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Energy Conversion and Management 45 (2004) 25532569

Heat transfer characteristics of some oils used for engine cooling

Hosny Z. Abou-Ziyan

Mech. Power Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo 11718, Egypt Received 1 July 2003; accepted 14 October 2003 Available online 13 April 2004

Abstract This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation of heat transfer from a cast iron test specimen to engine oils under boiling conditions. The work is aimed at evaluating the thermal characteristics of some engine oils in contact with high temperature parts in internal combustion engines. Three mono-grade oils and two multi-grade oils are examined at heat uxes from about 30 to more than 400 kW/ m2 for bulk temperatures of 40, 60, 80, 100, 125, 150 and 175 C. The considered oils are analyzed and tested according to some ASTM standards to determine their additives concentration and to obtain some of their thermophysical properties. The results indicated that oil additives, oil properties and bulk temperatures have substantial eects on the oil characteristics. The boiling heat ux, for the best oil, rises by a factor of 1.65 as the bulk temperature decreases from 175 to 40 C. The mono-grade oils produce superior heat transfer characteristics compared to those produced by multi-grade oils. The oil with the best additive concentrations produces boiling heat uxes up to 4.44 times higher than those produced by some other oils. Comparing the results of the tested oils revealed that the oil that has the largest concentrations of boron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc with low concentration of calcium yields the best heat transport characteristics among the other tested oils. These additives provide superior detergent and dispersant characteristics, reected in the large alkalinity and low corrosivity of the oil. On the other side, calcium has a negative interaction with other additives and yields an adverse eect on heat transfer characteristics even when it exists in oil with large concentrations of boron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc. 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Engine cooling; Engine oil; Oil additives; Subcooled boiling

Present address: State of Kuwait, P.O. Box 789, Surra 45708, Kuwait. Tel.: +20-9655347098; fax: +20-9654811753. E-mail address: (H.Z. Abou-Ziyan).

0196-8904/$ - see front matter 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2003.10.005


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Nomenclature cp d I K L q T V Greek l m q r specic heat of oil (kJ/kg K) diameter of heating element (m) current passing through heating element (A) thermal conductivity (W/m K) length of heating element (m) heat ux (kW/m2 ) temperature (C) voltage drop across heating element (V) symbols dynamic viscosity (N s/m2 ) kinematic viscosity (m2 /s) uid density (kg/m3 ) surface tension (N/m)

Subscripts b Bulk Sat Saturation w Wall Abbreviations ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials API American Petroleum Institute SAE Society of Automotive Engineers VI Viscosity index

1. Introduction Engine oils perform many functions, some of which are specic to individual parts of the engine, while others may be required by the whole range of engine parts. These functions include dissipation of heat, reduction of friction and wear, detergency, sealing of critical areas, ability to separate water and many more characteristics essential to the proper operation of engines. Untreated or non-formulated (base) oils do not possess the properties required for successful performance and require support from chemical additives to perform those functions properly. The success of engine oils relates highly to the complex additives that are blended into the engine base oils [1]. Oil additives are generally categorized as either chemically active or chemically inert. Chemically inert additives improve the physical properties that are critical to eective performance of the oil. These additives include viscosity index improvers, pour point depressants and foam inhibitors. Chemically active additives have the capability to interact with metals (to perform protective lms) and with oxidation and degradation products to make them harmless. These additives

