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Bachelor of Science (Hons) (Applied Chemistry) (AS 225)

LABORATORY REPORT
Water and Wastewater Technology (CMT564)
Experiment Name Name of Partners Demonstrator
OBJECTIVES:

8 : Phosphate Phosphorus (PO43- - P) Hanim Binti Ismail 2009401538 Norhazwani Binti Zubairi 2009659246 Norezzati Afifa Bt Razali 2009258728 Norhaniza Bt Hamzah 2009902677 PM Lee Kok Kheng

To observe the relation of phosphorus concentration to different types of water. To introduce the method of preparing standards by serial dilutions and to use these standards in the production of a calibration curve.

RESULT: Concentration (mg/L) blank 5 10 15 20 25 treated raw Absorbance (A) Group 2 Group 3 0.000 0.070 0.143 0.196 0.265 0.331 0.483 0.149 0.000 0.067 0.143 0.197 0.275 0.345 0.410 0.099

Group 1 0.000 0.063 0.128 0.188 0.236 0.311 0.443 0.099

Group 4 0.000 0.063 0.130 0.208 0.275 0.315 0.183 0.087

COMMENT: The phosphate found in natural waters mainly exists as the orthophosphate species, PO43-, however, the polyphosphates P2O74- and P3O105- are frequently encountered. These polyphosphate species may be hydrolyzed to produce the orthophosphate; however, the species which dominates will depend on the pH prevailing in the particular environment. From the result, we can see that when the sample having lower concentration (more dilute), the less amount of phosphate contained in the sample, and cause the less absorbance. Generally, the absorbance of treated water and raw wastewater should be in range of concentrated sample and cannot exceed the range because it has been diluted. But from the result, 3 groups have obtained the absorbance greater than standard concentration. In this experiment, the purpose of adding activated charcoal in the sample is to absorb the impurities (phosphorus) because it has a large surface area and it can remove impurities more effectively. Based on the groups result, only group 4 achieve the theory which absorbance of treated water is available in the range of standard concentration. After plotting the graph of absorbance sample against concentration of phosphorus in the sample, the concentration of raw wastewater and treated water is determined. From the graph, concentration of raw wastewater is 7.25mg/L while the treated water is 29.75mg/L which noted the highest concentration. We get the concentration of treated water greater than standard because of some error occur while performing the experiment. First, the treated water is not clear enough as required. We should remove the cloudy color of the treated water by filtrating with activated carbon. We do not repeat the filtration until get the clearer solution of treated water. Therefore, the sample still contains high phosphate which affects the concentration of the sample and the absorbance reading. Second, the sample is too alkaline or too acidic and not neutralized, thus the sample in higher concentration and give higher absorbance reading. QUESTION: 1. Can this method be applied to colored samples? If it is applicable, how do you pre-treat the sample?

Yes, this method can be applied to color sample, but the color of the sample should be removed first by using activated carbon (charcoal) in the filtration process. The activated carbon will absorb the color of impurities and produce clear sample.
2. What are the environmental effects of excessive phosphorus in water?

Excessive phosphorus in water can lead to environmental effects, such as eutrophication. Eutropication cause the excessive growth of algae and aquatic plant that interrupt normal ecosystem functioning and cause many problems. It make the lake become enriches with nutrients that cause the water undesirable for human and other living organism use and this also will lead to the interruption of food chain.

CONCLUSION: From this experiment, it can be conclude that when the sample having lower concentration (more dilute), the less amount of phosphate contained in the sample, therefore the less absorbance of transmission. From the graph, concentration of raw wastewater and the treated water has been determined which is 7.25mg/L and 29.75mg/L.

REFERENCES: Manual of Practical: Kasmawati Mohamed & Lee Kok Kheng, Methods of Analysis for Water and Wastewater, UPENA, 2007. P. Aarne Vesilind, G Heine Lauren & M.Morgan Susan, Introduction to Environmental Engineering, 3rd Edition http://www.turnerdesigns.com/t2/doc/appnotes/S-0075.pdf http://wwwchem.uwimona.edu.jm/lab_manuals/c10expt36.html http://www.wastewaterhandbook.com/webpg/th_phosphorus_50intro.htm