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Guidelines for Shop Inspection Support Documents

Heaters

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Heat Exchangers and Heaters


Heat exchangers transfer heat energy from one fluid (or gas) to another fluid (or gas) without mixing the two. Automotive radiators are a common example. Heat from the hot engine water is pumped through the radiator, while air is blown through the radiator tins. The hot engine water's heat energy is transferred to the air, thus keeping the water at the right temperature, to keep the engine from overheating. Essentially automotive radiators are liquidto-air heat exchangers. Other types of heat exchangers are common in everyday equipment such as boilers, furnaces, refrigerators and air conditioning systems. In fact, every air conditioning system and refrigeration system has at least two heat exchangers one for the cooling side, and one to expel the heat. There are three main types of heat exchangers, defined by their construction or body types: shell and tube, plate, and air-cooled. Shell and tube (or tubular) heat exchangers are used in applications where high temperature and pressure demands are significant. Tubular heat exchangers are also employed when fluid contains particles that would block the channels of a plate . There are several types of shell

and tube heat exchangers including U-tube, straight, spiral, and finned tube. The U-tube design consists of straight length tubes bent into a U-shape. The bundle is fitted with tube supports or flow baffles, depending upon the fluid outside the tubes. The tube assembly is placed in a shell to contain the fluid on the outside of the tube bundle. A head assembly is bolted to the shell to direct the fluid into the tube bundle. To handle heavy fouling fluids or applications where temperature cross conditions exist, straight-tube designs are available (a temperature cross occurs when the fluid being heated has an outlet temperature that falls between the inlet and outlet temperature of the heating medium). Because of the straight tubes, the head assemblies can be removed and the tubes can be mechanically cleaned. Depending upon the tube sheet configuration (fixed or floating) the ability to handle large temperature differences between the fluids may be limited. The body of the spiral is made from two metal strips that are wound around a center to form

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2 spiral channels. are often used on low-viscous applications with moderate demands on operating temperatures and pressures, typically below 150C. Gasket material is chosen to withstand the operating temperature at hand and the properties of the processing fluid. There are several types of plate heat exchangers including gasketed, brazed, welded and semi-weld or hybrid types. The most common of the plate-type heat exchangers is the gasketed plate-and-frame . Gasketed plate-and-frame heat exchangers consist of a series of channeled plates that are mounted on a frame and clamped together. Each plate is made from "pressable" materials (stainless steel, nickel, titanium, etc.) and is formed with a series of corrugations. Also included with each plate is an elastomer gasket. The gaskets contain the pressure and control the flow of each medium. The gasketed plates are assembled in a pack, mounted on upper and lower guide rails, and compressed between two end frames by compression bolts. The gasket arrangement of each plate distributes the hot and cold media into alternating flow channels throughout the plate pack. In all cases, hot and cold fluids flow counter to each other. Brazed plate heat exchangers consist of specially formed plates, vacuum brazed together to form a heat transfer device. Welded plate heat exchangers require no gaskets; they are fully welded and typically constructed of a single material (usually stainless steel). Semi-weld or hybrid plate exchangers consist of pairs of plates that are laser welded together into cassettes. This allows one fluid to flow in a welded channel and the other to flow in a gasketed channel. Air-cooled heat exchangers have an integral electric motor or fluid powered fan for cooling / heat removal of media. Some air-cooled models do not include the fan, but have cutouts for aftermarket fans. Aftercoolers are heat exchangers for cooling the discharge of a compressor. They are defined as any open water recirculation device that uses fans or natural draft to draw or force air to contact and cool water by evaporation. When one thinks of cooling towers, the hyperbolic towers associated with nuclear power plants probably come to mind. While these cooling towers are an extreme case in terms of size, they are exactly the types of apparatus being described. These and other smaller towers are used widely in industrial applications. They may use a number of different techniques to draw (draft) air into the system as a coolant. The three most common draft types are forced draft, induced draft, and natural draft. Forced draft cooling towers have a fan, or collection of fans, located at the bottom of the tower. The fans are used to push air up through stack. By contrast, induced draft cooling towers have the fans in the top of the stack to pull air upwards. Natural draft cooling towers use natural convective airflow moving

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up the stack to cool the water. These systems are very large, very expensive and used mostly by power utility companies. In addition to their drafting method, cooling towers are differentiated by their functional designs, which describe how water and air are mixed to cool down the system. The four main types of designs are cross flow, counter flow, closed loop, and open loop systems. Cross flow design mixes air and water at a 90-degree angle. The advantages of this design include low pressure drop and low power consumption. Counter flow design mixes air and water in a vertical flow method where the water is falling and the air is rising. The advantage of this design is a smaller footprint. A closed loop system works similarly to a refrigeration system. The cooling water is contained inside a closed piping system and evaporative cooling occurs by running water over the pipe containing the heated water. An open loop system pumps the heated water into a tank at the top of the tower. The water cascades down through a series of louvers or plates in the system while cooling air is moving upwards. The evaporative effect removes heat from the water that is then recirculated back into the process. Vaporizers are heat exchangers that convert liquefied gases to a warm gaseous product. The heat source can be ambient air, steam or water. Industrial Heaters, All Types are devices used to heat a variety of materials. Heaters are available in many unique sizes, shapes, and heating configurations. Band heaters are ring-shaped heating devices that clamp around a cylindrical element. Heat transfer from band heaters occurs via the conductive method. Most band heaters will clamp around the outer diameter of a cylindrical element and heat the element from the outside, but some may clamp around the inner diameter of a pipe. Cable and coil heaters are heating elements formed from straight (uncoiled) segments of round, square, or rectangular heating cable. Straight cable may be formed into simple coils, spiral, sinuated, star wound, or other patterns. Cartridge heaters are generally used in immersion applications. However, due to the compact cylindrical shape of cartridge heaters, they can also be used in a variety of other applications. Ceramic fiber heaters consist of a integrated with a thick layer of ceramic fiber insulation. This type of industrial is available in cylindrical and flat configurations. Circulation heaters are used primarily to heat moving, flowing, or circulating fluid streams. Fluid flows through the , which transfers heat to the stream. Drum heaters are used to heat drums of various sizes, or the materials within. Drum heaters can heat many different substances, such as honey, wax, grease or other viscous solutions. Duct heaters are used to heat moving gas streams. The is installed in the middle of a moving air / gas stream, and heats the air as it moves through the . A duct can also be used to radiantly heat an object at the end of a moving gas stream. Flexible heaters are devices that may be formed to fit a variety of items. Flexible heaters are