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include dispersants, detergents, antiwear agents, extreme pressure agents and inhibitors to oxidation, rust and corrosion. Since the additives can interact with each other either positively (synergy) or negatively (antagonism), the art and technology of lubricant formulation is to select the best base oils and optimise the proportions of the various additives for the specic duty. The search for more powerful synergisms between additives of dierent species is still intense. Considerable interest is given to the development of oil properties and additives such as: total base number [2], total acid number [3,4], thermal stability and viscosity improvers [5] dispersant [6], antifriction, antioxidant and antiwear [4,79]. Techniques for continuous monitoring of oil quality are suggested [10,11]. By this means, periodicity and degradation of engine oils may be assessed and controlled using modern analysis techniques [1214]. The above discussion indicates that previous works on engine oils focused on the development of additives to accomplish the desirable tribological properties of oils. However, no work is devoted to the eect of these oil additives on the heat transfer from the engine surfaces to the oils. This is of great interest, particularly for high oil or high surface temperature. High oil temperatures develop thermo-oxidative stresses, which deteriorate the physical and chemical properties of oil in the lubrication systems of combustion engines and render it ineective over a period of time. It leads not only to excessive wear and corrosion but may also cause catastrophic failure of lubricated components [15]. On the other hand, if the surface temperature exceeds the oil saturation temperature, local boiling of the oil lm around the high temperature part takes place. Liquid cooling accomplishes about 60% of engine cooling. It cools the upper part of the engine only, the cylinder head, cylinder walls and the valves. The crankshaft, piston undercrown, piston ring/liner, cam/follower, valve train, valve stem/guide, bearings, gears, camshaft drive for powerful Diesel engines, the upper part of the cylinder for modern air cooled Diesel engines [16] and many other components in the lower part of the engine are directly dependent on the engine oil for necessary cooling. All these parts have denite temperature limits that must not be exceeded. Moreover, the continuous developments of engines pose a continuing challenge to engine lubricant formulators as it means higher operating pressures and temperatures of engines. The pistons of powerful internal combustion engines are subjected to high heat ux and high temperature in the ring zone, oil gallery and piston undercrown, which necessarily require eective cooling. The literature disclosed that for powerful Diesel engines, piston cooling techniques involve the use of conned jets [17], impinging jets or ribbed ducts where the reciprocating motion complicates the heat transfer mechanism [18]. Chang et al. [19] concluded that the ribbed duct and impinging jet ows are suitable for piston cooling of high and low speed engines, respectively. Other techniques of piston cooling include the use of a reciprocating spiral tube [20] or reciprocating heat pipe [21]. In the engine crankcase, the oil bulk temperature may reach 110140 C, whereas the oils are exposed to engine parts at a wide range of temperatures from 140 C for the crankshaft to 500 C for exhaust valves. While the upper part of the cylinder liner can reach 200250 C, the piston undercrown may reach 250300 C [22]. Much higher piston temperatures are experienced in the case of ceramic coated pistons as the surface temperature increases with increasing coating thickness [23]. According to the stated oil and surface temperature levels, the engine oils in contact with hot engine parts will be under subcooled boiling, which occurs when the oil bulk temperature is lower and the surface temperature is higher than the oil saturation point.


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The relative motion between the oil and dierent cooled and/or lubricated engine parts varies from one part to another within the engine (piston undercrown or piston ring/liner or cam/follower) and sometimes according to the utilized cooling technique of the same part (the piston undercrown is cooled by dierent methods). Thus, the oil ow does not follow a unique pattern because it may be treated as annular ow, conned jets, jet impingement, spray ow or lm ow between two parallel plates according to the considered engine part. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the relationships between the heat transfer characteristics of lubricating oils and the composition of additives under pool boiling conditions as suggested by French [24] who obtained reasonable agreement between pool boiling and the ow boiling characteristics for engine coolants. Thus, he recommended the study of coolant characteristics under pool boiling conditions. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of ve commercial engine oils under subcooled boiling conditions. This would explore the eect of oil bulk temperature, oil additives and oil properties on the heat transfer from engine parts of high temperatures to the cooling oil. Subcooled boiling results for bulk temperatures of 40, 60, 80, 100, 125, 150 and 175 C are reported for heat uxes from about 30 to 400 kW/m2 .

