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Modelling and simulation technologies

We may use models because they are simpler than reality and because they help us understand a real life situation better

We may use models because they are simpler than reality and because they help us understand a real life situation better

What are models?


Representation of a physical object, an idea or a process.
It is an abstract, mathematical representation of a real-world object or situation.

What will be the relationship between models and spreadsheets?

Which aspects are considered relevant in a model?


Give examples

What is simulation
It is the implementation of a model
It is the application of a model to see how it performs

It is used because sometimes it is not possible to observe the real-life event: star explossion

In a simulation, a model may behave in different ways

A simulation requires a model, a model does not require a simulation

Simulation is a virtual experience

Classification
Conceptual objects and situations in the form of ideas Clarify the relationship between the parts of the system

Models

Computer

It has coordinates or equations

Easy to manipulate. If it is complex time is required to be executed

Mathematical

Apply mathematical formulae

Easily taken to a computer model

Classification

Visualization
Models Physical

Graphical representation 3D representation of real-world objects

Maps and charts


Used in wind tunnels for aerodynamic tests

Virtual reality

Virtual Reality

Virtual reality
A technology that gives the user the impression that they are fully immersed in a computer-simulated environment The user must wear a special input devices: headset, joysticks or googles.

Application areas
Education
Architecture

Medical training, to explore human body


To walk through the construction and test its design from both inside and outside, test the lightning conditions

Engineering

Complex mechanical parts can be explores in 3D For flight simulation training Realistic computer games

Training
Entertainment

Augmented reality

Augmented reality

Augmented reality

Augmented reality
It is a technology that sumperimposes a computer-generated image (CGI) over the real-world image

Wearable gestural interfaces


The computer generates onto the real world objects
The FU interacts with the CGI and can get info from it

Augmented Reality Glasses


Allow light to pass to the eye while at the same time acting as information screen
Devices that tallow to see people, labels or texts

AR in Smartphones
AR programs that contain an integrated movement screen and camera
Can help in navigation to determine the direction and distance

AR in television sports
CGG sumperimposed in fields to trace movement Help for jurors

AR maps
Satellite images can be augmented with extra information from the Internet and CGI of buildings and roads

When are 2D and 3D used?

2D 3D

Maps, charts, graphs Zoom in/out, Move horizontally/vertically

PC screen is 2D. It cant display 3D. Required specialized glasses with polarized filters. Offer more info than 2D Has more freedom. Another persective Increase image realism

Importance of simulation
Large amount of data Presented for humans

?
Graphic and images

Importance of simulation

When a model is valid?


It depends on the purpose or the perspective

Which elements are valid to simulate the decoration of your room?

When a model is valid?


It depends on the purpose or the perspective

Which elements are valid to simulate the lightning of your room?

When a model is valid?


Verification It must be verified against the real world Check if the model correspond to the reality Simulation in scale model, adjusted to computer models Reliability
Interaction is considered. How the factors iteract between them? Assumptions: the considered factors were randomly selected? Or accidentally excluded?

Starting parameters, otherwise it may work incomplete or not accurate

When a model is valid?


Can we predict the weather in advanced (7 days)? Factors change constantly every day: Humidity, air pressure, temperature, winds. Forecasters run simulation several times changing factors, according to results they publish them

Faulty and hidden assumptions


Relevant It may create a big project Too difficult to create Improve the final result

The real world is complex, it is impossible to consder all the factors

Faulty and hidden assumptions


An engineer assumes the color of a metal bridge is not relevant to the stability of the structure. He keeps out the color of the model. Is that right?

Faulty and hidden assumptions


Assumptions! Assumptions! Assumptions!
Unexpected results!

Faulty and hidden assumptions


Problem: color can influence the temperature.
Darker colors absorb more light, causing the metal to expand

Faulty and hidden assumptions


If the engineer inputs wrong or incomplete data: wind speed, water currents.

Faulty and hidden assumptions


If the engineer inputs wrong or incomplete data: wind speed, water currents.
CRASH!! CRASH!!

Faulty assumptions

Problems of simplifying reality


A computer simulation may consume too much computation time. Be done carefully Risky and chaotic behavior! Some systems are difficult to predict

Problems of simplifying reality