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Predictive Windshear System A.

Windshear Mode The WXR/PWS, by a Doppler mode, determines the wind field ahead of the aircraft. By a mathematical treatment, the system determines the hazard factor (so-called "F factor") related to the danger of a windshear event. An hazard factor exceeding a value of 0.13 and within 5nm ahead of the aircraft is considered as the presence of a dangerous event and a corresponding windshear alert is generated. The display of windshear hazard consists of an icon of red and black bands superimposed on the radar returns. As these events are dangerous during takeoff and landing maneuvers, the PWS mode is automatically activated below 2300ft radio altimeter and at least one of the qualifier-A and one qualifier-B inputs have to be valid. Windshear detection operates automatically with the abovementioned reasons, even if the radar function selector switch is set to OFF or TEST, but windshear switch has to be set to AUTO. The windshear mode is transparent to the pilot until a windshear event is detected. When a windshear event is detected, the system generates the appropriate annunciations (visual and aural) to the flight crew. The WXR/PWS generates a graphic symbol (icon) to the displays indicating where the windshear was detected. The windshear function detection can operate either with weather radar modes activated or independently without these modes. This is accomplished by sharing the antenna scanning: - in clockwise weather scan or windshear scan, - in counterclockwise windshear scan. In windshear mode, the TILT and GAIN are controlled automatically on the WXR/PWS for the scanning. However, the TILT displayed on the NDs is in accordance with this selected on the radar control panel. When the weather radar transceiver 1 (2) fails, the windshear function is not available on the transceiver 1 (2) unless you set the system switch to 2 (1) on the weather radar control unit (the system 2 has to be selected on the weather radar control unit to display the windshear icon). The amber message PRED W/S is displayed on the NDs associated with the amber messages: - NAV: PRED W/S DET FAULT on the EWD - PRED W/S DET in the INOP SYS item of the STATUS page on the SD. Note 1: The system has to reject echoes due to ground clutter or moving surface. Note 2: There is no danger of radiation to persons on the ground if the windshear mode is deselected: - Windshear switch to OFF on the weather radar control unit - or ATC/TCAS switch to OFF or STBY on the ATC/TCAS control unit - or engines stopped. Note 3: In order to ensure optimum performance for the predictive windshear function the radome must be at least equal to class B category 1. Logic of Scanning mode The antenna scan pattern varies depending on the mode of operation. (a) Weather radar scan patterns In weather radar mode, the antenna scans a 180 deg. in azimuth and has tilt (pitch) coverage of plus or minus 15 deg. Stabilization limits are +/- 25 deg. in the pitch axis and +/- 40 deg. in the roll axis. An antenna scanning is performed in 4 seconds, this causes the transmission of 760 data words at each antenna scanning. The weather radar system features a 4-second constant refresh rate of the WX image whatever the ranges selected on the CAPT and F/O EFIS control panels of the FCU. (b) Weather and windshear scan pattern, no detected windshear event When the system is placed into alternate weather/windshear scan pattern and no windshear event is detected, the antenna scan pattern is as follows: - clockwise weather scan with +/- 90 deg. of azimuth coverage and processing for weather - counterclockwise windshear scan with full +/- 90 deg. of azimuth coverage, but with windshear processing limited to the +/- 45 deg. sector. However, the WXR/PWS have to update the refresh rate of the WX image to 12 seconds due to sharing of processing between windshear and radar.

