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Friction Loss in Pipe Flow

Instructed by: Mr. H. Rathnasooriya

Name:

P. M. Liyanage.

Index No:

090296P

Group:

B-3

Date of Performance:

03/08/2010

Date of Submission:

15/08/2010

Introduction
In pipe flow the energy of the fluid is lost due to frictional resistance in the pipe surface. These
head losses are called frictional head losses. In pipe flow problems it is important to determine
the frictional head loss.
Depending on the type of flow (Laminar or Turbulent) frictional head loss varies.

Laminar Flow
Laminar flow also known as streamline flow is where the fluid flows in parallel layers in an orderly
manner without disruptions. This usually happens in low velocities.

Turbulent Flow
Turbulent flow is where there is no orderly flow of fluids. This usually happens in high velocities.

To determine the type of flow a new property called the Reynolds number is defined. This is a
non-dimensional property expressed as,

Where, = Fluid Density, V = Flow Velocity, D = Pipe Diameter and = Fluid Viscosity.

In pipes the flow is Laminar when Re < 2000 and Turbulent when Re > 4000, with the in between
region is called the Laminar to Turbulent transitional Range.
For a Turbulent Flow the Frictional Head loss - hf can be calculated using the Darcy Weisbach
equation.

Where = Friction Factor, L = Pipe Length and g = Acceleration due to gravity.


To determine Colebrook White Equation is widely used.

( )

Where ks is known as the effective Roughness of the Pipe Material.


For Laminar flow, to calculate hf Hagen Poiseuille equation can be used.

If the Hagen Poiseuille equation is expressed in the form of Darcy Weisbach equation so that
an equivalent friction factor can be defined even for the laminar flow cases.

Giving,

The variations of as given by the equations (3) and (5) can be expressed graphically by using a
Moody diagram.

Objectives
To verify that the friction factor in pipe flow varies as expressed in equations (3) and (5) for,

Small diameter (3mm) pipe


Commercially used PVC Pipes
Commercially used Galvanized Iron (GI) pipe.

Methodology
For a horizontal pipe of uniform diameter, hf in equation can be expressed as

Where P1and P2 are the pressures at sections (1) and (2) respectively, which can be measured by
the piezometer or the differential manometer.
V can be expressed as,

In which,

Where V is the volume of outflow in a time interval t.


Hence Re can be calculated by equation (1) and can be calculated by equations (2) and (5).

Apparatus

Pipe Friction Apparatus

Stop Watch
Measuring Vessel
Ruler/ Measuring Tape

Piezometer
Manometer

Flow control
valve

h1
H2
H1

h2

(1)

(2)

Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Open the control valve and obtain a steady flow rate


Record the piezometer readings h1 and h2 and/or manometer readings H1 and H2
Collect the outflow in a time interval t and measure the volume V
Adjust the flow rate by the control valve and repeat steps 2 and 3 for different flow rates
Measure the length L of the pipe
Record the diameter of the pipe

Calculations
For 3 mm diameter GI pipe
(

(mm)

)
(mm)
35
46
59
76
101
198
282
373
456
513

176
277
365
743
517
542
592
592
617
680
731
781
Length: 524 mm

Mean
Value
(mm)

V
(ml)

35
46
59
76
101
187
280
369
600
515
542
592
592
617
680
731
781

100
100
100
100
200
200
200
250
300
300
400
400
400
400
400
400
500

Qmean (x106m3/s)

V (m/s)

1.300
1.888
2.389
3.081
4.101
5.164
6.247
7.288
8.420
9.120
9.251
9.371
9.762
10.100
10.675
10.792
11.107

0.184
0.267
0.338
0.436
0.581
0.731
0.885
1.032
1.193
1.292
1.310
1.327
1.383
1.431
1.512
1.529
1.573

t (s)

Q (ml/s)

t1

t2

t3

Q1

76.97
52.94
41.59
32.29
48.77
38.23
31.86
34.46
35.98
33.13
43.22
42.25
40.51
39.27
37.70
37.82
44.83

76.92
52.91
42.08
32.70
48.82
38.75
32.05
34.11
35.93
32.42
43.61
42.38
41.11
39.35
37.20
36.66
45.19

76.84
53.07
41.91
32.38
48.71
39.22
32.13
34.34
34.99
33.15
42.89
43.45
41.31
40.21
37.52
36.74
45.03

1.299
1.889
2.404
3.097
4.101
5.231
6.277
7.255
8.338
9.055
9.255
9.467
9.874
10.186
10.610
10.576
11.153

Q2

Q3

Qmean
(ml/s)

