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Polytechnic University of the Philippines

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Sta. Mesa, Manila

TEST CONSTRUCTION

Term Paper on the Topic

Submitted By: Brien L. Naco BBTE III-1D

Submitted To: Dr. Rovelina B. Jacolbia

October 5, 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. II. III. IV.

Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1-2 Impression ...............................................................................................................3 Definition of Terms.............................................................................................. 4-5 Differentiate Original Blooms Taxonomy from Revised Blooms Taxonomy .................................................... 6-7

I.

INTRODUCTION Test as a Measuring Tool in Education Imparting knowledge is one thing and measuring is the same as another. Similarly,

perfect teaching is one thing and evaluating the learners is another. In fact, for measurement and evaluation of the level of knowledge of learners requires a particular acumen and a different skill. In todays Educational world, the scholars have accorded the status of an art to the capability of an educator, or teacher, which he or she possesses and exhibits in testing and ranking his/her students. The process of assessment and evaluation is always a part and parcel of in the teaching and learning process in every educational institution whether in basic education or in tertiary education. In todays educational world, the students are developing also as the time goes. Now, the students are considered to be a Global Learner meaning they can understand the lesson thoroughly. Effective Test development requires a systematic, detailed-oriented approach, based on educational theories of measurement. There are many kinds of assessing, and evaluating a student. To be able to do this you should know the principles in measurement and evaluation. To be able to know whether the teaching-learning situation has been effective, the achievement of the learners must be measured and evaluated. The teacher should know how to construct more or less valid and reliable form of tests. A test has to be prepared through many stages. The first thing is: why the test is being given or what we are trying to measure? For this purpose, we have to prepare educational objectives for the sub-units, units, and the courses. Then we have to enlist in detail the Specific Outcomes of Learning, which will determine the specific pieces of information, thinking,

application, etc. for which items have to be written. The idea of educational objectives provides to us a new way of thinking about teaching, learning and testing. Assessment of student learning provides evidence so that educational decisions can be made. We may use the evidence to help us evaluate (or judge the merit of) a teaching program or we may use the evidence to make statements about student competence or to make decisions about the next aspect of teaching for particular students. After the teacher has covered a number of lessons for a certain period of time, the next important task that he is expected to perform is the assessment of the performance of the students in the class. He is now to assess whether or not the students have absorbed the lessons taken. Evaluation of pupils progress is a major aspect of the teachers job. A good picture of where the pupil is and how he is progressing is fundamental to effective teaching by the teacher and to effective learning by the pupil. The teacher motivates the students to developed good study habits to correct errors and to direct their activities towards the achievement of desired goals, diagnoses weaknesses, defines teaching objectives, differentiates pupils from various aspects and certifies the students. Here are the processes involved in the Measurement and Evaluation process

II.

IMPRESSION Test Construction Another topic for us future teachers are came across our mind, the TEST

CONSTRUCTION. Test Construction is the title of our seminar last September 13, 2012. Its all about Test Construction, How the teachers have a valid, reliable test as a tool in measuring the abilities of the learners. At first, the title implies itself on how to construct a test. This are the steps involved on how to construct a reliable and valid test. The Speaker was an excellent speaker, she easily know what she tries to say. The Speaker was from the School for Teachers, The Philippine Normal University (PNU). It is not easy to construct a test without a plan, in that seminar there are some steps on how to construct a test. First, You should establish your test goals, construct a table of specifications, check the test tables of specifications, and write the test items. It is a technique to write test items with the help of objectives and specific learning outcomes. Through out the seminar, test construction was discussed very detailed. There are

definition of terms that were discussed also. It was very useful for use future teachers because it can help us in our future work. This Test Construction Seminar is another added knowledge for us.

III.