(c) Weather and windshear scan pattern, with windshear event detected When the system is placed into alternate weather/windshear scan pattern and the system detects a windshear event, the antenna scan pattern is as follows: - clockwise weather scan, from - 90 deg. to + 90 deg. - counterclockwise windshear scan, from + 90 deg. to - 45 deg., with windshear processing between + 45 deg. and - 45 deg. - the next clockwise scan is from - 45 deg. to + 45 deg. to validate windshear - the next counterclockwise scan is from + 45 deg. to - 90 deg. to validate windshear. No processing occurs between - 45 deg. and - 90 deg. - clockwise WX scan, from - 90 deg. to + 90 deg. The sequence is repeated as long as windshear event is detected. If a windshear event is not detected the system reverts to the alternating weather/windshear scan pattern described above. The refresh rate of the WX image is minimum 16 seconds due to sharing processing between radar and windshear event detection. (d) Windshear scan pattern When the system operates in windshear mode only, the scan pattern is +/- 45 deg. azimuth coverage on both the clockwise and counterclockwise scans. This mode occurs if the operator has placed the weather radar to OFF mode. Windshear data are processed during both directions of antenna scanning. In this case the windshear mode works transparent to the flight crew until a windshear event is detected. The refresh rate of the display is 8 seconds. B. Timing of Transmitted Pulses in WX/MAP Mode and in Doppler Mode (Turbulence) and W/S Mode - in the WX and MAP modes, the basic period of pulse transmission-reception is 5.25 ms. This causes an interrogation frequency (PRF) of 190 Hz. As two pulses are transmitted (6 micros and 18 micros), the specified PRF is 380 Hz. Both 6-micros and 18-micros pulses are used to cover all range scales i.e. from 0 to 320 nm. The 6-micros wide pulse echo is processed for ranges from 0 to 20 nm. The 18-micros wide pulse echo is processed for ranges greater than 40 nm. The 6-micros and 18-micros pulse echoes are processed for ranges between 20 and 40 nm. - in the turbulence mode (HIGH PRF), the HIGH PRF and LOW PRF pulses are interlaced. This causes simultaneous WX/MAP and TURBULENCE information. The 6-micros wide pulses 1 to 9 are transmitted at 1600 Hz and are used for turbulence detection. The 18-micros wide pulse 10 is used for the WX/MAP mode. The high frequency of the PRF required for turbulence detection (1600 Hz) limits the range of this detection to 40 nm. - in windshear mode (VERY HIGH PRF) the 1.5-micros wide pulses are transmitted at 6000 Hz. The sequence of transmitted RF pulses consists of two staggered pulse trains, each with the different carrier frequency. Each pulse train has a PRF of 3000 Hz, providing 10 nm (minimum selected range on EFIS control panel). C. Controls and Indicating The various system controls are grouped on the weather radar control unit and on the EFIS control panels of the FCU. Radar image control on the NDs is achieved through the scale selector switches located on the Captain and First Officer EFIS control panels of the FCU. (1) Weather radar control unit The face of the weather radar control unit includes the following controls: (a) A mode selector switch which enables the selection of the WX, WX/TURB or MAP function. (b) A TILT selector switch which enables the control of the antenna elevation. Antenna position is read in degrees, opposite the notch on the switch: - either from 0 to 15 deg. upwards (UP) - or from 0 to -15 deg. downwards (DN). (c) A GAIN potentiometer which enables the manual adjustment of the transceiver gain. (d) A switch with three stable positions 1/OFF/2, which enables the selection of the transceiver 1 or 2 and the deactivation of the transceivers. (e) A WINDSHEAR/AUTO/OFF switch which enables the selection of the windshear function. The face of the control unit is provided with integral lighting. The INTEG LT potentiometer enables lighting adjustment. The potentiometer is located on the panel 111VU, at the left aft section of the center pedestal 100VU.

(2) EFIS control panel (on the FCU) In this part, is only described the controls related to the selection of WX and W/S functions. A mode selector switch made up of a rotary switch enables the selection of the ROSE or ARC function for display of a weather radar image on the CAPT and F/O NDs. Windshear information is available in ARC and ROSE mode. Qualifiers A and B signals Two types of qualifier inputs are required to prevent automatic activation of the windshear function. Qualifiers A: two qualifiers A inputs are used. These input signals are provided by the ATC/TCAS control panel indicating when the AUTO or ON position is selected. The qualifier A1 signal coming from J1 ATC/TCAS control panel is connected to the WXR/PWS transceivers 1 and 2. The qualifier A2 signal coming from J2 ATC/TCAS control panel is connected to the WXR/PWS transceivers 1 and 2. The qualifier A2 is for redundancy. Qualifiers B: two qualifiers B inputs are also used. These input signals are provided by the engine oil pressure sensors indicating when there is normal operating pressure. The qualifier B1 is connected to engine 1 and the qualifier B2 is connected to engine 2. The qualifier B2 is for redundancy. Qualifiers B1 and B2 are connected to transceivers 1 and 2. In order to activate automatically the windshear function, one of each qualifier A and one of each qualifier B have to be valid. TASK 34-41-00-710-802 Operational test of the Weather-Radar Antenna Scanning WARNING: OBEY THESE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN THE WEATHER RADAR IS IN OPERATION. MAKE SURE THAT: ALL PERSONS ARE MORE THAN 5m (16.4ft) FROM THE ANTENNA. NO PERSON IS IN THE AREA MADE BY AN ARC OF 135 DEG. ON EACH SIDE OF THE AIRCRAFT CENTERLINE. THERE IS A MINIMUM SAFETY DISTANCE OF 60m (200ft) BETWEEN THE ANTENNA AND ALL REFUELING OPERATIONS. THERE IS A MINIMUM SAFETY DISTANCE OF 5m (16.4ft) BETWEEN THE AIRCRAFT AND ANY OBSTACLE IN THE AREA MADE BY AN ARC OF 90 ON EACH SIDE OF THE AIRCRAFT CENTERLINE.