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constructed from nonrigid materials such as rubber or neoprene. Most flexible heaters can be bent around small radii, and can be bent more than once without damaging the internal heating elements. Immersion heaters are used in applications where it is necessary to immerse a in the substance being heated. Flange and screw plug immersion heaters are equipped with pipe threads, flanges or similarly convenient mounting mechanisms. Over-the-side heaters are immersion heaters that hang over the side of a tank of heated material. Over-the-side heaters are available in a variety of configuration options, which are designed to work optimally with fluids of specific viscosity. Radiant flat panel heaters are used to heat objects via radiant heat transfer, usually infrared. Radiant elements are replacement elements used with radiant flat panel heaters and radiant reflective heaters. Replacement elements are of the same types and configurations used in full heating systems. Radiant reflective process heaters use a reflective shield to direct radiant heat onto a heated surface. Many radiant reflective process heaters are so precise that heat can be directed to pinpoint locations. Radiant reflective process heaters are used in food service, as well as in a variety of other applications. Strip heaters are clamped onto objects and used to heat a variety of different materials. Strip heaters can also be used as radiant heaters. Many strip heaters (when used as radiant heaters) come with finned strips to maximize surface area and heat transfer to the air Burners are heating devices that use air supplied specifically for the combustion of a fuel gas. Cartridge Heaters are generally used in immersion applications. However, due to the compact cylindrical shape of cartridge heaters, they can also be used in a variety of other applications. Important parameters to consider when specifying cartridge heaters are maximum operating or sheath temperature, AC voltage required, watts and watt density. Maximum operating temperature is the maximum temperature that the sheath covering the heater may reach. The maximum sheath temperature does not represent the maximum temperature that a heated substance may reach. AC Voltage required represents the minimum AC Voltage required to operate the heater. Watts represents the maximum wattage available from the heater. Watt density is the amount of wattage, per square inch, the heater is capable of delivering. Watt density is calculated by dividing the available wattage by the heated area. Watt density is a good measure of the heater's ability to quickly heat a substance. High watt density heaters should not be used with extremely viscous materials, materials that are not well-circulated, or explosive/volatile materials due to risk of fire. Important dimensions for cartridge heaters are the nominal diameter and cartridge length or heated length.

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Cast-In Heaters Cast-in heaters are made-to-order tubular or wire heaters cast into a part, designed to be an integral component of other equipment. Ceramic Fiber Heaters, Flat heaters consist of a heating element integrated with a thick layer of ceramic insulation. Flat (non-curved) heaters are manufactured in a variety of shapes and sizes. The most common geometric shapes are square and rectangular, but other shapes can be custom-configured depending upon the application. heaters offer faster heat up, greater temperature uniformity, faster recovery rates, and faster cool down time then most other heater types. Flat heaters may have several configuration options. Some heaters may have multiple options. These configurations include fully heated (the entire area of the heater is considered "heated area), unheated ends or sides (the side or end edges of the heater are unheated), or all edges are insulated (all edges of the heater are unheated). When determining which of the available flat heaters are best for a given application, there are four main specifications to consider. These include the maximum sheath operating temperature, the AC voltage required to power the device, the output wattage of the heater, and the watt density. The maximum sheath operating temperature represents the maximum temperature the sheath covering the heater may reach. It does not represent the maximum temperature that a heated substance may reach. Watt density represents the amount of wattage, per square inch, the heater is capable of delivering. Watt density is calculated by dividing the available wattage by the heated area. Watt density is a good measure of the heater's ability to quickly heat a substance. High watt density heaters should not be used with extremely viscous materials, materials that are not well-circulated, or explosive/volatile materials due to risk of fire. Flat heaters are available with a number of heating coil options. Heating coils may either be embedded directly within the insulation material of the heater, or they may be only partially embedded, or exposed. Embedded coils offer a number of advantages including protection from process media splatter, which can lead to smoking, sparking, or a lowered service life span. However, these devices generally cannot reach the high temperature rates of partially exposed coil styles. Ceramic Fiber Heaters, Cylindrical consist of a heating element integrated with a thick layer of ceramic fiber insulation. A cylindrical shaped heater may consist of a full ring, half ring, or other fraction of a ring. Cylindrical shapes are useful in a variety of applications, such as pipes, or other objects with curved geometry. Circulation Heaters are used primarily to heat moving, flowing, or circulating fluid streams. Fluid flows through the heater, which transfers heat to the stream. Any liquid or gas is generally acceptable for use with a . Important parameters to consider when specifying cartridge heaters are maximum operating or sheath temperature, AC voltage required, AC voltage phase, watts and watt density. Maximum operating temperature is the maximum temperature that the sheath covering the heater may reach. The maximum sheath temperature does not represent the maximum