DEFINITION OF TERMS A. TEST Test is a measuring tool for cognitive traits that could be gauged using pen-and-

paper method. A tool in which measuring unit depends on its length and level of difficulty of items indicated by its assigned points or percent of examination who got the correct answer. Tests are systematic procedures for measuring the results or effects of instruction on learning. Test are categorized into three namely; according to manner of response, methods of preparation, and nature of response. Test allow the students to answer at the same time using the same format, objective scoring of students knowledge, easy grading of students and easy ranking of students. B. MEASUREMENT

Measurement means the act or process of ascertaining the quantity or extent of something. It is and amount of something which has been counted, measured or assessed. Campbell defines measurements as the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to rules. Measurement also is the quantifications of the test. It means precision and quantification of phenomenon or variable. According to Bradfield, Measurement is a process of assigning symbols to the dimensions of phenomenon in order to characterize the status of the phenomenon. C. EVALUATION

Evaluation interprets the data provided by measurement. Evaluation is a comprehensive whole of the system of examination. Evaluation is an attempt to remove these limitations and shortcomings. Evaluation includes both quantitative and qualitative description of pupil

behavior plus the judgments of that behavior. Evaluation endeavors to cover all aspects of the process of education. Evaluation is like a process developing out of the products of testing. Evaluation is a judgmental process it reflects the beliefs values and attitude of the students evaluation. D. ASSESSMENT

Assessment is gathering all data and organizing them together to an interpretable form. Educational assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable

terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole. According to the Academic Exchange Quarterly: "Studies of a theoretical or empirical nature (including case studies, portfolio studies, exploratory, or experimental work) addressing the assessment of learner aptitude and preparation, motivation and learning styles, learning outcomes in achievement and satisfaction in different educational contexts are all welcome, as are studies addressing issues of measurable standards and benchmarks. The final purposes and assessment practices in education depends on the theoretical framework of the practitioners and researchers, their assumptions and beliefs about the nature of human mind, the origin of knowledge and the process of learning. E. RUBRIC

Rubric is a set of guidelines or descriptions in scoring different qualities of products or levels of performance. scoring rubric means "a standard of performance for a defined

population" A scoring rubric is an attempt to communicate expectations of quality around a task. In many cases, scoring rubrics are used to delineate consistent criteria for grading. Because the

criteria are public, a scoring rubric allows teachers and students alike to evaluate criteria, which can be complex and subjective. A scoring rubric can also provide a basis for self-evaluation, reflection, and peer review. It is aimed at accurate and fair assessment, fostering understanding, and indicating a way to proceed with subsequent learning/teaching. IV. DIFFERENTIATE THE ORIGINAL BLOOMS TAXONOMY FROM THAT OF

ANDERSON AND KRATHWORTH (REVISED BLOOMS TAXONOMY). BEA ABLE TO DEFINE EACH LEVEL ORIGINAL BLOOMS TAXONOMY 1. Used nouns to describe the levels of thinking. 2. Ione dimensional using the Cognitive Process. 2. Two dimensional using the knowledge dimension and how it interacts with the 3. Emphasis was originally for educators and psychologist. Used by many audiences. Cognitive Process. 3. Emphasis is placed upon its use as a more authentic too for curriculum planning, instructional delivery and assessment. REVISED BLOOMS TAXONOMY 1. Uses verbs to describe the levels of thinking.

LEVEL of ORIGINAL BLOOMs TAXONOMY 1. KNOWLEDGE- recall data or Information 2. COMPREHENSION- Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. 3. APPLICATION- Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place. 4. ANALYSIS- Separates materials or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. 5. SYSNTHESIS- Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. 6. EVALUATION- Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.

LEVEL of REVISED BLOOMS TAXONOMY 1. REMENBERING- Recalling Information. Recognizing, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding. 2. UNDERSTANDING- Explaining ideas or concepts. Interpreting, summarizing, paraphrasing, classifying, and explaining. 3. APPLYING- using information in another familiar situation implementing, carrying out, using, executing. 4. ANALYAING- Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships. Comparing, organizing, deconstructing, interrogating, finding. 5. EVALUATING- Justifying a decision or course of action. Checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging. 6. CREATING- Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things. Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing.