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FINALAttackSheet

GW CON LAW I 5 PG Attack Sheet - Prof. Cheh 2009 TEXT: Barron, 7th ed. 2006

CourtwillnotdecideConst.issueunlessnecessary,thenonlynarrowaspossible;hopefullyastatute cansolveissueorinterpretedtoavoidConst.issue I. IsthereJURISDICTION? A. DidCongressgrantSCOTUSmorethanoriginaljurisdiction? Marburyv.Madison (Art.IIIgivesSCOTUSoriginaljurisdictionovercertaincasesand Congresscannotgrantadditionaljurisdiction) B. DidCongresslimitSCOTUS'sappellatejurisdictionwithitsexceptionspower? ExParteMcCardle (Art.IIIexpresslyauthorizesCongresstocreateexceptionstoSCOTUS's appellatejurisdiction definitionallimit) UnitedStatesv.Klein (CongressmaynotusetheExceptionsClausetocrippletheCourt's abilitytobethefinalarbiterofwhattheConstitutionmeans external/SOPlimit) C. Violationofthe11THAMEND.? Sovereignimmunity meansastatecannotbesuedbyaprivatepartyinfederalcourt Exceptions: stripping&injunction,statev.state,USv.state,statewaiver,SCOTUSreviewof statecase,14thAmend.claims Hypo: cansuewelfareofficialfordefamationdamagesbutnotstateforlostwelfare II. IstheclaimJUSTICIABLE? A. IsthereanACTUALCASEANDCONTROVERSY? Muskratv.US (Theremustbeanactualdispute involvinglegalrelationsof2adverse parties forwhichjudiciarycanproviderelief "aretherefightersinthering?") B. IsitanADVISORYOPINION? SCOTUSwillnotgiveadviceonnewlawsorabstract/hypotheticalquestions C. IsthereaPRUDENTIALLIMITATION? TheCourtisselfconscious,selfrestraintboundlikeOdysseus;conservepoliticalcapital, keepouttroublemakers,adversarysystemsharpensissues D. IsitaPOLITICALQUESTION? SCOTUSwillnotviolateSOP;theConstitutiontextuallyexcludesreviewbecausethepower isreservedforanotherbranchofthegovernment,Nixonv.U.S. (senateimpeachments); Goldwaterv.Carter (President'spoweroverforeignaffairs) SCOTUSwillnotconsideracasewheretherearenojudiciallymanageablestandards(no criteriaforreview),see Lutherv.Boren (isagovernment"republican"?) E. IstheclaimMOOT? SCOTUSwillnothearacasewhenthereisnocontroversyatanystageoflitigation,unless: Collateralinjury? Capableofrepetition? Roev.Wade ([1]typeofinjuryisreoccurringand[2]litigation inherentlyshorterthantimeforinjury) Freetoresume or"shammootness"?FriendsoftheEarthv.Laidlaw (pollution);City ofEriev.Pap'sAM (sex) Classaction? F. IstheclaimRIPE? SCOTUSwillnothearacaseunlessthereisa"bleedingplaintiff" Compare AbbottLaboratoriesv.Gardner (declaratoryjudgment/preenforcement reviewOKif(1)severehardship ifreviewwithheld,and(2)predictedharmis probable)with ToiletGoodsv.Gardner (penaltyoflicensesuspensionnotsevere) Hardshipfromcollateralinjuries,see DukePowerv.CarolinaEnvironmentalGroup (thehardshipwasthefear ofanuclearaccident) G. DoestheclaimmeetConstitutionalrequirementsofSTANDING? Theremustbedistinctorimminentpersonalinjuryinfact Compare Lujanv.DefendersofWildlife (plaintiffslackedstandingbecauseinsufficient

