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*Mani Maran, *Junqing han , Tony Fretwell

* Areva T&D U.K Limited, Stafford,United Kingdom

National Grid , United kingdom

Keywords: Numerical busbar protection.

The application of numerical busbar protection technology is lagged behind that of other protection functions, although static technologies is still usual for busbar protection but the latest numerical technology provides security, dependability and much grater range of facilities. In comparing with conventional high impedance schemes numerical schemes are more complex, more facilities and much high component to count, so the engineering of busbar protection is vital. This paper presents engineering aspects & benefits of numerical busbar protection with all the functions required to be catered for different type of bus bars, also it presents an example of standard solution supplied for National grid UK with the consideration of various factors such as different protection functions, systems redundancy, online testing and monitoring facilities. .

simple protection relay design in to a system design as compared with high impedance protection The numerical protection was in service for more than a decade and widely accepted worldwide by various utilities, although the advantages are discussed in several documents. Some of the major advantages and basic concepts are outlined below

2 Principle of Numerical busbar Protection

Figure -1.0 Block diagram of numerical protection The philosophy adopted is one of distributed processing of the measured values, as shown in Figure 1.0. Feeders each have their own peripheral unit, which collects together information on the state of the feeder (currents, CB and isolator status, etc.) and communicates it over high-speed fibre-optic data links to a central Unit.; In general each current transformer will be associated with one peripheral unit. For large substations, more than one central unit may be used, while in the case of small installations, all of the units can be co-located, leading to the appearance of a traditional centralised architecture. For simple feeders, interface units at a bay may be used with the data transmitted to a single centrally located peripheral unit. The central unit performs the calculations required for the protection functions.

1 Introduction
In considering the introduction of numerical busbar Protection schemes, users have been concerned with reliability issues such as security and availability. Conventional high impedance schemes have been one of the main protection schemes used for busbar protection. The basic measuring element is simple in concept and has few components. How ever studies of the comparative reliability of Conventional high impedance schemes and modern numerical schemes have shown that assessing relative reliability is not quite as simple as it might appear. The numerical scheme has many advantages over high impedance protection. With advanced relay functions, complexity in design, high amount of components to consider leads the numerical busbar protection scheme design from a

3 Advantages of Numerical Busbar protection

Dynamic zone forming is achieved naturally by switching currents in central units depending on plant conditions without interrupting primary currents. Reduction in the number of external Components such as switching and other auxiliary relays, many of the functions of which are Performed internally within the software Algorithms Numerical schemes include sophisticated Monitoring features (Figure-2) which provides alarm, dynamic monitoring of substation equipments with the conventional scheme, failure to reinstate the scheme correctly after maintenance may not be detected until the scheme is required to operate. In this situation, its effective availability is zero.

4.2 Commissioning & maintenance Overall scheme in /out selection Independent zone blocking feature Peripheral unit test /normal switching facilities 4.3 Future expansion & Scheme redundancy Initial design taking consideration of future bays Dual Dc supply & Tripping systems Duplication of main protection equipments to check the optimal availability of protection

5 Example of standard solutions for National Gird

The example scheme is designed to suit Most of the double busbar Configurations of National grid, UK as a standard solution for the HV & EHV substations as per national grid standard specifications Following standard configurations are developed to suit different substation configurations, Each tier will have Plug & Socket arrangements with external mounted in 19 rack system connected via pre-manufactured cables to a marshalling Panel or wall box., the required type & number of unit can be selected based on the actual substation topology Central unit (Main system 1& 2) Feeder Peripheral unit Bus coupler A & B Peripheral unit Bus Section A & B Peripheral unit Bus section Isolator Peripheral unit The system overview of example system is shown in figure-3

Figure -2 Online Measurements & Plant Status

4 Scheme Design Considerations

The scheme design is being taken in consideration based on the following three major criteria

4.1 Protection functions To design the relays with following major functions with optimal inputs & outputs Differential protection CT Supervision breaker failure & back trip initiation backup over current & Earth Fault protection dead zone protection Primary Plant monitoring (CB and isolator) Relay monitoring Fault & event recorder (External system initiations)

Figure -3 National Grid design solution

5.1 Central unit The Central Unit co-ordinates the scheme, receiving signals from all the peripheral units associated with the protected busbar and acting on these signals, initiates a bus zone protection trip / breaker fail trip when necessary.

For redundancy two central units are provided namely System 1 & System 2. In normal operation both Central Units will be powered up, but one Central Unit (System 1) will be controlling the Busbar Protection. In the event of a failure to one Central Unit manual intervention is required to change over to the other Central Unit. For maintenance & testing the tier has two separate pad lockable switches S1 & S2 to ease maintenance and testing. Switch one is a two position switch: Maintenance & Normal. In normal running conditions S1 is selected to Normal. When the switch is selected to Maintenance, ALL protections functions within the scheme are blocked.

Bus Section PU deals with the following;Busbar protection The Bus Isolator (typically X##8) The Current Transformer on the Right Hand side of the Circuit Breaker An externally mounted three position-Maintenance /Normal/Test isolation switch is provided on each of the tiers

5.4 Bus section Isolator Peripheral unit One Peripheral Unit is associated with just the two Reserve Bus Isolators. There is no Current Transformer input or Circuit Breaker input to this unit. An externally mounted three position-Maintenance /Normal/Test isolation switch is provided on each of the tiers

Switch is also a two position switch: Block & Normal .In normal running conditions S2 is selected to Normal. When the switch is selected to Block (Blk) the operator is then able to block any of the four zones via Specific Function Keys within the Central unit.

5.5 Dual DC Supply 5.2 Feeder Peripheral unit One Peripheral Unit is associated with a feeder circuit, a single current Transformer is wired into the peripheral unit, and Current Transformer (CT) input is used for both check zone and main/reserve zones. The feeder units also incorporate circuit breaker failure logic for different breaker fail logics like internal circuit breaker fail initiation, External circuit breaker fail initiation, and a Bus Zone Back trip contact from external CBF device together with additional protection functions such as Internal Peripheral Unit Fail (Internal PU_CT Fail) & Dead Zone. An externally mounted three position Maintenance /Normal/Test isolation switch is provided on each of the tiers The complete busbar protection scheme is supplied with dual DC supply with automatic DC changeover unit to have the scheme availability without any disturbance to the system at all the times

6 Conclusions
This paper detailed the advantages & standardization of design practices to create the busbar protection system future expandability, Maintenance, testing facilities and redundant central units to for reliability. With the available features numerical busbar protection scheme are the choices for protecting busbar. Considering Reliability and availability of the scheme Analyses using fault tree analysis methods have shown that numerical schemes is better than conventional high impedance schemes and security of numerical and conventional high Impedance schemes are comparable

5.3 Bus Coupler/Section Peripheral unit Two Peripheral Units are associated with the Bus Section/Coupler Circuit Breaker (one per Current Transformer Input), one for the Current Transformer on the Left Hand side of the Bus referred to as Bus Section PU A) and one for the Current Transformer Input on the Right Hand Side (referred to as Bus Section PU B). Bus Section PU A deals with the following; The Bus Isolator (typically X##4) Busbar protection & Back trip The Current Transformer on the Left Hand side of the Circuit Breaker CB Fail The Circuit Breaker Inputs and functionality.

The authors wish to thank AREVA T&D UK Ltd, Sub station Automation solutions Stafford, UK. & National Grid, UK for providing support to submit the Paper.

[1] [2] Network Protection & automation guide of Areva P740 Numerical Busbar Protection relay manual of Areva National Grid Transmission Specification documentations NGTS 3.24.34 & 3.6.3