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Temperatura versus gradul de urbanizare

Urban Heat Island (UHI) Phenomenon


UHI effect - first recorded as early as 1807- English scientist (Luke Howard) took data in and about London - he noticed that the city of London got heated due to smoke and pollution mainly from coal industries In 1818, he noticed - urbanized areas had temperature increases of about 1.5 degrees compared to rural areas

- The problem acquires greater importance in the tropics including the Philippines, where the nighttime rate of air movement is low

Microclimates and Outdoor Spaces Microclimates are the climates of small-scale areas that are distinct from the prevailing conditions of the surroundings. The urban heat island (UHI) effect is an example of a microclimate. UHI is a phenomenon where air temperatures over densely built up urban areas are higher than suburban / rural areas. Mitigation strategies are important to negate the negative impact of UHI and improve outdoor comfort conditions.
Urban heat island effect increases urgent need for trees to modify temperature

Urban water management "Open space which is not concreted or paved allows maximum absorption of water in to the ground which is important for the health and survival of vegetation in the surrounding area. It is therefore imperative to consolidate and increase permeable open space,

Fed Square (Anglia)

Fed Square (Anglia) - with green roof, an oasis in the city

Flinder Street Station as it is now, a desert

from above with green roofs to manage the Urban Heat Island Effect

Juglans - inghet tarziu

Acer stres hidric

Relaiile plantelor lemnoase ornamentale cu factorii climatici

Vntul - avantaje: transport mase de aer; zvantarea; ncalzire


rcorire
-dezavantaje: deshidratare; seceta fiziologic; deformare; aciuni mecanice (Robinia, Acer negundo, Populus, Betula,Ttilia)

Aerul

Relaiile plantelor lemnoase ornamentale cu factorii edafici

Elementele nutritive
macroelemente:N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, microelemente: Zn, Cu, Mo, Co, B, Cl

Specii eutrofe: Catalpa, Corylus avellana, Chaenomeles, Juglans nigra, Platanus, Paulownia, Rosa, Sophora, Campsis, Ulmus, Wisteria sinensis
Specii mezotrofe: Abies, Larix, Picea, Thuja, Acer, Buddleja, Carpinus betulus, Lonicera, Magnolia, Prunus, Tilia Specii oligotrofe: Juniperus communis, Pinus mugo, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula, Cytisus, Lycium barbarum, Robinia pseudacacia, Sorbus aucuparia Specii cu amplitudine ecologic: Ailanthus, Amorpha, Berberis vulgaris, Ligustrum vulgare, Potentilla, Physocarpus, Populus tremula, Quercus cerris, Spiraea, Symphoricarpos albus

Calciul din sol (calcarul activ) - specii calcifile: Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Ailanthus, Buxus, Carpinus, Catalpa, Celtis, Corylus, Cotoneaster, Fagus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Juniperus sabina, Kerria, Morus, Populus nigra Italica, Quercus cerris, Sophora - specii calcifuge: Betula, Calluna, Castanea, Magnolia, Cytisus, Quercus suber, Robinia pseudacacia Sodiul, magneziul, calciul, clorul (cloruri, sulfati,bicarbonati) srturarea solului secet fiziologic, afectarea structurii solului - specii tolerante: Amorpha, Caragana, Elaeagnus, Gleditsia, Hippophae, Koelreuteria, Lycium, Ppopulus alba, Rhus, Sambucus nigra, Symphoricarpos, Tamarix, Ulmus pumilla

Materia organic
rezult prin mineralizarea resturilor organice Humusul (N + humai)) component esenial, surs de elemente nutritive - influeneaz nsuirile fizice, chimice i biologice ale solului msuri

Reacia soluiei solului (pH)


soluia solului = apa + subst. minerale + subst. organice + gaze influeneaz dinamica elementelor nutritive

Aciditatea solului specii puternic acidofile: (pH 3,8-5,2) Calluna, Erica, Vaccinium myrtillus specii acidofile: (pH 5-6,5) Picea abies, Pinus mugo, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula, Populus tremula specii moderat acidofile: (pH 5,5-6,5) Abies, Juniperus communis, Larix decidua, Acer pseudoplatanus, Cornus alba, Fagus, Hydrangea, Rhododendron, Quercus petrea, Rosa rugosa, Salix alba Alcalinitatea solului pH 7,5-8 pH >8,5 salinitate (saruri alcaline in exces) Valori optime 6,8-7,2

nsuirile fizice ale solului


textura, structura, porozitazea, capacitatea de aeraie, nsuiri hidrofizice Textura solului argil/ praf/ nisip soluri nisipoase, soluri argiloase - specii pentru soluri uoare (nisipoase, nisipo-lutoase): Abies concolor, Acer campestre, Ailanthus, Amorpha, Caragana, Cornus, cytisus, Elaeagnus, Tamarix, Hippophae, Gleditsia, Juniperus communis, Picea pungens, Pinus mugo, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, Potentilla, Salix alba, S. Caprea - specii pentru soluri pietroase: Berberis vulgaris, Cornus mas, Corylus, Fraxinus ornus, Populus tremula, Ulmus minor, Sorbus aucuparia - specii pentru soluri grele (luto-argiloase i argiloase): Alnus glutinosa, Aesculus, Weigela florida, Euonymus europaeus, Frangula alnus, Kerria, laburnum, Ribes, Rosa canina, Rhus typhina Structura solului - influeneaz consistena, aeraia, nutriia, umiditatea - lipsa structurii limitativ pentru. cultura plantelor. Impune intervenii -

