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Traces Imelda Cajipe Endaya

24 April to 8 August 2010 3F South Wing Gallery About the Exhibition Traces features old and recent works of visual artist Imelda Cajipe Endaya on women, war, and peace. Cajipe Endayas series of lithographs, chine coll and monoprints converse with archival materials and artworks from the Vargas Museum collection by Filipina artists such as Pacita Asuncion-Roxas, Carmen Bernabe, Erlinda Vargas, and Nena Saguil. Images of peace are interspersed with images of military weapons and toys that seek to reject the permanence of war. These include the Philippine experience in the Second World War, the wars in Kosovo, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Text, textile, and video installations complement the works. Cajipe Endayas works deal with themes of cultural identity, gender, race, nation, migration, displacement, and globalization from the point of view of a Filipina visual artist. She was awarded the Centennial Honors for the Arts by the Republic of the Philippines in 1999. She has gained recognition in the Asia-Pacific contemporary art world for the distinctly Filipino and female statements in her art, as well as her cultural leadership in the advocacy of women. The artist currently works in New York and Manila. Using the Education Guide This guide is designed to help facilitate discussions and activities on the exhibit for Humanities, Art Studies, or Fine Arts classes. It is highly encouraged that course tutors/ teachers have a pre-visit to the exhibition before the classs actual visit. Related topics suggested in this guide include war, women, and printmaking. The first two themes provide activities which the teacher may select for the class depending on their pacing. Listed in the activities are class discussion points, topics for reflection paper, or creative activities that can be adopted during the actual or post-visit. The theme on printmaking is designed to give students an overview of printmaking techniques and its practice in the country. A reading list for the topic is also provided for students who wish to learn more about the art form. Teachers and students may seek the assistance of the museum guide during their visit. They can provide information about the exhibition and may enrich the visitors experience through interaction. This education guide may also be reproduced. Themes WAR War is an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities. It implies that states or that which intend to become states can be involved in war. Different wars have occurred throughout history and continue to occur until today. International wars, such as the Second World War, brought destruction of lives and property; and antagonism among different states. Even within a state, however, hostilities exist and are known as civil wars. In the Philippine setting, we are familiar with armed conflict as
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documented in the news, particularly in Mindanao. Certain groups assert their political purpose through destructive means, and at the mercy of innocent women, children, and other victims. ACTIVITY I WAR GAMES In all wars, weaponry is an asset. The innovations in science and technology have changed the way weapons are made and as such, it continues to become a growing, multi-billion dollar industry. Weapons production and accumulation are being prioritized by leaders over more pressing issues, such as poverty or environmental degradation. 1. Which nations or groups have the capacity to initiate war? Write a reflection paper about the topic. Cite specific examples of wars that you have learned in history and in the news. ACTIVITY 2 THINKING ABOUT TOYS Take a look at the artists vitrine and see the toys inside. As children, we like to play with toys and use them as tools to re-enact scenes from everyday life. As we grow up, the notion of toys eventually becomes a part of our psycheways of playing also becomes ways of thinking, or ways of doing. 1. As a child, which toys do you play with? Reflect on how toys have influenced your present interests. 2. What is the artists position on war? What do you think do the toy soldiers signify? ACTIVITY 3 RE-COLLECTING: MEMORY AND THE WAR Manila was in ruins during the Second World War. Many hospitals, churches, and establishments were bombed. Look at the video installation. These images are photographs from the Vargas Archives. 1. Why do you think was the video projected at the stock room instead of on a clean, spacious wall? What experience do the video and its placement elicit?

2. What do the photographs say about the Vargas Archives and its collector? Remember, these images were taken from 1941-1942. What clues does it give about how these images were taken, how these were acquired, and what does this imply about memory and agency?

Take a look at the prints and the artists vitrine. Relate these with the vitrine on the Vargas women. Cajipe Endayas works are largely shaped by her personal experiences and affinities, and yet, the exhibit relates to broader pasts and realities as well. 1. List down examples of strategies implemented by both artist and curator to level personal memory and institutional memory. Students can be asked on the ways (a) artworks and objects are presented and (b) how meanings are produced and negotiated.

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WOMEN I like my work to reflect the Filipino-Asian-Pacific womanwife, mother, sister, daughtergaining mobility, and fulfillment for herself as she strives to live meaningfully for others. -Imelda Cajipe Endaya Stitching Paint into Collage, 2009

Cajipe Endaya asserts her identity through her artworks that comment on important issues from the point of view of a Filipina visual artist. Her works are recognized for its distinct feminine statements. She is likewise acknowledged for her cultural leadership in the advocacy of women. Cajipe Endaya is also a member of Kasibulan, a collective of women artists founded in 1987. Through exhibitions, talks, and collaborative work, the group challenges the stereotypes impinged by patriarchal society on women. In Traces, the artists sentiments on women intersect with the memory of the lives of Marina and Nena Vargas. The former was the first wife of Jorge B. Vargas, and the latter was his eldest daughter. Vargas was the donor of the museums collection. He served as Mayor of Manila during the Japanese Occupation, the period where the country was virtually at his helm. The war years were a critical time for Vargas. Marina and Nena, though not at the limelight, had their share of significant work especially during the war. ACTIVITY 1 PORTRAITS OF WOMEN Students will be asked to bring magazines, newspapers, glue, and cartolina for collage. A stereotype is a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing. List down some stereotypes on women. Create a collage that confronts a chosen stereotype. Explain to the class how the group came up with the image(s). ACTIVITY 2 WORKING GIRLS: WOMENS ROLES Take a look at the vitrine of the Vargas women. Aside from the photographs, the memorabilia suggest interests and activities of Marina and Nena. Being in a privileged position even during the war, the Vargas women involved themselves in charity work. Write a reflection paper on the role of women at the time and how this relates to the changing roles of women in contemporary society.