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temperature that a heated substance may reach. AC Voltage required represents the minimum AC Voltage required to operate the heater. AC voltage phase can be either single phase or three phase. Watts represents the maximum wattage available from the heater. Watt density is the amount of wattage, per square inch, the heater is capable of delivering. Watt density is calculated by dividing the available wattage by the heated area. Watt density is a good measure of the heater's ability to quickly heat a substance. High watt density heaters should not be used with extremely viscous materials, materials that are not well-circulated, or explosive/volatile materials due to risk of fire. Important dimensions for circulation heaters include heater height, inlet and outlet separation, diameter and nominal pipe diameter, both inlet and outlet. A will generally have identical inlet and outlet diameters. may have one of several types of connections. These include flanges and NPT pipe threads. A heater may be available with multiple connection types. A sheath, sleeve or jacket is the protective covering for the heater. Some heaters may be available with multiple options for sheath material. The sheath material for circulation heaters can be one of many types including, iron, stainless steel, and steel. A may be mounted or installed into a stream using multiple methods. Mounting types include ANSI flange and screw (NPT) plug. Features common to circulation heaters include adjustable thermostats, sanitary application approval, cooling option, corrosion resistant, cryogenic use, custom heater design, explosion proof housing, integrated thermostat, and UL approved. Coil Heaters and Cable Heaters and coil heaters are heating elements formed from straight (uncoiled) segments of round, square, or rectangular heating cable. Straight cable may be formed into simple coils, spiral, sinuated, star wound, or other patterns. Forming straight cables into patterns increases the surface area and heat transfer capability of straight cable heaters, but uses more energy due to increased surface area and watt density. Drum Heaters Drum heaters are used to heat containers of viscous materials. They can be wrapped around the container, inserted into it, or both may be placed inside a cabinet or tunnel and heated to the required temperature. are used to heat drums of various sizes, or the materials within. can be used to heat many different substances, such as honey, wax, grease and other viscous solutions. They are used on drums or process materials in a number of ways. Some of the most common methods include cabinet heating, insertion, tunnel heating, and wrap around devices. Cabinet heaters can heat either drums or containers depending on capacity. The drums or containers are loaded into the cabinet by forklift and after processing removed the same way. Insertion heaters are designed to fit through standard drum bung. Tunnel drum heaters convey drums or containers into the oven. They are processed and conveyed out the other end when warmed to the proper temperature. Wrap around heaters are sized to wrap around standard industrial drums sizes. Drum sizes are listed according to capacity, so sizes are also based on capacity. These include 5 gallon, 15 gallon, 30 gallon, 55 gallon, and heaters for intermediate bulk containers (IBC) and tanks. Typically these have a capacity of

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350 or more gallons. They use a variety of methods to heat up the process material. Foremost among these are heated fluids, steam and electrical voltage. A variety of electrical voltage types are available including DC voltage, and common North American commercial voltages, such as 115 / 120 volts 60 HZ, 220 / 240 volts 60 Hz, 460 / 480 volts 60 Hz, and 575 / 600 volts 60 Hz. A number of features are available that characterize drum heaters for specific applications. These include a cooling option (the device cools instead of heating the process media or drum. Many such devices are available with both heating and cooling options), corrosion resistance (for working with corrosive or chemical materials, or within corrosive environments), cryogenic rated, overheat protection (the heater contains an automatic shut-off or other mechanism to prevent overheating of the material), integral thermostat (for reaching or maintaining the appropriate temperature to process the media), and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) approval. Duct Heaters are used to heat moving gas streams. The heater is installed in the middle of a moving air / gas stream, and heats the air as it moves through the heater. A can also be used to radiantly heat an object at the end of a moving gas stream. The heater transfers heat to the gas, which transfers heat to the object at the end of the stream. This method of indirect heat transfer is useful for heating objects in locations where a traditional heater would not fit. Important parameters to consider when specifying duct heaters are maximum operating or sheath temperature, AC voltage phase, AC voltage required, watts and watt density. Maximum operating temperature is the maximum temperature that the sheath covering the heater may reach. The maximum sheath temperature does not represent the maximum temperature that a heated substance may reach. AC voltage phase can be either single phase or three phase. AC Voltage required represents the minimum AC Voltage required to operate the heater. Watts represents the maximum wattage available from the heater. Watt density is the amount of wattage, per square inch, the heater is capable of delivering. Watt density is calculated by dividing the available wattage by the heated area. Watt density is a good measure of the heater's ability to quickly heat a substance. High watt density heaters should not be used with extremely viscous materials, materials that are not well-circulated, or explosive/volatile materials due to risk of fire. Important dimensions for duct heaters include duct depth required for heater installation, heater height, and heater width. For duct heaters it is necessary to specify the number of heating elements the device contains. Sheath, jacket or sleeve material refers to the protective outer covering for the heating element(s). Many heaters will have multiple options available for sheath material. The sheath material of duct heaters can be one of many types including aluminum, iron, stainless steel, and steel. Heater insulation helps prevent heat loss to the environment. Many heaters will have multiple insulation options. Insulation options for duct heaters include no insulation, ceramic insulation, mica insulation, mineral insulation, and fiberglass insulation. An uninsulated band has a lower profile and is useful in areas where space is at a premium. An uninsulated band, however, is not particularly energy efficient. A band heater equipped with a layer of ceramic insulation resist heat and chemicals. Ceramics made of nonmetallic minerals, such as clay, that have been permanently hardened by firing at a high temperature. Mica is known for its high resistance to heat and acids, and electrical insulating properties.