2. Experimental apparatus and procedures The experimental apparatus is shown schematically in Fig. 1. The rig consists of a boiling tank, cast iron specimen used as heating element, vapor condenser, cooling coil and electric heater. The necessary instrumentation is attached to the experimental apparatus. The insulated boiling stainless steel tank holds the oil under investigation. The tank has two opposite-side Perspex windows to view the boiling process. The tank is equipped with two electrodes that rmly hold the heating element that is immersed in the bulk oil under investigation. The tank is thermally insulated by glass wool of 50 mm thickness. Condensation of the rising oil vapor from the boiling process takes place at the upper plenum of the tank where the cold water coil is placed. The coil is made of copper tube of 16 mm inner diameter and 18 mm outer diameter. The condensate oil ows back to the main oil bulk. An electrically shielded NiCr heater coil of 5 kW is located at the lower tank plenum to raise the oil bulk temperature to achieve the required subcooled boiling conditions. A cooling coil is immersed in the same tank to cool the oil. Both the electric heater and the cooling coil are used to control the bulk temperature of the oil. The test specimen used in this research is machined cast iron cut from the piston of a marine Diesel engine. The heating element (Fig. 2(a)) is mounted horizontally and composed of an electrically heated cast iron tube of 12 mm outside diameter, 10 mm inside diameter and 100 mm length. The heating element is tted tightly and welded to brass electrodes at both ends. The heating element assembly is installed in the lower tank section and is electrically insulated from the tank body by rubber sealant. It is connected to an electrical DC power supply (20 kW at 1000 A). The transversely moveable thermocouple assembly consists of four type-J Teon insulated thermocouples and measures the inner surface temperature of the heating element. The assembly passes through a graded ceramic tube where four springs are attached to the thermocouples to ensure good contact between the inner surface of the heating element and the electrically insulated

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Fig. 1. Sectional view of the experimental apparatus.

thermocouple beads (see Fig. 2(b)). Thus, four readings are taken at the same circumference inside the heating element. Then, the outer surface temperature is obtained by linear extrapolation of the measured inner temperature. The bulk temperature is measured by another type-J thermocouple. All thermocouples are connected to a self compensated digital thermometer, accurate to 0.1 C. The static pressure inside the tank is measured using a manometer mounted at the free vapor space region of the boiling tank. The rate of heat input is evaluated by measuring the current (I) and voltage (V ). The rst is measured by a digital ammeter that reads between zero and 1000 A with a minimum of 1 A scale division and the second by a digital DC voltmeter that is attached to both ends of the heating element. 2.1. Experimental procedure The experiments are conducted at atmospheric pressure for heat uxes of about 30400 kW/ m2 for ve commercial engine oils that are tested at bulk temperatures of 40, 60, 80, 100, 125,


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Fig. 2. (a) Details of test specimen (heating element). (b) Thermocouple assembly.

150 and 175 C. These conditions are chosen on the basis of the above review. The cast iron test specimen is analyzed using a spectrometer (Atom Comp-81) and microprocessor based instrument (CS-244/CS-344). The chemical composition of the specimen is as follows: Si: 2.55%, C: 1.24%, Mn: 0.47%, Cr: 0.39%, Cu: 0.16%, P: 0.11%, Ni: 0.08%, Al: 0.02%, Mo: 0.01% and base: 94.97%. The experiments are performed according to the following procedure. Before starting the experimental runs, the rig is cleaned, lled with oil, checked for leakage and electrically tested to assure complete electrical insulation between the heating element and the oil holding tank. The oil level in the holding tank is maintained at 10 cm above the heating element. Thermocouples are tted securely in their position and connected to the digital thermometer. Electrical power is supplied to the electrical heater to increase the oil bulk temperature to the required conditions. The oil is degassed by opening the degassing valve. Electric power is then supplied to the heating element, in small steps, until it reaches the required maximum value. The measurements of pressure, temperature, voltage and current are recorded after steady state conditions are attained. Each run is repeated in order to ensure the consistency and reproducibility of the data. Upon completion of experiments on the oil under test, the oil is changed and the procedures are repeated for another oil. The heat ux through the heating element is evaluated using Eq. (1). q V I pdL 1

The experimental error is evaluated according to Moat [25]. The maximum uncertainty in wall temperature, wall superheat and heat ux are 2.20%, 2.45% and 2.72%, respectively.