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likelihoodoffutureinjury thatrequiredaplaneticket)with SCRAP (aestheticand environmentalinjuriesareOK theybreathedtheair,hikedthetrails) L.A.v.Lyons (plaintiffcouldseekdamagesbutnotinjunctionbecausetherewasno more likelihoodofimminentharm) Plaintiffmustallegedefendant'sconductcaused theharm Allenv.Wright (theIRSdidnotcausethesegregation;injuryhighlyindirect andresults fromindependentactionsofsome3rdpartynotbeforethecourt);Simonv.Eastern KentuckyWelfareRights (itwas"purelyspeculative"theIRScausedthedenialof medicalservices) DukePowerv.CarolinaEnvironmentalGroup (butfor thePriceAct,thenuclear reactorwouldnotbebuiltandplaintiffswouldnotsufferharm) Plaintiffmustallegetheafavorablecourtdecisionislikelytoremedy theharm Simonv.EasternKentuckyWelfareRights ("thecomplaintsuggestsnosubstantial likelihoodthatvictoryinthesuitwouldresultinplaintiffreceivingthehospitalcare thedesired") DoestheclaimmeettheprudentialrequirementsofSTANDING? 3rdpartysuits/standing? Notallowedunless(1) the3rdpartyisunabletosue,(2) thereisacloserelationship with3rdparty/economicharm,and(3) theplaintiffcanrepresentinterestswell,see Craigv.Boren (bartenderallowedtosueforlostcustomers) Associationstanding? Onlyallowedif(1) thememberswouldhavestandingontheirown,(2) interests germanetopurposeofassoc.,(3) claimnorreliefrequiresparticipation Generalizedgrievancesbytaxpayers? Compare Frothinghamv.Mellon (notaxpayerstanding),with Flastv.Cohen (Double NexusTest:(1)theremustbealogicallinkbetweentaxpayerstatusandlegislation attacked(theexerciseofCongress'sspendingandtaxingpower,and(2)Congress violatedaspecificlimitationonthepowertotaxandspend(onlyEstablishment Clause) Mustbespecificspending,notincidentalexpenditures,see ValleyForge (nostanding whenchallengingadministrativerulingunderpropertyclause) Partymustbewithinzoneofinterests,BankReceiptHypo (intendedtoprotect customersonly) FriendsoftheEarthv.Laidlaw (civilpenaltiesnotpaidtoindividualsareOKbecause theyareanincentiveforthestatenottodosomething)