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Features common to duct heaters include cooling option, finned heating elements, integrated thermostat, adjustable thermostat, thermocouple well, explosion proof housing, cryogenic use, UL approval, custom heater design, and corrosion resistant Flexible Heaters Flexible heaters are devices that can be molded to the shape of a heated object. are devices that may be formed to fit a variety of items. are constructed from nonrigid materials such as rubber or neoprene. Most flexible heaters can be bent around a small radii, and can be bent more than once without damaging the internal heating elements. Important parameters to consider when specifying flexible heaters are maximum operating or sheath temperature, voltage required, and watts. Maximum operating temperature is the maximum temperature that the sheath covering the heater may reach. The maximum sheath temperature does not represent the maximum temperature that a heated substance may reach. Voltage required represents the minimum voltage required to operate the heater. Watts represents the maximum wattage available from the heater. Important dimensions to consider for band heaters are the inside diameter of the band, the width of the band and the thickness of the band. are typically rectangular or square shape; however other shapes may be available by custom order. Important dimensions for specifying flexible heaters are length and width. The heater style of flexible heaters represents the method in which the heating element is configured. Some heaters may be available with multiple options. Wire wound flexible heaters are less common than etched foil or other low-profile elements. An etched foil element is a heating element that is actually etched into the surface of the heater. Etched foil is low-profile and durable. A sheath is a protective outer covering for the heating elements. Some heaters will have multiple material options available. are available with a variety of optional materials. All sheath materials will be flexible materials such as silicone rubber, Kapton, neoprene, or HT foil (ceramic foil). are available with different options for making electrical connections. Some heaters are available with multiple connection options. Options include insulated leads, armor cable leads, metal braided leads, flexible conduit leads and quick connect or plugs. Features commonly found on flexible heaters include cooling options, cryogenic use, corrosion resistant, distributed wattage and built-in thermocouple. Fluid Heat Transfer Systems Thermal fluid systems circulate a through process equipment to maintain an even, consistent temperature profile. Immersion Heaters, Flange and Screw Plug Immersion heaters, flange and screw plug are used in applications where it is necessary to immerse a heater in the substance being heated. Flange and screw plug immersion heaters are equipped with pipe threads, flanges or similarly convenient mounting mechanisms. Caution must be taken, however, in evaluating desired heat transfer rate to the heated substance. High-watt density immersion heaters must not be used with extremely viscous substances, explosives, or substances that are not well circulated as the risk of fire or scorching increases as fluid viscosity and heater-watt density increase.

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Important parameters to consider when specifying flange immersion heaters and screw plug immersion heaters are maximum operating or sheath temperature, AC voltage required, AC voltage phase, watts and watt density. Maximum operating temperature is the maximum temperature that the sheath covering the heater may reach. The maximum sheath temperature does not represent the maximum temperature that a heated substance may reach. AC Voltage required represents the minimum AC Voltage required to operate the heater. AC voltage phase can be either single phase or three phase. Watts represents the maximum wattage available from the heater. Watt density is the amount of wattage, per square inch, the heater is capable of delivering. Watt density is calculated by dividing the available wattage by the heated area. Watt density is a good measure of the heater's ability to quickly heat a substance. High watt density heaters should not be used with extremely viscous materials, materials that are not well-circulated, or explosive/volatile materials due to risk of fire. Options available for installing immersion heaters include flange mount and screw plug. A flange is equipped with a flange that is typically installed by bolting the unit to a matching flange welded to a vessel wall. A screw plug is equipped with a pipe fitting that screws into a threaded well. Can be horizontally or vertically mounted. Important dimensions in specifying immersion heaters, flange and screw plug are flange or thread diameter and immersion length. Immersion length is the heat-delivering length that is actually submerged in the heated substance. For immersion heaters it is necessary to specify the number of heating elements desired. Sleeve material is the protective covering around the heating element. Sleeve material options for immersion heaters include aluminum, brass, copper, iron, nickel alloy, stainless steel, and steel. have a variety of substances they are designed to work with. Selecting the proper heater type and watt density is extremely important when working with immersion heaters. Typical applications for immersion heaters, flange and screw plug include clean water heating, process waters, lightweight oils and degreasing solutions, medium weight oils, heavy weight oils, mild corrosive solutions, sever corrosive solutions, caustic solutions, forced air and gases, and liquid paraffin. Features common to flange immersion heaters and screw plug immersion heaters include adjustable thermostat, internal temperature detector, thermowell, cryogenic use, UL approval, square flange, explosion proof housing, weatherproof housing, corrosion resistant and custom heater design. Induction Heaters Induction heaters use a coil to deliver an alternating current to a metal object. The alternating current heats the metal, sometimes to the melting point. use a coil to deliver an alternating current to a metal object. The alternating current heats the metal, sometimes to the melting point. is often used for pipe welding, surface hardening, and smelting. The frequency of the alternating current applied depends on the desired depth of heat penetration. Infrared Heaters Infrared heaters use a reflective shield to direct radiant heat onto a heated

