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Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System 1) Which of the following statements about hormones is incorrect?

D) They are used to communicate between different organisms. 2) The secretion of hormone A causes a change in the amount of protein X in an organism. If this mechanism works by positive feedback, which of the following statements represents that fact? A) An increase in A produces an increase in X. 3) Which of the following is (are) true? A) Hormones regulate cellular functions, and negative feedback regulates hormone levels. 4) What do nitric oxide and epinephrine have in common? D) Only A and B are correct. 5) Substance X is secreted by one cell, travels a short distance through interstitial fluid, and produces an effect in a cell immediately adjacent to the original secreting cell. All of the following terms could describe this substance except D) pheromone. 6) Based on their effects, which pair below could be considered antagonistic? A) prostaglandin F and nitric oxide 7) Which of the following is a local regulator responsible for activating an enzyme that relaxes smooth muscle cells? A) nitric oxide 8) Prostaglandins are local regulators whose basic structure is derived from B) fatty acids. 9) Which of the following examples is incorrectly paired with its class? C) prostaglandin-peptide hormone 10) What is the mode of action of aspirin and ibuprofen? A) They inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. 11) A cell that contains proteins enabling a hormone to selectively bind to its plasma membrane is called a(n) D) target cell.

12) Only certain cells in the body are target cells for the steroid hormone aldosterone. Which of the following is the best explanation for why these are the only cells that respond to this hormone? B) Only target cells contain receptors for aldosterone. 13) Why is it that some body cells respond differently to the same peptide hormones? D) The circulatory system regulates responses to hormones by routing the hormones to specific targets. 14) How is a cell's response to a water-soluble hormone amplified? D) regulatory proteins present inside of the cell 15) Frequently, very few molecules of a hormone are required to affect changes in a target cell. This is because C) the mechanism of hormonal action involves an enzyme cascade that amplifies the response to a hormone. 16) Why would a liver cell and a lung cell respond differently to the same steroid hormone? D) The acceptor proteins are associated with different genes in the two kinds of cells. 17) Hormone X produces its effect in its target cells via the cAMP second messenger system. Which of the following will produce the greatest effect in the cell? A) a molecule of hormone X applied to the extracellular fluid surrounding the cell 18) Which of the following statements about hormones is correct? C) Steroid hormones affect the synthesis of proteins, whereas peptide hormones affect the activity of proteins already present in the cell. 19) Where is it likely that you will find the receptor molecules for chemical signals? D) in the cell membrane of target cells 20) Hormones from the hypothalamus affect the release of all of the following except B) oxytocin. 21) The endocrine system and the nervous system are structurally related. Which of the following cells best illustrates this relationship? C) a neurosecretory cell in the hypothalamus

22) The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by means of A) releasing hormones. 23) Short blood vessels connect two capillary beds lying in which of the following? C) hypothalamus and anterior pituitary 24) Oxytocin and ADH are produced by the ________ and stored in the ________. A) hypothalamus; neurohypophysis 25) If a person drinks a large amount of water in a short period of time, he or she may die from water toxicity. ADH can help prevent water retention through interaction with target cells in the E) kidney. 26) Which of the following statements about the hypothalamus is incorrect? D) It secretes tropic hormones that act directly on the gonads. 27) Which combination of hormones helps a mother to produce milk and nurse her baby? B) oxytocin and prolactin 28) Prolactin stimulates mammary gland growth and development in mammals and regulates salt and water balance in freshwater fish. Many scientists think that this wide range of functions indicates which of the following? C) Prolactin is an evolutionary conserved hormone. 29) Which of the following have nontropic effects only? D) MSH 30) Iodine is added to commercially-prepared table salt to help prevent deficiencies of this essential mineral. Which gland(s) require(s) iodine to function properly? C) thyroid 31) Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary directly affect the release of which of the following? D) thyroxine 32) Which of the following endocrine disorders is not correctly matched with the malfunctioning gland? C) cretinism and adrenal medulla 33) One reason a person might be severely overweight is due to A) an undersecretion of thyroxine.

