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FURNACE Furnace is the primary part of the boiler where the chemical energy available in the fuel is converted

into thermal energy by combustion. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion. BOILER PRESSURE PARTS: 1 ECONOMISER: The economiser absorbs heat from the flue gas and adds it mainly as sensible heat to the feed water. The temperature of the feed water is kept just below the saturation temp. In case of non-steaming economisers. Some of the boilers are equipped with steaming economisers. The evaporation in these economiser is limited to 20% of the feed water at full load and of course less as the load decreases. 2 DRUM: Boiler drum is a pressure vessel. It provides the necessary space for the separation of water from the mixture of steam/water. It also provides water storage for preventing the starvation of water walls tubes. It houses the equipments needed for purification of steam. DRUM INTERNALS 1 SEPARATING CHAMBER: From the riser tubes steam and water mixture flows into the drum through the narrow annular formed by a shroud extending along the length of the drum shell called the separating chamber. 2 BAFFLE PLATE: These surfaces direct the flow of substances either to prevent or to improve its flow. It directs the steam and water mixture entering the drum to the turbo-separator. 3 TURBOSEPERATOR: Stages of steam and water separation: Separation of steam and water takes place in three stages in the drum: 1 PRIMARY SEPARATOR: The steam and water mixture from separating chamber passes through the centrifugal separator ( turboseperator) where a spin by the spinner blades is imposed to it. This forces the water to the outer edge of the centrifugal separator where it is separated from the steam. Water flows downward through the annulus space in the cylinder and this is free from steam bubbles. 2 SECONDARY SEPARATOR: The partially dried steam passes at a low velocity through corrugated plates where addition mixture is removed by wetting action on the plates. 3 THIRD SEPARATOR: The third and final stage of steam and water separation takes place in the screen dryers. It removes residual moisture from the steam leaving turboseperator. 3 SUPERHEATER: The function of the superheater in the thermal power plant is to remove the last traces of moisture (1 to 2%) from the saturated steam coming out of boiler and to increase its temperature sufficiently above saturation temperature. The superheater is composed of four basic stages or section : A pendant spaced section, a platen section, a rear horizontal section and the steam cooled wall and roof section.

The platen section is located directly above the furnace in front the furnace arch. It absorbs heat mainly by radiation. The pendant section is located behind the screen tubes. The predominant mode of heat transfer is convection.he horizontal section of the superheater is located in the rear vertical gas path above the economiser. This is the primary superheater of the convective , counter flow type. The steam cooled wall section form the side, front and rear walls and roof of the vertical gas pass of the second arch. 4 REHEATER: Reheaters are provided to raise the temperature of the steam from which part of energy has already been extracted by HP turbine. Normally most of the reheater surfaces are placed in hotter zone so that the system requirement is kept minimum. To reduce the pressure drop in steam to kept the cycle efficiency maximum. SUPERHEAT AND REHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL: Accurate steam temperature control is necessary for avoiding the over stressing of superheater tubes and turbine front stages and to maintain overall efficiency as high as possible. The common methods used for controlling the superheat temperature of the steam are discussed below: 1 BURNER TILT: The temperature of the steam coming out of superheater is controlled by tilting burners up or down through a range of 30 degree. By tilting the burner downward in a furnace, much of the heat is given to the water walls by the gas and the gas entering the superheater region is relatively cool. If the burner turned upward, then the heat given to the boiler water wall is less and hotter gas enters the superheater region to increase the steam temperature. 2 DE SUPERHEATER USING WATER SPRAY: The temperature of the steam can be controlled by injecting the water either before the superheater or between section of platen superheater and final superheater. SOOT BLOWERS: The amount and the rate of ash deposits or slagging depends on the type of fuel burned. The furnace walls can not be entirely kept free from deposits, but should be kept reasonably. Heavy local accumulations should be avoided by proper use of soot blowing equipment. 1 WALL SOOT BLOWER: These blowers are used to clean the water wall surfaces. 2 LONG RETRACTABLE SOOT BLOWERS: These blowers are normally employed for cleaning the superheaters and reheaters zone of the boiler. TYPE OF FURNACE: The furnaces are classified according to the mode of bottom ash collection in the following three ways: 1 DRY BOTTOM FURNACE: Selected for coal of non-slagging type i.e fusion temperature of the ash produced by combustion will be more than the temperature in the furnace. Normally a maximum of 20% total ash may be collected as slag from bottom of furnace. The rest of the ash is carried away along with flue gas.

2 SLAG OR WET BOTTOM TYPE: Furnace of this type normally has two furnace parts. Primary furnace is used for very high rate of combustion from where the molten slag passes to ash hopper and the flue gases into the secondary furnace which is very similar to dry type furnace. Provision is made to chill the molten slag and crush to granular form for easy disposal. To obtain high temperature inside the primary furnace which will facilitate the easy flow of ash, very small but highly rated design is needed for primary furnace. 2 POSITIVE CIRCULATION: ASSISTED CIRCULATION: The term is generally used in case of boiler having drum and working below critical pressure. Circulating water pumps are used in between the bottom headers of down comers and risers to overcome friction losses and the consequent movement of water and water steam mixture. FORCED CIRCULATION: This term is generally used for movement of fluid in boilers working above critical pressure. These boilers are of once through type .The pump forces movement of fluid through all the heating zone viz. Economisers tubes in combustion zone and superheaters. Induced Draught Fan Induced draught fans draw gases out of the boiler. The gas has already passed through the air heaters and precipitators before it has reached these fans. The heat from the flue gases or smoke is used in the air heaters to heat up the primary and secondary air.

Main Chimney The main chimney is 275 metres high and made of reinforced concrete were used to make it.

Superheater The steam produced in the boiler goes to the steam drum and is then piped through the primary, platen and final superheaters. At this point in the process they have now turned the water into a very powerful source of energy.

High Pressure Turbine High pressure steam passes through the high pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from this section is returned to the boiler for reheating before being used in the next section of the turbine set. The blades in the high pressure turbine are the smallest of all the turbine blades, this is because the incoming steam has very high energy and occupies a low volume. The blades are fixed to a shaft and as the steam hits the blades it causes the shaft to rotate.

Boiler Reheater After expanding through the high pressure turbine the exhaust steam is returned to the boiler for reheating before being used in the intermediate pressure turbine