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surface. Common types of infrared heaters include metal-sheathed tubular heaters, quartz tubes, quartz lamps, gas fired catalytic, flat-faced panels and ceramic emitters. Infrared flat panel heaters are used to heat objects via radiant heat transfer. elements are replacement heater elements used with radiant flat panel heaters and radiant reflective heaters. Replacement elements are of the same types and configurations used in full heating systems. Infrared reflective process heaters use a reflective shield to direct radiant heat onto a heated surface. Many infrared reflective process heaters are so precise that heat can be directed to pinpoint locations. Infrared reflective process heaters are used in food service, as well as in a variety of other applications. Important parameters to consider when specifying infrared heaters are maximum sheath temperature, maximum AC voltage, watts, and maximum watt density. Maximum operating temperature is the maximum temperature that the sheath covering the heater may reach. The maximum sheath temperature does not represent the maximum temperature that a heated substance may reach. Maximum AC voltage represents the maximum AC voltage the heater can use. Watts represents the available wattage available from the heater. Maximum watt density is the amount of wattage, per square inch, the heater is capable of delivering. Watt density is calculated by dividing the available wattage by the heated area. Watt density is a good measure of the heater's ability to quickly heat a substance. High watt density heaters should not be used with extremely viscous materials, materials that are not well-circulated, or explosive/volatile materials due to risk of fire. Most heater types will have a protective sheath that covers the heating elements. Many heaters will be available with many choices of sheath material. Sheath material for infrared heaters includes aluminum, brass, copper, iron, nickel alloy, stainless steel, and steel. Features commonly found on infrared heaters include cooling options, corrosion resistance, cryogenic use, explosion proof housing, internal temperature detectors, UL approval and weatherproof housing. Corrosion resistant infrared heaters are suitable for use in a corrosive or chemical environment. with explosion proof housings have housing designed to withstand explosions, protecting the materials within. This classification may also include housings, which can withstand sparking and flames. Over-the-Side Heaters are immersion heaters that hang over the side of a tank to heat the tank itself, or the materials within. are used in situations where heaters cannot be installed, portability is required, or where heaters must be removed for cleaning without emptying the tank. In addition to heating materials in a tank, they may be used prevent freezing or to heat viscous materials to induce and improve flow. consist of a heating element surrounded by a protective sheath or sleeve. The sleeve material is of the utmost importance, as this is the portion of the heater that comes in contact with the process media. Care must be taken to ensure that the sleeve material does not react, corrode, rust, or breakdown in the presence of the media. Some styles of over-the-side heaters are designed with changeable sheathes so that they can be used with different media types. are available in a variety of configuration options, which are designed to work optimally with fluids of specific viscosities. While some types may be used with a variety of materials, generally, a high watt density heater should not be used with extremely viscous solutions, as the risk of fire is elevated. Some of the more common uses for over-the-side heaters include:

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Clean water heaters for use with pure water only, no process or wastewater. Heaters for process water, which are used with soapy or detergent solutions, demineralized or deionized water. Fuel and oil heaters which work with all grades of petroleum products from lightweight oils and degreasing solutions, to medium and heavy, high viscosity oils. Heaters for corrosive and caustic solutions are also available, and in many cases are separated based on mild corrosive service (for use in corrosive solutions of less than 25% concentration) and severe corrosive service (for use in corrosive solutions of 50% or higher concentration). These over-the-side heaters are generally sheathed in stainless steel, polymers, or highstrength alloys to resist the corrosive effects of the media. are designed in different shapes. Different shapes may be useful for specific applications. The most common shapes include L, O, vertical loop, and tube. L-configuration heaters, as the name implies are shaped like the letter L. O-heaters are circular or donut shaped. Vertical loop over-the-side heaters have a vertical configuration, while tubular heaters consist of a single tubular element. Radiant Heaters Radiant heaters use a reflective shield to direct radiant heat onto a heated surface. use a reflective shield to direct radiant heat onto a heated surface. Many radiant heaters are so precise that heat can be directed to pinpoint locations. are used in food service, as well as in a variety of other applications. Radiant flat panel heaters are used to heat objects via radiant heat transfer, usually infrared. Radiant flat panel heaters can be used in a variety of applications including space heating, drying and curing, water evaporation, food processing, sterilizing, material preparation, bonding and joining, and industrial manufacturing and production. Because of their rugged construction, infrared heaters are resistant to shock and vibration, and no reflectors are required, minimizing maintenance requirements. Important parameters to consider when specifying radiant heaters are maximum operating (sheath) temperature, AC voltage, kWatts, and maximum watt density. Maximum operating temperature is the maximum temperature that the sheath covering the heater may reach. The maximum sheath temperature does not represent the maximum temperature that a heated substance may reach. AC voltage represents the amount of AC voltage necessary to operate the heater. Watts represents the available wattage available from the heater. Maximum watt density is the amount of wattage, per square inch, the heater is capable of delivering. Watt density is calculated by dividing the available wattage by the heated area. Watt density is a good measure of the heater's ability to quickly heat a substance. High watt density heaters should not be used with extremely viscous materials, materials that are not well-circulated, or explosive/volatile materials due to risk of fire. Many choices are available for heating element configuration. Some heaters are available with multiple options available. Available types include straight, hairpin or U shape, sheathed tubular element, and quartz element. The most important dimension of the is the heated length, which is also sometimes referred to as the effective length.