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III. IsCONGRESS OversteppingitsPOWER? ANSWERBY: (1)whatisscopeofstatute;(2)whatistheintent(CourtprefersnonConst. interpretation);(3)whatfederalpowerisCongressusing;(4)whatarelimitstothepower a. NECESSARYANDPROPER? McCullochv.Maryland (Congresscanchoosetheappropriatemeanstoaccomplishany legitimateendoftheConstitutionbyenactinglawsrelatedtothepowersenumerated in Art.ISection8) b. COMMERCEPower? Channels ofinterstatecommerce,Gibbonsv.Ogden Instrumentalities ofinterstatecommerce,Gibbonsv.Ogden Activitieshavingasubstantialrelationto,orsubstantialaffect oninterstatecommerce Lopez (No gunsarenotaneconomicactivityandtoofarremoved tobesubstantial relation;"butforreasoning,buildinginferenceuponinferencerejected");Morrison (No cumulativeeffectofviolenceagainstwomenisnoneconomic sonotallowed) Gonzales (Yes evenintrastate activitiescanberegulatedbasedoncumulativeimpact ofeconomic activitybecauseitiswithinabroadregulatoryscheme ofCongress) c. TAXING Power? Upheldaslongasitraisesfromrevenue,evenifpurposeisregulatory,seeSonzinskyv.US ("everytaxisregulatoryinsomemeasure") d. SPENDING Power? Broadspendingpowerforthegeneralwelfare("hereboy!",likea"bribe") Powertospendalsomeanspowertowatchovermoney Congresscanofferfinancialinducementaslongas(5) "itdoesnotpassthepointwhere pressurebecomescompulsion",SouthDakotav.Dole (fundsforincreasingdrinkingagewas OKinducementforsafehighways) (1) generalwelfare,(2) expressconditions,(3) relatedtofederalinterest,(4) doesnot violateanotherprovisionoftheConstitution e. 14THAMENDMENTPower? EqualprotectionanddueprocessisdirectedspecificallyatcontrollingstatessoNOTsubject to11thAmendment Congresscanonlymakelawstoprevent or remedy violations,butnotexpandorcreatenew rights,see CityofBoernev.Flores (lawsmustbenarrowlytailoredtobecongruent and proportional toConst.violation religionlawwouldaffecteveryone,everywhere) STATEACTION? OKtoregulatelocalandstategovernmentsbutNOTprivateactions Publicfunction byprivatepartyperformingfunctiontraditionally andexclusively governmentalinnature(companytown,butNOTmalls,schools,hospitals) Symbioticrelationship only,see Burtonv.WilmingtonParkingAuthority Stateresponsible forprivateaction Authorized,approved,orencouragedbyjudicialenforcement NOTenoughforevenextensivelicensing(Moosehead),orregulation,see Jacksonv.MetroEdisonCo. (thegovernmentmustbecome responsiblefor discrimination f. Violationofthe10THAMENDMENT? Garcia (powersnotgrantedarereservedforstates,butstatesarenotimmunefromfederal commerceregulationsthatapplyequallytonongovernmententities) NewYork (thegovernmentcan(1) encourage statestoadoptregulations,(2) directly preempt withCommerceClause,(3)butcannotcompel statestoenforceoradminister federalregulations) Compare Printz (cannot"commander"stateofficialsunderBradyGunAct)with Renov. Condon(regulatingdriverlicenseinfoavailabilityOK,justaprohibition,statenotrequiredto enactlawsorusestateofficialstoenforce) Treaties notsubjectto10thAmendment,Missouriv.Holland (birdtreatywithCanada)

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IV. IstheSTATELIMITED? a. TAXING orREGULATINGFEDERALGOVERNMENT? Statescannottax thefederalgovernment,McCullochv.Maryland IncludingfederalcontractorswheretaxANDlegalburdenispassedontofed.gov. Statescannotregulate federalworkers(postal,USPTOagents) b. PREEMPTIONtothestatelaw? "preemptionisliketheSupremacyClauseinaction" Express Silkwood (clearclausesays"nostatecanimpose") Field CityofBurbankv.LockheedTerminal (ifCongressintendedtoexclusivelyoccupya field,anystatelawispreempted,eveniflawshavesamegoal) Physicalconflict (ifapersoncannotcomplywithboth,statelawispreemptedbyfederal) Purposeconflict (ifstatelawimpedesfederalobjective) Courtcanavoidpreemptionbynarrowlyconstruingstatelaw,see PacificGas& Electricv.State (federallaw'spurposewasonly topromoteeconomicallyfeasible nuclearplants,notsimplynuclearplants) c. StatestatuteviolatesDORMANTCOMMERCECLAUSE?(individuals&corporations) Statescannot(1)discriminate,and(2)burdeninterstatecommerce Ifthereis discrimination,thereisastrongpresumptionagainstlaw,Dean'sMilkv.Madison Doesthelawexcludealloutofstaters? Doesthelawimposeacostonoutofstatersthatinstatersdonothavetobear? Wasthelawmotivatedbyprotectionist purpose? Faciallyneutrallawhas discriminatoryimpact?Huntv.WashingtonStateApple Discriminatorylawupheldonly ifnecessarytoachieveimportantstatepurpose(mainly healthandsafety) isthereanondiscriminatoryalternative? CompareDean'sMilkv.Madison (ifforsafety,whynotsendinspectors?)with Maine v.Taylor (onlywaytoprotectfragilefisheriesfromparasiteswasbanningoutofstate baitfish) Nondiscriminatorylawforlegitimatelocalpurposeupheldunless burdenonICisclearly excessivetolocalbenefit,see SouthernPacificv.Arizona (decreasedlength=moretrains) Isthisastatetax?CompleteAutoTransitv.Brady (statetaxOKifsubstantialnexus betweenactivity,fairlyapportioned,doesnotdiscriminate,relatedtoservicesprovided) MARKETPARTICIPANT exception Unlessregulatoryeffectsdownstream Unlesssharedpublicrights (sharedbeachoroilinTexas) CONGRESSIONALCONSENT exception d. StatestatuteviolatesPRIVILEGESANDIMMUNITIESCLAUSE?(ONLYcitizensanddiscrm.) Discriminationisprohibitedagainstnoncitizensina fundamental right(civillibertiesand economicrights),see Baldwinv.FishandGameCommission (elkhunting) Unlessnecessarytopromoteanimportantstateinterestandmustbenarrowlytailored UnitedBuildingandConstructionv.CityofCamden (economicsnotimportantenough and evenitwere,mustbetailorednarrowly i.e.notcityhall) Isthereanalternativethatdoesnotdiscriminateandstillachievesameresult? CongressionalapprovaldoesnotexcusealawthatviolateP&I Nomarketparticipantexception Exceptionforshared publicrights (oilinTexas)