34) Which of the following statements about endocrine glands is incorrect? A) The parathyroids regulate metabolic rate. 35) Which of the following is an endocrine gland? A) parathyroid gland 36) Which hormone exerts antagonistic action to PTH (parathyroid hormone)? D) calcitonin 37) Which of the following glands shows both endocrine and exocrine activity? D) pancreas 38) All of the following are steroid hormones except D) insulin. 39) Blood samples taken from an individual who had been fasting for 24 hours would have which of the following? E) both B and C 40) What happens when beta cells of the pancreas release insulin into the blood? B) Body cells take up more glucose. 41) Which of the following endocrine structures are derived from nervous tissue? E) posterior pituitary and the adrenal medulla 42) The endocrine system and the nervous system are chemically related. Which of the following substances best illustrates this relationship? C) norepinephrine 43) Which of the following are synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine? A) epinephrine B) catecholamines C) norepinephrine E) A, B, and C 44) Which of the following glands is controlled directly by the hypothalamus or central nervous system but not the anterior pituitary? B) adrenal medulla 45) If the adrenal cortex were removed, which group of hormones would be most affected? A) steroid

46) Which of the following statements about the adrenal gland is correct? C) During stress, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex, and neurons of the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal medulla. 47) Which of the following hormones is (are) secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress and promote(s) the B) glucocorticoids In an experiment, rats' ovaries were removed immediately after impregnation and then the rats were divided into two groups. Treatments and results are summarized in the table below. 48) The results most likely occurred because progesterone exerts an effect on the C) maintenance of the uterus. 49) Which of the following hormone sequences is correct? B) GnRH FSH ovaries 50) Which of the following pairs of hormones do not have antagonistic effects? D) follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone 51) Melatonin has been found to participate in all of the following except E) calcium deposition in bone. 52) Which combination of gland and hormone would be linked to winter hibernation and spring reproduction in bears? A) pineal gland, melatonin 53) secreted by the pancreas B. glucagon 54) stimulates and maintains metabolic processes C. thyroxine 55) stimulates the contraction of uterine muscle D. oxytocin 56) secreted by the anterior pituitary E. growth hormone 57) steroid hormone that triggers molting in arthropods A. ecdysone

58) Which of the following endocrine structures is (are) not controlled by a tropic hormone from the anterior pituitary? A) pancreatic islet cells 59) testosterone A. androgens 60) estradiol B. estrogens 61) secreted by the pineal gland E. melatonin 62) epinephrine D. catecholamines 63) Insect brain hormone is most analogous to which of the following in humans? D) releasing hormones from the hypothalamus 64) The star of a recent movie was a caterpillar that never matured into an adult. It simply got larger with each molt. What is the probable reason why the caterpillar did not mature into an adult? D) increased level of juvenile hormone 65) Synthetic versions of which of the following hormones are being used as insecticides to prevent insects from maturing into reproducing adults? B) juvenile hormone Media Activity Questions 66) Which of these is the second of the three stages of cell signaling? B) transduction 67) Receptors for nonsteroid hormones are located in E) association with a cell's plasma membrane. 68) The primary reason steroid hormones usually act slowly is that E) they turn genes on or off and it takes time for gene products to build up or become depleted. 69) Steroid hormone-receptor complexes act in A) the nucleus. 70) ________ are the main male hormones. A) Androgens Self-Quiz Questions 71) Which of the following is not an accurate statement about hormones?

C) Hormones of the same chemical class usually have the same function. 72) A distinctive feature of the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones and steroid hormones is that D) these hormones bind to receptors inside cells. 73) Growth factors are local regulators that D) are proteins that bind to cell-surface receptors and stimulate growth and development of target cells. 74) Which of the following hormones is incorrectly paired with its action? C) insulinstimulates glycogen breakdown in the liver 75) An example of antagonistic hormones controlling homeostasis is B) insulin and glucagon in glucose metabolism. 76) Which of the following is not an example of the close structural and functional relationship between the nervous and endocrine systems? E) the alteration of gene expression by steroid hormones 77) A portal vessel carries blood from the hypothalamus directly to the C) anterior pituitary. 78) Which of the following is the most likely explanation for hypothyroidism in a patient whose iodine level is normal? B) hyposecretion of TSH 79) The main target organs for tropic hormones are C) endocrine glands. 80) The relationship between the insect hormones ecdysone and brain hormone A) is an example of the interaction between the endocrine and nervous systems.