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Heaters are generally available with a protective covering, or sheath. Many heaters are available with multiple sheath material options. Sheath options for radiant heaters include aluminum, brass, copper, iron, nickel alloy, stainless steel, and steel. Heaters can be installed several different ways. Many heaters will be available with multiple installation/mounting options. Mounting options for radiant heaters include sliding clamp or bracket, threat mounting bolts, or no mounting hardware. Features common to radiant heaters include cooling options, internal temperature detector, liquid tight housing, cryogenic use, UL approval, explosion proof housing, weatherproof housing and corrosion resistance. Radiant Heater Elements are replacement heater elements used with radiant flat panel heaters and radiant reflective heaters. Replacement elements are of the same types and configurations used in full heating systems. Radiant Flat Panel Heaters are used to heat objects via radiant heat transfer, usually infrared. can be used in a variety of applications including space heating, drying & curing, water evaporation, food processing, sterilizing, material preparation, bonding and joining, and industrial manufacturing and production. Because of their rugged construction, infrared heaters are resistant to shock and vibration, and no reflectors are required, minimizing maintenance requirements. There are four main styles of radiant flat panel heaters, as characterized by their emitting surface. They are as follows: quartz cloth surface, glass surface (or Black Glass), stainless steel surface and ceramic infrared. Quartz cloth emitters function via a precision wound resistance wire embedded in a ceramic fiber body. They are efficient high temperature heaters, very cost effective and durable in the harshest industrial environment. As a result, quartz cloth heaters are the most widely used type. Glass surface emitters are very high temperature emitters. The most common type of glass surface emitter is made of Black Glass, although clear glass is also available. Surface emitters generate intense heat by placing a ceramic cloth between the glass and the resistance wire. Stainless steel surface radiant flat panel heaters are used widely in applications where easy clean-up, or sanitary conditions are required. While metal surface emitters are generally more durable than glass styles, they cannot generally reach the same high range of temperatures, as the steel tends to absorb more of the radiated heat than glass does. Ceramic infrared panel heaters are constructed using interlocking pieces of material in order to enable movement of the heater's face as the heater expands and contracts. As designed, they provide a compromise between the high temperature of glass emitters and cleanliness and durability of steel radiant flat panel heaters. Process equipment covers a wide range of items and devices designed to handle, induce, or drive mechanical systems. In almost all cases, these components were manufactured to be part of a greater system, and do not have the ability to function on their own. The mechanical components family includes the following products: bearings and bushings, belts and pulleys, chains and sprockets, clutches and brakes, couplings, collars and universal joints, enclosures, fans and electronic cooling, gears, industrial heaters and heating elements, industrial tools, limit switches, mechanical fasteners, power transmission (mechanical), process equipment, pulleys and belts, seals, solenoids, springs, and switches.

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Industrial heaters are devices used to heat either materials, or maintain or raise ambient temperature. Heaters come in two distinct styles, mobile or attachable devices, and hardwired, or panel type ducts. Mobile or attachable heaters include: band, cable, ceramic fiber (cylindrical and flat), coil, cylindrical, drum, flexible, immersion (screw and flange), over-theside, radiant flat panel heaters, strip and tubular heaters. Hardwired heaters include duct heaters and radiant flat panel heaters. Space Heaters/Air Heaters Space heaters are ambient devices used to heat the room or region where they are placed. They are not connected to distribution systems. Steam Injection Heaters Steam injection heaters inject steam into a system to maintain or raise temperature levels. Strip Heaters are clamped onto objects and used to heat a variety of different materials. can also be used as radiant heaters. Many strip heaters (when used as radiant heaters) come with finned strips to maximize surface area and heat transfer to the air. Tubular Heaters are resistance heaters that are used to heat liquids, air and solids. They can be used in a wide range of applications, although they are generally used to create custom heating solutions. The functional usage of tubular heaters is limited only by the space available, the maximum sheath temperature and watt density of the given unit. All tubular heaters are made up of a sheath surrounding a resistive heating element. The base (tubular) heating elements are available in stock designs, although many can be bent into custom shapes, depending on the application. Some heating elements can even be custom-formed in the field. Elements are available in two shapes, prior to bending; round and flat (or triangular). Sheathes, or sleeves, are available in a wide range of materials as each provides specific flexibility, temperature range, or resistance to the materials they are designed to heat, or the environment in which they will operate. Common sleeve material types include aluminum, brass, copper, iron, stainless steel, and many metal alloys. Other important aspects of tubular heaters to consider, based on the manner in which the device will be used, include its end type and the available termination options. Heaters with a terminal at both ends of the tube are highly adaptable, as they can be bent to greater degrees while remaining in contact with their power source. Single ended models allow for only one contact point. Process mechanical components covers a wide range of items and devices designed to handle, induce, or drive mechanical systems. In almost all cases, these components were manufactured to be part of a greater system, and do not have the ability to function on their own. The mechanical components family includes the following products: bearings and bushings, belts and pulleys, chains and sprockets, clutches and brakes, couplings, collars and universal joints, enclosures, fans and electronic cooling, gears, industrial heaters and heating elements, industrial tools, limit switches, mechanical fasteners, power transmission (mechanical), process equipment, pulleys and belts, seals, solenoids, springs, and switches. Industrial heaters are devices used to heat either materials, or maintain or raise ambient temperature. Heaters come in two distinct styles, mobile or attachable devices, and hardwired,

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or panel type ducts. Mobile or attachable heaters include: band, cable, ceramic fiber (cylindrical and flat), coil, cylindrical, drum, flexible, immersion (screw and flange), over-theside, strip and tubular heaters. Hardwired heaters include duct heaters and radiant flat panel heaters. Water Heaters Water heaters are gas, oil or electric-fired devices used to heat water for residential and commercial use. Explosion Proof Heaters Explosion proof heaters are constructed with housings that can withstand explosions, protecting the materials being heated. This classification may also include housings, which can withstand sparking and flames. Industrial Ovens are batch or continuous process insulated enclosures or tunnels used for thermal processing. Ovens are lower temperature (usually <1400 degrees F) thermal processing units, usually without refractory insulation. They are used for a wide range of industrial applications including aging, , baking, burn-off, curing, drying, heat treating, melting, preheating and sterilizing. are available in a number of common configurations, although custom and specialized models may be designed in conjunction with a supplier. Cabinet or bench ovens describe small batch equipment typically mounted on integral stands. are typically suited for processing quantities of a given product in a single batch. Walk-in or truck-in ovens describe larger size batch equipment, typically with double doors and integral carts, shelves etc. As with cabinet and bench ovens, these ovens are typically used for processing large quantities of a given product in a single batch. Continuous or conveyor oven units are oriented toward automated production of mass quantities of small-to-medium-sized product. The type of conveyance system used depends on the product line, volume of work to be produced, and temperature to be obtained. Foundry ovens are used for metal melting applications for jewelry manufacturing, mining, die-casting operations, production aluminum foundries, and fine arts studios. They typically have a tilting mechanism, which can be manually operated (e.g., a handwheel) or powered (e.g., hydraulic tilt). Normally, when the word vacuum is used it refers to any absolute pressure below that of normal atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure is defined as 14.7 psia or 760 torr, any pressure less than this is considered a vacuum. In a vacuum oven, the heat-treating process takes place inside a vessel that is airtight. This allows a vacuum to be drawn inside the vessel. The entire heat-treating process can take place under vacuum or precisely controlled atmospheres can be introduced. Heat treating under vacuum can: prevent surface reactions, such as oxidation or decarburization; remove surface contaminants such as oxide films and residual traces of lubricants; add a substance to the surface layers of the work; remove dissolved contaminating substances from metals by means of degassing.

