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Chapter 1 Biology and the Tree of Life Key Concepts 1) Biological science founded on 2 theories a.

Cell Theory all organisms are made up of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells b. Evolution through Natural Selection species change throughout time because of variance in heritable traits, causing some individuals with favorable hereditable traits to produce more offspring 2) Phylogenic tree is a graphical representation of evolutionary relationships among species a. Relationships are estimated by analyzing differences and similarities in traits (you can tell which species is closer in terms of evolution by variances in certain traits) 3) Biologists ask questions, generate an hypothesis to answer the question, make a prediction, and design a experiment to test the prediction Theory an explanation for a very general class of phenomenal (explanation for why something occurs) - Theories contain 2 parts, o The first describes a pattern in the natural world o The Second, explains the mechanism responsible for creating the pattern 1.1 The Cell Theory 1665 Robert Hooke used a microscope (30x) to examine cork structure Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, developed a more powerful microscope o Inspected pond water, and made observation of paramecium

Are all Organisms made up of cells? - All organisms are made up of cells - Cell: highly organized compartment, bounded by a thin plasma membrane that contains in an aqueous solution. Where do cells come from? - Rudolph Virchow, explained the 2nd part of the theory by stating that all organisms are made up of cells, and all cells arise from preexisting cells - His claim was contradictory to the spontaneous generation theory - Louis Pasteur tested the spontaneous generation hypothesis Pasteur Experiment

Wanted to know whether cells would appear spontaneously in a nutrient broth, or whether they would appear when preexisting cells were present (would they grow/divide)

Spontaneous Generation Hypothesis: Both flasks would have cells All Cells from Cells Hypothesis: Only flask would have cells Straight Neck Flask Sterilized before experiment Exposed to cells that clung to dust particles in the are Swan Necked Flask Sterilized before experiment Pool of water would condense in crook of the swan, and it would trap any bacteria or fungi

Why it was effective? - It kept both flasks constant, and only varied one variable, which was the variable to test 1.2 The theory of evolution by natural selection Darwins and Wallaces 2 Claims 1) Species are related by common ancestry 2) descent with modification characteristics of species change overtime They proposed the process of which evolution occurs Natural Selection What is natural selection? -