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Error Analysis

Limiting Error
Components are guaranteed to be within a certain percentage of the rated value. Thus the manufacturer has to specify the deviation from the nominal value of a particular quantity.
The limit of these deviation from the specified value are defined as limiting li i i error or guaranteed error. d

Types of Error
Gross Error Systematic Error Random Error No measurement can be made with perfect accuracy, but it is important to find out what accuracy actually is and how different errors have entered into th i t the measurement. t

Gross Error
Mainly covers human mistakes
misreading of instrument, incorrect adjustment and improper application of instruments, and computational mistakes

Responsibility lies with the experimenter Examples:

Due to oversight, one may read 31.50C to 21 0C i h d 31 21.5 C, During recording, one may read 25.80C and write 28.50C.

Th i mathematical analysis is impossible Their th ti l l i i i ibl How to avoid it ?

Great care should be taken while reading and recording the data. Several readings should be taken, preferably by different experiment.

Systematic Error
Mainly divided into three categories 1. Instrumental 2. Environmental 1. Instrumental Error Due to inherent shortcomings of Instruments Due to misuse of the Instruments ue suse o t e st u e ts Due to the loading effects of Instruments Example of a well calibrated Voltmeter
Can give misleading results when connected across two point in a highresistance circuit. The same, when connected in a low-resistance circuit, may give more dependable readings Thi due to the L di Effect This d h Loading Eff

3. Observational

2. Environmental Error Due to the conditions external to the measuring device i.e, area surrounding the instrument. g
Temperature, pressure, humidity, dust, vibrations or magnetic/electric field

3. Observational Error Due to the Parallax effect incurred by the line of vision.
Also called as the human error during observation

Can be avoided by placing the pointer and the scale in the same plane

Random Error
Due to unknown causes and occur even when all systematic errors have been accounted for. They become important in high-accuracy work The only way to avoid it is by increasing the number of consecutive readings and using statistical means to obtain the best approximation of the true value of measurand. Also known as the Residual Error.

Revise the following terms:

Mean, Deviation, Average Deviation, g Standard Deviation, Variance