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Guidelines for Shop Inspection Support Documents

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Quenching ovens are used for rapid cooling of heated media, and are typically identified by the more specific technology utilized: direct, fog, hot, interrupted, internal, selective, slack, spray, and time quenching. Industrial ovens may be powered by any one of the following heat sources: electricity, natural gas, propane, steam, oil, or other fuels. Some varieties are designed that can handle a number of these fuels, although most are limited to one specific power source. Industrial Boilers are closed vessels that are used to generate or superheat steam. Activity is produced by the application of heat from combustible fuels, electricity or nuclear energy. are used for industrial heating and humidification applications. Specialty Industrial Heaters Specialized or proprietary products and accessories related to industrial heaters. Heating Mantles are used to heat flasks containing a sample. are used in place of Bunsen burners or hot plates when the sample is an organic liquid. Organic liquids have a tendency to burst into flames when exposed to direct heat, or release flammable organic vapors are heavier than air, which can explode when contacting open flames or heating coils. Mantles have an enclosed heating system, which is designed to avoid these dangers. are available in either fabric or rigid constructions. Fabric mantles are flexible, and can be molded to accommodate a wide variety of flask shapes and sizes. The holding receptacles within rigid heating mantles are shaped either for a particular size flask, or simply have a large orifice that can be filled with sand to hold various size flasks. These sand baths serve to also provide a more uniform heating of the sample. Fabric mantles are generally cheaper then rigid mantles, although they are susceptible to damage from spilled liquids. The covering fabric layered can be torn or frayed, by exposure to hot liquids or corrosives, exposing the wiring beneath. This can lead to a fire hazard. produce their heat by converting AC voltage. The intense energy draw needed to generate the high degree of required heat, can blow fuses or melt socket wiring. For this reason, heating mantles should never be plugged directly into a wall socket. Instead, a transformer, such as a variac, or some form of electronic relay or switch, should be used between the and the wall socket. are available in the following configurations: mantle and controller unit, mantle only, or controller only. Mantle and controller devices include both the mantle itself and the device used to controller it. This configuration may be either a single unit; a mantle with an integral controller, or it may be comprised of two separate parts, sold together. Mantle only devices are just the actual container for holding a flask; there is no temperature controller. Controller only devices are not mantles per se. They are simply the instrumentation board for controlling the heating of a mantle.

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Desuperheaters Desuperheaters are used to cool down steam in power plants. Laboratory Furnaces Laboratory furnaces provide continuous heating to process samples and materials. Laboratory furnaces provide continuous heating to process samples and materials. They are generally built from high temperature (refractory) materials so that they can maintain high temperatures without breaking down. Often, laboratory furnaces are set to function for months at a time to complete a processing set. Configuration, general specifications, tube furnace features, and atmosphere and control are all important to consider when searching for laboratory furnaces. Choices for configuration for laboratory furnaces include , box or muffle, bottom loading, top loading, and tube. is also referred to as charring; this is the step in a graphite furnace AA program that is designed to remove matrix constituents that might interference with the measurement of the analyte. Box furnaces are convenient furnaces to use. As the name implies, the furnace has a box shape and a box-shaped interior. Bottom loading furnaces load the sample or product to be treated through the bottom of the chamber via a platform elevator. In top loading laboratory furnaces the product to be processed is loaded through the top. Tube furnaces are designed to heat a tube that is usually 50 to 100 cm in length and from 25 to 100 mm in diameter. Samples are placed inside the tube in ceramic or metal boats using a long push rod. The tube is surrounded by heating elements, which may also incorporate a thermocouple (a thermocouple can also be inserted down the tube if desired). Important specifications to consider when searching for laboratory furnaces include process temperature, width or tube outer diameter, length of the chamber or tube, and height. The process temperature is the maximum temperature at which the unit may operate and still maintain rated performances. The width refers to the internal width dimension of the unit, or for tube furnaces, the outer diameter of the tube. The length is the length dimension of the unit, or on tube furnaces, the heated length. The height refers to the internal height dimension of the unit. Common atmospheres for laboratory furnaces include air or oxidizing, inert, reducing, salt bath, and vacuum. Laboratory furnaces are generally designed in one of two heating modes single set point or programmable controller - to adjust temperature and temperature stability. Choices for heat source include arc, combustion, electrical or resistance, indirect or contact or conduction, induction, infrared or radiant, natural gas, propane, oil, other fuel, RF or microwave or dielectric, and steam. Other features for laboratory furnaces include overtemperature protection, computer interface, and application software. Industrial Furnaces are built of several kinds of high temperature (refractory) materials to hold the process material and hold in the heat without breaking down during the several months that they usually run. General specifications, configuration, atmosphere and control, and general features are all important to consider when searching for industrial furnaces. Important specifications to consider when searching for industrial furnaces include process temperature, height, width or tube outer diameter, length of the chamber or tube, and pressure