Relaiile plantelor lemnoase cu factorii geomorfologici


Macrorelieful determin distribuia zonal a vegetaiei prin modif. climatului Creterea altitudinii Expoziia pantei nclinarea pantei Microrelieful

Relaiile plantelor lemnoase ornamentale cu factorii biotici


Aciuni directe
ale plantelor: presiuni ale tulpinilor, rdcinilor, susinerea lianelor, caracterul invadant al unor specii - ale animalelor: roztoare, vnat - ale microorganismelor: virui, ciuperci, bacterii patogene, insecte fitofage - reacia plantelor: fitoncide, gale, proliferri, calusare

Aciuni indirecte - de natur climatic: umbrire, consum de ap, elemente nutritive - stnjenire de natur biochimic: autotoxinele - ptura erbacee - micorizele - simbioze cu bacterii (Rhizobium) Leguminosae - simbioze cu actinomicete -Alnus, Elaeagnus, Hippophae - bacterizare cu Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida antagoniste pentru. Pytium, Botrytis, Fusarium, Phytophtora - relaii de parazitism i semiparazitism: vscul, lichenii (epifitismul)

Ectomicoriza

Boletus edulis

TRUFE Tuber melanosporum - aestivum, gibbosum, magnatum,, texensis


Aroma lor este descrisa ca o combinatie de mosc, nuci si usturoi sau ozon

Relaiile plantelor lemnoase cu factorii antropici


Modificrile antropice ale factorilor staionali - factorii climatici: temperatura i uscciunea curenii de aer - condiiile de sol Poluarea
- produs de industrie, termocentrale, autovehicule, activit. casnice - gaze toxice: bioxid i trioxid de sulf, oxizi de azot, etilen, nitrai, amoniu, compui ai fluorului; pulberi: compui cu arsenic, plumb, fier, mangan, cadmiu, ciment, siliciu; cenui, funingine, uleiuri, gudroane

Specii tolerante la poluare: Abies concolor, Chamaecyparis, Ginkgo, Juniperus chinensis, J. Sabina, Larix, Pinus mugo, P. nigra, Taxus, Thuja sp., Acer campestre, Acer ginnala, A. pseudoplatanus, Ailanthus, Alnus, Betula, Gleditsia, platanus, Quercus rubra, Robinia pseudacacia, Sophora, Buddleja, Buxus, Caragana, Cornus alba, C. mas, C. sanguinea, Crataegus, Elaeagnus, Euonymus, Lonicera
Plantele filtre biologice

Trees Damaged by Sulfur Emissions Czech Republic

Impactul omului cu vegetaia lemnoas


- activitile recreative, presiunea aglomerrilor, neglijena

Factorii de cultur (tehnologici)

An integrated approach

When caring for urban trees it is important to make a complete evaluation of all environmental conditions to accurately diagnose all stress factors and prescribe care based on specific circumstances. This prescriptive care will help your tree meet its full potential.

BUDS Much of the trees energy goes into producing buds that contain the embryonic shoots, leaves and flowers for the next growing season
BRANCHES Branches give the tree its basic shape and provide the Branch Fork leaves with the best exposure to the sun. The loss of a major branch in a Branch Union mature tree can cause the tree to be out of balance and, eventually, to topple. Trunk Flare

LEAVES Leaves produce food for the tree. Pores, or stomata, on the leaves take in carbon dioxide and release water and oxygen. They close when water is limited and open when it is abundant

canopy

trunk

drip line

ROOTS The health of the roots depends on soil texture and depth. Disturbing the soil above and in the root system can cause the tree to die.

Root Hairs

KEEPING URBAN TREES STRESS-FREE

A GOOD START!

A properly planted caliper-sized tree in a windy location is staked, mulched and guarded.

WATERING
Regular watering will enhance the growth and health of any tree

FERTILIZING

PRUNING

General Rules for Pruning

prune all weak, diseased, dead and crossing branches use proper pruning techniques and maintain the branch collar keep the main leader, otherwise the tree will loose its form and shape dont remove more than one-third of the trees original crown wear protective gear hard hat, gloves, safety glasses know your limits and the limits of your tools when in doubt, call a professional

Pruning Tools
Make sure tools are clean, sharp, free of rust and in proper working condition

THREE-CUT METHOD OF PRUNING


CUT A Make your first cut two feet from the trunk. Cut half way through the branch, moving from the bottom up. CUT B The second cut is onethird to half the diameter of the limb away from the first cut. Cut half way through the branch. At this point, the limb should fall from its own weight.
Bark Ridge

Cut B

Cut C Cut A
Branch Collar

CUT C The final cut is next to the trunk. Cut outside the branch collar with the lower edge being further away from the trunk of the tree.

Bark tearing caused by not using the three cut method

ASSESSING SICK AND DAMAGED TREES

An ice-damaged tree that should be taken down

Special attention should be given to trees that are close to people they may be a hazard

TREATING DAMAGE AND REDUCING STRESSES

ICE DAMAGE

BENDING

breaking

poling

Broken and bent leaders can be corrected in young conifers

DAMAGED TRUNK

Remove loose bark and shape the wound into an ellipse

SUN SCALD

Sunscald occurs when rapid changes in temperature create a crack in the tree

DISEASES

Concs and mushrooms are an indication of a diseased tree

CABLING, BRACING AND GUYING

A good example of cabling

CALLING IN THE EXPERTS

GETTING PROFESSIONAL HELP