1.300 1.301 1.300


1.890 1.884 1.888
2.376 2.386 2.389
3.058 3.088 3.081
4.097 4.106 4.101
5.161 5.099 5.164
6.240 6.225 6.247
7.329 7.280 7.288
8.350 8.574 8.420
9.254 9.050 9.120
9.172 9.326 9.251
9.438 9.206 9.371
9.730 9.683 9.762
10.165 9.948 10.100
10.753 10.661 10.675
10.911 10.887 10.792
11.064 11.104 11.107

hf (x 10-3m)
615.944
894.268
1131.710
1459.597
1942.815
2446.339
2959.570
3452.515
3988.967
4320.122
4382.466
4439.074
4624.635
4784.417
5056.791
5112.226
5261.692

35
46
59
76
101
187
280
369
600
515
542
592
592
617
680
731
781

0.115913
0.072272
0.05788
0.044822
0.033621
0.04073
0.041743
0.040477
0.049668
0.036017
0.038271
0.040744
0.03754
0.036556
0.036066
0.037932
0.038258

For PVC Pipe


a1
a2
a1- a2
(mm) (mm) (mm)
21.9
7.0
14.9
19.9
8.5
11.4
19.0
9.4
9.6
17.5
10.5
7.0
16.7
11.4
5.3
16.0
11.9
4.1
15.4
12.5
2.9
14.8
12.9
1.9
14.3
13.2
1.1
Diameter: 16mm

V
(ml)
10940
10940
10940
4790
4790
4790
4790
4790
4790

t1
27.17
31.76
35.36
19.13
22.34
26.34
32.16
40.95
58.89

Qmean (x106m3/s)

V (m/s)

404.947
343.487
310.740
250.131
212.457
179.950
149.253
116.405
81.774

2.014042
1.708362
1.545492
1.244048
1.056676
0.894997
0.742321
0.578950
0.406712

t (s)
t2
27.06
31.87
35.13
19.16
22.65
26.76
32.06
41.25
58.42

t3
26.82
31.92
35.13
19.16
22.65
26.76
32.06
41.25
58.42

Q1
402.650
344.458
309.389
250.392
214.414
181.853
148.943
116.972
81.338

Q (ml/s)
Q2
404.287
343.270
311.415
250.000
211.479
178.999
149.407
116.121
81.992

Qmean
(ml/s)
Q3
407.905 404.947
342.732 343.487
311.415 310.740
250.000 250.131
211.479 212.457
178.999 179.950
149.407 149.253
116.121 116.405
81.992
81.774
Length: 616cm

hf (x 10-3m)
17962.47
15236.23
13783.65
11095.19
9424.085
7982.139
6620.478
5163.433
3627.311

202.64
155.04
130.56
95.20
72.08
55.76
39.44
25.84
14.96

0.002545813
0.002707211
0.002785576
0.003134736
0.003289802
0.003547460
0.003647469
0.003928700
0.004608881

For GI Pipe
a1
a2
a1- a2
(mm) (mm) (mm)
26.3
24.3
2.0
28.2
22.5
5.7
29.3
21.4
7.9
30.5
20.3
10.2
32.5
18.4
14.1
34.1
16.8
17.3
36.0
15.0
21.0
37.7
13.6
24.1
39.0
12.5
26.5
40.5
11.0
29.5
42.5
9.5
33.0
Diameter: 18.5mm

V
(ml)
4790
4790
4790
4790
4790
4790
4790
10490
10490
10490
10490

Qmean (x106m3/s)

V (m/s)

78.321
132.782
157.119
177.434
212.225
232.213
259.560
268.585
281.197
303.704
696.308

0.291371
0.493975
0.584514
0.660092
0.789518
0.863879
0.965614
0.999189
1.046111
1.129842
2.590408

t1
60.75
36.39
30.6
26.8
22.24
20.61
18.75
39.09
36.95
35.3
15.02

t (s)
t2
61.49
35.68
30.99
27.14
22.86
20.37
18.33
38.99
37.38
34.69
15.27

t3
61.24
36.16
29.89
27.05
22.62
20.91
18.29
39.09
37.59
33.67
14.91

Q1
78.848
131.630
156.536
178.731
215.378
232.411
255.467
268.355
283.897
297.167
698.402

Q (ml/s)
Q2
77.899
134.249
154.566
176.492
209.536
235.150
261.320
269.043
280.631
302.393
686.968

Qmean
(ml/s)
Q3
78.217
78.321
132.467 132.782
160.254 157.119
177.079 177.434
211.760 212.225
229.077 232.213
261.892 259.560
268.355 268.585
279.064 281.197
311.553 303.704
703.555 696.308
Length: 616cm

hf (x 10-3m)
6009.315
10187.89
12055.19
13613.94
16283.26
17816.89
19915.12
20607.58
21575.32
23302.2
53425.36

25.2
71.82
99.54
128.52
177.66
217.98
264.6
303.66
333.9
371.7
415.8

0.01749
0.017343
0.017167
0.01738
0.016794
0.017211
0.016721
0.017922
0.017978
0.017157
0.003651