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range. The process temperature is the maximum temperature at which the unit may operate and still maintain rated performances. The height refers to the internal height dimension of the unit. The width refers to the internal width dimension of the unit, or for tube industrial furnaces, the outer diameter of the tube. The length is the length dimension of the unit, or on tube furnaces, the heated length. The pressure range is the pressure range through which the unit can operate. Choices for configuration for industrial furnaces include ashing, box or muffle, bottom loading, top loading, tube, bench or cabinet, belt, continuous or conveying, pusher, and walkin or truck-in. Ashing is also referred to as charring; this is the step in a graphite AA program that is designed to remove matrix constituents that might interference with the measurement of the analyte. Box furnaces are convenient furnaces to use. As the name implies, the has a box shape and a box-shaped interior. Bottom loading furnaces load the sample or product to be treated through the bottom of the chamber via a platform elevator. In a top loading the product to be processed is loaded from the top. Cabinet or bench furnaces describe small batch equipment typically mounted on integral stands. Batch industrial furnaces and ovens are typically suited for processing quantities of product in a single batch. A belt has a continuous belt, carrying the unprocessed substrates through the . In general continuous or conveying conveyor units tend to be oriented toward automated production of greater quantities of small-to-medium-sized product. A pusher is a type of continuous in which parts to be heated are periodically charged into the in containers, which are pushed along the hearth against a line of previously charged containers thus advancing the containers toward the discharge end of the , where they are used. Walk-in or truck-in furnaces describe larger size batch equipment, typically with double doors and integral carts, shelves, etc. Common atmospheres for industrial furnaces include air or oxidizing, inert, reducing, salt bath, and vacuum. Furnaces may have either a single set point or a programmable controller to adjust temperature and temperature stability. Choices for heat source include arc, combustion, electrical or resistance, indirect or contact or conduction, induction, infrared or radiant, natural gas, propane, oil, other fuel, RF or microwave or dielectric, and steam. Common applications for industrial ovens include aging, annealing, baking, brazing or soldering, burn-off, curing, drying, firing or sintering, foundry or melting, heat treating, hot pressing, laboratory, preheating, and quenching. Other features include overtemperature protection, three-zone or multi-zone, computer interface, application software, view ports, and service or entry holes. Vacuum Furnaces In vacuum furnaces the heattreating process takes place inside an airtight vessel, where a vacuum is created. This helps to alleviate surface reactions. Furnaces are built of several kinds of high temperature (refractory) materials to hold the process material and hold in the heat without breaking down during the several months that they usually run. Important specifications to consider when searching for vacuum furnaces include process temperature, height, width or tube outer diameter, length, and vacuum pressure range. The process temperature is the

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maximum temperature at which the unit may operate and still maintain rated performances. The height refers to the internal height dimension of the unit. The width refers to the internal width dimension of the unit, or for tube furnaces, the outer diameter of the tube. The length refers to the length dimension of the unit, or on tube furnaces, the heated length. The vacuum -3 or pressure range can be rough or low (< 760, > 1 torr), medium (< 1, >10 torr), high -3 -8 -8 vacuum (< 10 , >10 torr), ultra-high vacuum (< 10 torr), and elevated pressures (> 760 torr). Common configurations for vacuum furnaces include ashing, box or muffle, bottom loading, top loading, tube, bench or cabinet, continuous or conveying, and walk-in or truck-in. Ashing is also referred to as charring; this is the step in a graphite furnace AA program that is designed to remove matrix constituents that might interference with the measurement of the analyte. Box furnaces are convenient furnaces to use. As the name implies, the furnace has a box shape and a box-shaped interior. Bottom loading furnaces load the sample or product to be treated through the bottom of the chamber via a platform elevator. In a top loading furnace the product to be processed is loaded from the top. Cabinet or bench furnaces describe small batch equipment typically mounted on integral stands. Batch furnaces and ovens are typically suited for processing quantities of product in a single batch. A belt furnace has a continuous belt, carrying the unprocessed substrates through the furnace. In general continuous or conveying conveyor units tend to be oriented toward automated production of greater quantities of small-to-medium-sized product. A pusher furnace is a type of continuous furnace in which parts to be heated are periodically charged into the furnace in containers, which are pushed along the hearth against a line of previously charged containers thus advancing the containers toward the discharge end of the furnace, where they are used. Walkin or truck-in furnaces describe larger size batch equipment, typically with double doors and integral carts, shelves, etc. Common atmospheres for vacuum furnaces include air or oxidizing, inert, reducing, salt bath, and vacuum. Furnaces may have either a single set point or a programmable controller to adjust temperature and temperature stability. Choices for heat source include arc, combustion, electrical or resistance, indirect or contact or conduction, induction, infrared or radiant, natural gas, propane, oil, other fuel, RF or microwave or dielectric, and steam. Common applications for vacuum ovens include aging, annealing, baking, brazing or soldering, burn-off, curing, drying, firing or sintering, foundry or melting, heat treating, hot pressing, industrial, laboratory, preheating, and quenching. Other features include overtemperature protection, three-zone or multi-zone, computer interface, application software, view ports, and service or entry holes. Industrial Kilns are very high temperature thermal processing units, used for firing ceramics or calcining minerals. for firing ceramic materials function at very high temperatures > 2300 F. Kilns for drying wood or wood products are similar to ovens and run at lower temperatures.

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