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3. Characteristics of the tested oils The ve tested engine oils are produced by dierent oil companies, however, to avoid commercialism, the oils will be denoted by letters A, B, C, D and E. The compositions of these oils remains a commercial secret because it is a product of the technology and creativity of each individual company. However, the characteristics of the considered engine oils, as stated by their manufacturers, are listed in Table 1. Oils A, B and C are mono-grade types (SAE 40 with viscosity index of 95), whereas oils D and E are multi-grade types (SAE 20W-50 with high viscosity index). The same API specication for Diesel engine oils are noted for oils A and D (API CF) and also for oils C and E (API CD). Oil D has the best lubricating properties among the other oils for use in petrol engines as it has the highest API grade (SJ). Oil B has the highest ash point and re point, whereas oil D has the lowest pour point among the examined oils. In order to categorize the tested oils and to obtain some of their thermophysical properties, they undergo a number of standard ASTM tests in the laboratories of the Petroleum Research Institute and the Egyptian Tank Plant (Military-200 Company). Table 2 lists the results of the tests conducted on these oils. All oils produce the same degree of corrosion except for oil E, which shows a high degree of corrosion on the standard copper specimen. Oil E induces severe rust and oil C causes light rust, while the other oils prove no rust for the standard cast steel specimen within the test time. The total acid number varies from 0.285 for oil C to 2.4 for oil A, whereas the total base number changes from 2.8 for oil E to 10 for oil A. It should be noted that the same oil can have both an acid number and a base number because the acid and base products are not all neutralized under normal service conditions. The acid products appear in new oils due to certain additive components, such as phenolic compounds and zinc dithiophosphates. The alkalinity is provided by the organo-metallic detergent additives, such as phenates, salycilates and sulphonates, which are observed with additional carbonate (of calcium or magnesium). This alkalinity is required for new engine oils in order to neutralize the acids that are formed during oil service. Thermophysical properties of the tested oils, such as density, viscosity, specic heat, surface tension and thermal conductivity are evaluated experimentally at dierent temperatures (20175 C) and listed in Table 2 at a single temperature only. The surface tension is the same for all the oils, and it decreases with temperature. As expected, the specic gravity and refractive index for all the oils are approximately the same. However, the variations in specic heat and thermal
Table 1 Specications of the tested engine oils (manufacturer data) Parameter SAE number API specication Fire point, C Flash point, C Pour point, C Viscosity index m 106 (40 C) m 106 (100 C) Gravity API Oil A 40 CF/SF 253 227 )12 95 140 14.4 25.2 Oil B 40 CC/SF 272 246 )21 95 143 15 27.5 Oil C 40 CD 264 238 )15 95 121 13 28.0 Oil D 20W-50 CF/SJ 252 226 )26 127 162 18 27.7 Oil E 20W-50 CD/SF 220 195 )22 135 180 21 27.0


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Table 2 Characteristics of the tested engine oils (measured data) Parameter Copper corrosion (ASTM D130-1994) Rust prevention (ASTM D1748-2000) Total acid number (ASTM D664-2001) Total base number (ASTM D4739-2002) Refractive index (20 C) Specic gravity (20 C) Surface tension (40 C) Specic heat (40 C) Thermal conductivity (40 C) Oil A Slight tarnish No rust 2.4 Oil B Slight tarnish No rust 0.41 Oil C Slight tarnish Light rust 0.285 Oil D Slight tarnish No rust 1.8 Oil E Dark tarnish Severe rust 1.24






1.4936 0.894 0.033 2.03 0.151

1.4937 0.891 0.033 1.95 0.143

1.4935 0.892 0.033 1.88 0.140

1.4865 0.885 0.033 1.88 0.140

1.4938 0.891 0.033 1.92 0.143

conductivity of the tested oils are considerable. It should be stated that the analysis is based on measured properties and its variations with temperature. The non-gaseous constituents of the tested oils are analyzed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) method, and their constituents are listed in Table 3. Many metal and non-metal components are present in the new engine oils, either from the additives or, in some cases, from the base oil. Table 3 conrms that oil additives, such as detergent (Ba, Ca, Mg, P), dispersant (B), anticorrosion (Ba, Ca, Mg, P, Zn), antirust (B, Ba, Na), oxidation inhibitor (B, Ca, P, Zn), extreme pressure agents (B, Mo), antiwear (B, Mo, P, Zn), friction reducer (B, Mo) and antifoam (Si), exist with dierent concentrations in each oil. All the oils contain limited amounts of barium, sodium and silicon.

Table 3 Composition analysis of the tested engine oils (measured data) Elements (ppm) Non-metal elements: Boron (B) Phosphorus (P) Silicon (Si) Metal elements: Barium (Ba) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Molybdenum (Mo) Sodium (Na) Zinc (Zn) Oil A 66.0 1269.2 9.84 0.12 101.8 2229.4 11.4 2.88 1630 Oil B 39.0 933.8 4.74 0.17 15.4 1291.2 6.6 2.22 1202.6 Oil C 6.7 233.3 6.66 0.12 1950 51.6 52.6 4.2 323.6 Oil D 9.0 916.2 8.1 0.06 1081.8 1216.6 6.5 17.7 1153.2 Oil E 2.4 583.6 10.14 0.06 1965.4 7.4 66.0 2.58 762.8

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4. Results and discussion Subcooled boiling represents the normal operating conditions of oil cooling in engines where the surface temperature, in contact with the oil, is above the saturation temperature of the oil. Thus, the results presented in this section include the subcooled boiling data for the ve tested engine oils at bulk temperatures from 40 to 175 C with heat uxes from about 30 to 400 kW/m2 . The eects of bulk temperatures, oil properties and oil additives on the results are discussed. 4.1. Subcooled boiling results Pool boiling of binary and multi-component liquid mixtures is of great importance in understanding the heat transfer mechanism for the complex boiling phenomena of oil additives. Several parameters inuence the phenomena, such as pressure, oil properties, surface condition, boiling temperature, type and amount of additives etc. From observation and visualization during the boiling experiments, it can be stated that at low heat ux, small bubbles are formed in the oil as the heat is transferred from the heated tube to the oil by natural convection. As the heat ux intensies, the generation of vapor bubbles increases. However, the boiling curve is characterized by the relation between the heat ux applied on the surface and the wall superheat (Tw Tsat ). All the boiling data are obtained at atmospheric pressure under subcooled boiling conditions where the oil lm adjacent to the specimen is boiled but the bulk of the oil is at temperatures lower than its boiling point. The boiling curves for oils A and D at bulk temperatures of 40, 60, 80, 100, 125, 150 and 175 C are presented in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively. These two oils are selected to show the eect of bulk

Fig. 3. Subcooled boiling curves of oil A at various bulk temperatures.


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Fig. 4. Subcooled boiling curves of oil D at various bulk temperatures.

temperature on mono-grade and multi-grade oils, however, their results will be compared with those of the other oils. It is shown in Figs. 3 and 4 that the heat ux increases as the wall superheats (Tw Tsat ) increase. Similar trends are observed for the other oils, as this is a typical characteristic in both the regions of subcooled and nucleate boiling. 4.1.1. Eect of bulk temperature Figs. 3 and 4 show that for oils A and D, the subcooled boiling heat ux enhances and/or the wall superheat decreases as the bulk temperature reduces. This is indicated by the movement of the boiling curves of low bulk temperatures to the left of those at large bulk temperatures. Interpolated values of heat ux at wall superheat of 30 K indicate that the heat ux increases from 73.2 to 194.3 kW/m2 for oil A and from 50.4 to 98.6 kW/m2 for oil D, as the bulk temperature reduces from 175 to 40 C. This yields an increase of about 165% and 96% for oil A and oil D, respectively, as the bulk temperature reduces from 175 to 40 C. Comparing the results of oil A and oil D reveals that the eect of bulk temperature on oil A is more inuential than that on oil D. This is mainly attributed to the large viscosity variations with temperature for oil A (mono-grade, VI 95) compared to those for oil D (multi-grade, VI 127). In addition, the added additives have their contributions to the dierences between the oil characteristics. Kandlikar [26] reported that a small amount of an addition agent (surface active substances) has produced substantial improvement in the boiling heat transfer data. It should be stated that the eect of bulk temperature on the boiling curves of the other oils is similar to that described for oil A and oil D. This is depicted by an increase of about 94%, 56% and 90% for oils B, C and E, respectively, due to the change of oil bulk temperature from 150 to 40 C. However, it is also shown that the boiling curves for various bulk temperatures tend to

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merge at large wall superheats. This is indicated by the tendency of the curves to be presented by a single plot at fully developed boiling (Figs. 3 and 4). 4.1.2. Comparison between oils Figs. 5 and 6 show the heat ux and the wall superheat, respectively, at incipient boiling for all the oils at bulk temperatures from 40 to 175 C. The incipient heat ux is obtained from the boiling curves using the procedures recommended by Bjorge et al. [27] and the corresponding wall superheat is obtained. All the oils show that the incipient heat ux decreases as the bulk oil temperature increases. The rate of decrease varies from the large rate for oil A to the small rates for oils C and D, as indicated by the various slopes of the lines in Fig. 5. These dierent slopes cause intersections between the lines of the various oils. While oil A requires the highest heat ux for boiling to take place, oils D and E show that they boil at comparatively low heat ux. The incipient heat ux of oil A is about 2.26 and 1.80 times that required for oil E at bulk temperatures of 40 and 175 C, respectively. Thus, oil A has the larger capability to delay incipient boiling in engine cooling compared to the other tested oils. Fig. 6 shows that the wall superheats of incipient boiling increase with increasing oil bulk temperature. Oil A has the lowest wall superheat, whereas oil E attains the highest values. This implies that at incipient boiling, the wall temperature in contact with oil E will be higher than that in contact with oil A. Fig. 7 shows the boiling curves for all the oils at bulk temperatures of 40, 60, 80, 100, 125 and 150 C. The gure provides a useful way to compare the oils at various bulk temperatures and wall superheats. Clearly, oil A achieves the best boiling characteristics at any bulk temperature, followed by oil B, whereas oil E attains the worst characteristics. The boiling curves of oil D cross

Fig. 5. Incipient boiling heat ux of the tested oils at various bulk temperatures.


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Fig. 6. Incipient boiling wall superheats of the tested oils at various bulk temperatures.

those of oil C at wall superheats ranging from about 40 to 50 C, indicating better boiling characteristics of oil D at large wall superheats. This is mainly because of the superior detergent additives contained in oil D, which become more eective at large wall temperatures. Oils A, B, C, D and E obtain heat uxes of 194.3, 141.8, 102.0, 98.6 and 77.1, respectively, at wall superheats of 30 K and bulk temperature of 40 C. The corresponding values at the same wall superheat but at bulk temperature of 150 C are 100.6, 73.0, 65.5, 62.5 and 40.5. Thus, at either bulk oil temperature and at wall superheat of 30 K, the heat ux of oil A is about 2.5 times that of oil E, indicating large variations of the boiling characteristics between the dierent oils. The eect of oil properties and additives concentration on the boiling heat transfer characteristics can be explored by relating the heat ux of oil A to that of oil E at dierent operating conditions. In order to obtain the ratio of the heat ux of oil A to that of oil E at various wall superheats and bulk temperatures, the data for both oils are correlated at each bulk temperature. Then, the two correlations for oil A and oil E, derived at the same bulk temperature, are related and the produced ratio of heat ux is shown in Fig. 8. Clearly, this ratio increases, in average, from about 2.14 to 4.44 as the wall superheats increase from 10 to 110 C. This indicates that the oil additives and their concentrations have substantial eects on the heat transfer characteristics of the oils. However, the variations of the heat ux ratio with bulk temperature are attributed to the change of the oil properties and the detergent eectiveness with temperature. The dierence in the boiling characteristics of oils is mainly attributed to the concentration of some additive components in the oil. This agrees with the statement reported by Collier et al. [28] that Kirschbaum has measured an augmentation of heat ux by more than a factor of 2.5 by an addition of 1% wetting agent (ercantol BDX) to water. However, the eect of oil properties and additives will be discussed in more detail in the succeeding sections.