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V. EXECUTIVEPOWERS,LIMITATIONS,andSOP a. EXECUTIVEOVERSTEPPING? WithinPresident's inherentforeignaffairspower?(somebodyhastobeabletoexercise thesepowersofasovereignnation) (1)mustbeemergency,(2)Congressmusthavenotnegated,(3)doesnotviolateany Const.provisions,see YoungstownSheet&TubeCo. Presidentnotdoinghisduty whenCongressexplicitlysayshemust?Youngstown Lineitemveto? Oversteppingforeignaffairs powerbyrescindingatreaty?Goldwaterv.Carter (Taiwan treatyrescindingisapoliticalquestion,butpracticaleffectisSCOTUSOK'dit) Doesexecutiveagreement violateConst.oranotherfed.statute? Authoritytodeclarewar?(preventwar,endwar,fixeffectsofwar,taxmorebeforewar?) ViolationofWarPowersResolution(thatallowsPresidenttoactwithoutdeclarationifthere isaneed)? Japaneseintermentcamps,waronterrorism,see Hamdiv.Rumsfeld (noauthorityto holdunlessCongresssuspendswritofhabeascorpus) b. InvasionofEXECUTIVEPRIVILEGE? Isitprivilegetokeepconversationssecretforprotectingnationalsecurityandreceiving unbiasedopinions?UnitedStatesv.Nixon ("nomanisabovethelaw,noteventhe President" Noprivilegeforcriminalcases aslongasthereis(1)specificneed,(2)substantial need,(3)mustbeproceduralsafeguards) c. InvasionofEXECUTIVEIMMUNITY? Nixonv.Fitzgerald (absoluteimmunity fromcivilcases fordamageswhileinoffice) Contra Clintonv.Jones (Presidentcanbesuedforeventspriortotakingoffice) d. CONGRESSOVERSTEPPING? IsCongressdelegating itspowerwithan"intelligibleprinciple"?See Mistrettav.US (can appointinferiorofficersandpermitsArt.IIIjudgestoserveonpanelsnottraditionally reservedforexecutive Congressdirectly appointing orremoving executiveofficers?(Congresscannotprohibitall removalpowerorgiveremovalpowertoitselfotherthanbyimpeachment violates SOP) IsCongresslimiting theexecutiveremoval power? OKtolimitremovalforjustcauseofofficersinindependentagencies (FTC,FCC,SEC) OKwhenthereneedstobe SOP,see Morrisonv.Olson (limitingOK"unlessthe standardforremovalundulytrammelsonexecutiveauthority" attorneygeneral couldstillfireforgoodcause)

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