Laminar
Flow 3 mm
Diameter
Pipe
Turbulent Flow 3 mm Diameter
Pipe

Darcy - Weisbach Friction Factor


0.115913
0.072272
0.05788
0.044822
0.033621
0.04073
0.041743
0.040477
0.049668
0.036017
0.038271
0.040744
0.03754
0.036556
0.036066
0.037932
0.038258
0.01749
0.017343
0.017167
0.01738
0.016794
0.017211
0.016721
0.017922
0.017978
0.017157
0.003651

Turbulent Flow 18.5 mm


Diameter Pipe

Reynolds Number
615.944
894.268
1131.71
1459.597
1942.815
2446.339
2959.57
3452.515
3988.967
4320.122
4382.466
4439.074
4624.635
4784.417
5056.791
5112.226
5261.692
6009.315
10187.89
12055.19
13613.94
16283.26
17816.89
19915.12
20607.58
21575.32
23302.2
53425.36

The Friction Factors of the PVC Pipe is in the Range 2.5 x 10-3 to 4.6 x 10-3. Therefore it cannot be
drawn in the Graph.

Discussion
Significance of friction flow in pipe flow analysis
Usually in pipe flow Head loss is a major consideration. There are two kinds of head losses that
occur. They are,

Major losses (Frictional losses)


Minor losses

Minor loss occurs due to variations in the flow. Such as,

Sudden Expansion
Sudden Contraction
Exit
Entrance
Pipe Bends
Junctions, etc.

Major losses occur due to friction in pipe surfaces. Out of these two minor losses are not
considerable large in long pipes when considered with frictional losses.
Frictional loss is the energy loss created as a result of turbulence created at the boundary
between the pipe surface and the flowing water.
When analyzing a pipe flow the following factors need to be looked at,

Pressure
Flow rate
Leakages
Velocity

All of these factors are affected by the frictional head losses in the pipe. Therefore to get the
desired results the diameter of the pipe, additional head supplies, etc. needs to be calculated. For
these analysis of frictional loss is important.
In the determination of frictional loss the type of flow needs to be looked at. Depending on
whether it is Laminar or Turbulent, the way the analysis is done differs.
In analysis of frictional loss the Darcy Weisbach Frictional factor is an important value. This can
be calculated by the Colebrook - White Equation.

( )

Here the ks value is the surface roughness of the pipe which is determined experimentally. In
turbulent flow there are three types which differ based on the Reynolds number. They are,

Smooth Turbulent Flow


Rough Turbulent Flow
Transitional Turbulent Flow

Smooth Turbulent Flow


When the Reynolds number is low (Re<4000) Smooth Turbulent Flow Occurs. Then,
( )

Therefore,
[

In these occasions the frictional loss is only dependent on the Reynolds number. The surface
Roughness has negligible impact on the frictional loss.
The main reason to this is the fact that the rough surface of the pipe is underneath the laminar
sub layer of the flow. Therefore there will be no turbulence due to surface roughness. In these
instances it is said to be a Hydraulically Smooth Pipe.

Rough Turbulent Flow


When the Reynolds number is very large (

) It is said to be a Rough Turbulent flow. Then,

( )

Therefore,
[

( )]

Here the friction is entirely dependent on the roughness of the pipe. The impact from t Reynolds
number is negligible. That is turbulence between fluid layers do not affect it much.
In these situations the rough surface of the pipe is not covered with the laminar sub layer. In
these situations the pipe is called a Hydraulically Rough Pipe.

Transitional Turbulent Flow


Here in moderate Reynolds numbers the friction is impacted by both roughness and turbulence.
The friction factor will be calculated as,

( )

Boundary layer and Friction factor


As mentioned above in low Reynolds numbers the rough surface is covered entirely by the
laminar sub layer. Therefore the variations in Reynolds number will change the frictional factors
according to Colebrook White equation. In high values the roughness will affect the friction
which stays at a constant level.

Effect of Aging on friction factor


When the pipes age there are wastes deposited and corrosion on pipe surfaces. The affect of this
is on the diameter of the pipe and the roughness size of the pipe. The roughness pipe increases
and diameter decrease resulting in the value ks/D increasing. Therefore the frictional factors will
increase.

Values obtained
For the PVC pipe the roughness size couldnt be obtained due to the fact that it is out of the
range of the graph.
For the 3mm GI Pipe,

For the 18.5 mm GI Pie,

Both the values obtained are nearby Values. Usually for GI Pipes the value is around 0.15 mm.

Other Types of Head Losses


Other Types of head losses fall into the category of Minor losses.

Sudden Expansion
Sudden Contraction
Exit
Entrance
Pipe Bends
Junctions, etc.

can be given as reasons for them. In pipe flow minor head losses are significant only for short
pipes. Unless the head losses due to friction is much larger compared to them. On most Civil
Engineering the pipes have a high length. Therefore minor losses can be neglected.

References

Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems By Robert J. Houghtalen, A. Osman


Akan, Ned H. C. Hwang
Hydrology and water supply for pond aquaculture By Kyung H. Yoo, Claude E. Boyd