Team Leader Mechanical Vector Kapuni , New Zealand

The absorber column at the Vector Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant in Taranaki required painting. It was not possible to take the column out of service long enough to complete the painting programme using normal painting specs. The column runs at approximately 100 degree C so the search began for a product that could be applied at this temperature while the plant remained online. Belzona 5851 was the pick of the products as it had already proven itself at Marsden Point. Belzona 5851 has now been in service for about 2 years and as the pictures show remains in good condition. We have since applied the same product to our Regeneration tower which also runs at similar temperature with no problems encountered.

- CUI Systems proven in Service over a period of 10 years -

Corrosion Under Insulation Complete Protection

Surface application temperatures

Up to 35C

Two Pack Epoxy System

70 to 180C

30C - 80C

Two Pack Heat Activated System


30 to 80C

70C - 150C Single Pack Heat Activated System

Effective On-Line Solutions

Up to 35C

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions

Compliant Solutions

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions


ASME PCC-2-2008

ISO / TS 24817

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions ASME and ISO Standards


Ensures that composite repairs are no longer an art but is now a science Allow repairs to be designed for individual situations using tested calculations Ensures a quality product and service via Manufacturers auditing and Application Validation.

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions

ASME PCC-2 and ISO/TS 24817 allow for the repair of the following: Thinned wall defects Through wall defects Straight Pipe Complex Geometries, inc. bends, tees, reducers etc. Tanks and Vessels

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions

ASME PCC-2 only allows for the repair of tanks and vessels through the application of a full circumferential repair ISO 24817 allows for the same tank or vessel to be repaired by a patch repair Further developments to ASME PCC-2 will include specific sections dealing with tanks, vessels and patch repair

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions

Repair Life

Repairs are design to design lives of up to 20 years using standard safety factors

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions

Following the initial compliance testing further development and improvements of the Composite System are on-going :

Specifically designed resin systems Specially treated high density glass reinforcement and Carbon Fibre Alternatives Liquid reinforcement conditioner

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions


Composite Repairs are Classified within the Standard Repairs can only be carried out by Manufacturers Trained and Validated Personnel : Class 1 : Manufacturers Trained Validated Applicator Class 2 : Manufacturers Trained Validated Applicator and Supervisor Class 3 : Manufacturers Trained Validated Supervisor

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions

Application Requirements Installers and Supervisors Trained by repair system manufacturer

Hold points observed


Work procedure carried out as required by repair system manufacturer and documented as required by the standard Repair completed as per design

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions

Types of Defects

The standards detail the types of repairs that can be carried out using compliant composite systems

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions

Design Requirements Each Composite Repair is designed to fit the requirements of the situation By validated authorised Composite Repair Designers Designers must complete the Manufacturers Design Course

Corrosion Under Insulation Product Solutions Inspection


Visual Inspection and external measurement or through repair inspection using x-ray or gamma ray to identify :
Leaking Degradation Defect s and defect sizes

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Power Company , USA Date : Year 2009 Equipment : Storage Tank

Problem : Hole in Tank wall due to corrosion pitting


Solution: Preparation by grit blasting followed by compliant composite repair

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Esso , UK Date : Year 2008 Equipment : Process line in refinery

Problem : Pitting Corrosion and Wall thinning


Solution: Grit blast preparation followed by installation of compliant repair

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : EGAT , Thailand Date : Year 2007 Equipment : Demineralised Water Lines In water treatment plant

Problem : Weld deterioration on stainless steel pipe weld areas


Solution: Preparation by Grit Blasting and compliant Composite repair installed.

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Statoil , Norway Date : Year 2009 Equipment : Production pipe work on Offshore Platform

Problem : Corrosion Under Insulation Pitting and loss of wall thickness


Solution: Preparation by Grit Blasting and compliant Composite repair installed.

Corrosion Under Insulation Application Histories


Client : Exxon , Norway Date : Year 2009 Equipment : Produced water process piping

Problem : CUI resulting in perforations of piping system


Solution: Preparation by Grit Blasting and compliant Composite repair installed.

Corrosion Under Insulation Summary


Corrosion Under Insulation is a Common Problem in the Hydrocarbon Processing Industry Due to limited shutdown opportunities more on-line maintenance is required Solutions that involve no or limited Hot-Work are available are now available Engineering authorities now accept composite repair technology Applications must be controlled through training and validation to ensure success and compliance with International Standards

Thank you for your Attention

QUESTIONS ?
Mr Ron Campbell Senior Vice President Belzona Asia Pacific