PRINTMAKING What is Printmaking? Traces features prints created by Imelda Cajipe Endaya. Printmaking is the process of preparing and working the flat surface of a matrix (usually of metal, wood, or stone) upon which an image is inscribed; once the image is complete, ink is applied to the matrix, and one or more impressions are printed on paper, or on other kinds of support. Unlike a painting, the image is created first on a matrix or a plate, and not directly on the support. This process allows for multiple editions, or multiple originals. Hence, many originals of the same image can be produced. The

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art of printmaking is also known as the art for the many. Aside from its accessibility, the unique visual effects in prints add to the art forms allure. Printmaking Glossary Artists proof is part of a limited edition run of prints. Marked by the artist as AP, these are normally low in number. These are used by artists as confirmation or seals of approval for the limited edition run. Chine coll is an intaglio technique where the image is transferred to a surface that is bonded to a heavier support in the printing process. This technique allows the printmaker to print on a much more delicate surface, such as Japanese paper or linen, which pulls finer details off the plate. This process also makes a background color behind the image that is different from the surrounding backing sheet. Edition a series of impressions that is most often the same in terms of paper, printing style, numbering, and Intaglio is a printing technique where the ink goes beneath the original surface of the matrix. Examples of intaglio techniques include: engraving, etching, mezzotint, aquatint, chine-coll, and drypoint. Lithography is a printing technique that relies on the mutual repulsion of oil and water to produce an image on a flat slab of fine-grained limestone. The limestone is covered with various grease pencils and crayons, or oily ink with pens and brushes, and then the image is fixed on the stone. To print the image, the stone is first moistened, then inked, the ink picking up only on the drawing; covered with a sheet of paper, and packed with felt or cardboard, the stone is run through a lithographic bed press to apply pressure. Monoprint is a printed painting. Similar to monotypes in printing technique, no two prints can be exactly alike. However, in monoprints, as in the works of Cajipe Endaya, there is always a pattern or part of an image which is constantly repeated in each print. Monotype is a printed painting. In this method, no two prints are alike. Although images can be similar, editioning is not possible. Monotypes are created by covering a metal plate entirely with etching ink, then removing parts or the entire ink for the lighter and white areas of the picture being made. Relief printing is a printing technique where the ink goes on the original surface of the matrix or plate. Examples include woodcut, linocut, and metalcut. Printmaking in the Philippines During the American colonial rule in the Philippines, very few graphic works were produced, as in the lithographs of artists Jorge Pineda and Fernando Amorsolo. In 1957, the first graphic art exhibition which featured the works of Juvenal Sanso was held at the Philippine Art Gallery. In the 1960s, the practice of printmaking grew significantly in the country through the influence of Manuel Rodriguez. Recognized as the Father of Philippine Printmaking, Rodriguez was granted by the Rockefeller Foundation to study printmaking in the United States. On his return, he promoted the cause of graphic art by teaching college students in local communities. Among his students who made their mark in printmaking were Virgilio Pandy Aviado and Josefina Escudero. Other notable artists who practiced printmaking include painter Rodolfo Paras-Perez, National Artist Benedicto Cabrera, Romulo Olazo, Ofelia Gelveson Tequi, and Brenda Fajardo. Imelda Cajipe Endaya also belongs to the ranks of award winning printmakers. While the others developed their craft abroad, Cajipe Endaya is proudly homegrown.

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The Philippine Association of Printmakers (PAP), a group of printmakers founded in 1968 through the efforts of Manuel Rodriguez, has championed the art of printmaking. This group exhibits, conducts demonstrations and workshops in various areas of the country; exhibits, and organizes printmaking competitions. The PAP is supported with by the Cultural Center of the Philippines with a printmaking facility. Currently, the practice of printmaking continues to evolve through artists shifting interpretations of the medium, artist collectives, state patronage, support from collecting institutions, and the general public.

Suggested Readings Flores, Patrick, et.al., Imelda Cajipe Endaya: Stitching Paint into Collage. USA: Lenore RS Lim Foundation for the Arts, 2009. (http://www.blurb.com/books/818947) Gatbonton, Juan, et. al., eds. Art Philippines: A history 1521-present. Pasig, Metro Manila: Crucible Workshop, c1992. Harding, Beatrice. Survival Through Art : A Biography of Manuel Rodriguez, Sr. the "Father of Printmaking" in the Philippines. Manila: Regal Publishing, 1974. Martin, Judy. An Encyclopedia of Printmaking Techniques. Philadelphia: Running Press, 1993. Pilar, Santiago Albano and Imelda Cajipe Endaya. Limbag kamay: 400 years of Philippine printmaking. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines, 1993. Stobart, Jane. Printmaking for beginners. New York : Watson-Guptill Publications, 2001.

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