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Fig. 7. Comparison between subcooled boiling results for the tested oils at bulk temperatures of 40, 60, 80, 100, 125 and 150 C.

4.2. Eect of oil properties The subcooled boiling results provide unambiguous conclusions about the oils at all bulk temperatures. Comparing the results of the oils revealed that: Oil A achieves the best boiling characteristics.


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Fig. 8. Ratio of the heat ux of oil A to that of oil E at various bulk temperatures.

Oil E attains the worst boiling characteristics. Oils B, C and D provide moderate boiling characteristics. The variations of the oils characteristics may be explained with the aid of their physical properties. Tables 1 and 2 list the manufacturer and measured properties of the oils, respectively. The boiling characteristics are enhanced for high density, specic heat and thermal conductivity and for low viscosity and surface tension, however, the eect of density is less pronounced. No dierence is noted in the surface tension of the oils, while the dierence in density is limited. However, oil A has the largest density, thermal conductivity and specic heat among the tested oils, whereas oils D and E have large viscosity, viscosity index and low specic heat and thermal conductivity. In addition, oil E has the lowest ash and boiling points, but oils D and E have the lowest pour points. Oils C and D have similar properties of density, specic heat and thermal conductivity, and thus, the dierence in their thermal characteristics is attributed to the eect of their additives concentrations. In conclusion, oil of large density, specic heat and thermal conductivity with low viscosity and viscosity index produces better boiling characteristics. 4.3. Eect of oil additives In this section, the relationships between the heat transfer characteristics of engine lubricating oils and the composition of additives will be examined. The additives that enhance boiling heat transfer mostly are those improving the detergent, dispersant, antirust, anticorrosion and oxidation inhibitors capabilities of the oils. Detergent and dispersant additives are used to clean engines where the detergents are most eective in the hot areas (e.g. pistons). Adequate anticorrosion, antirust and oxidation inhibitors guarantee direct contact between the metal surface and the oil without a deposited insulating layer. Other additives may be idle or may have an adverse eect on the heat transfer characteristics. Because of the higher concentration of additives required for engine oils, the detrimental interactions of additives might increase, resulting in a reduction of the oil properties.

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Table 3 shows that many metal and non-metal elements exist in the new engine oils, either from the additives or, in some cases, from the base oil. All the oils contain limited amounts of barium, sodium and silicon. Oil A contains the largest amount of boron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc, but oils C and E have a small quantity of these elements and large contents of calcium and molybdenum. Oils B and D contain comparable amounts of magnesium, phosphorus and zinc and limited molybdenum, but oil D contains a large quantity of calcium. The copper corrosion test and the rust prevention test (Table 2) indicate unmatched constituents of additives in oil E and to some extent in oil C. The rst shows dark tarnish on the copper specimen and severe rust on the cast steel specimen, while the second experiences light rust. All the other oils show slight tarnish and no rust. In addition, the total base number conrms that oil A has excellent detergent additives, while oils D and E have poor detergent additives. Based on the reported boiling characteristics and on the above discussion (also refer to Table 3), it can be concluded that the oils, which contain large concentrations of boron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc with a low concentration of calcium (oils A and B) have outstanding heat transfer characteristics. This is attributed to the excellent detergent, dispersant, anticorrosion and antirust properties besides good oxidation inhibitors. On the other side, the three oils that have a large concentration of calcium (oils C, D and E) show poor heat transfer characteristics. Although calcium acts as a detergent, anticorrosion and oxidation inhibitor, it seems that it has detrimental interactions with some other additives. This weakens the eect of high concentrations of magnesium, phosphorus and zinc that existed in oil D, resulting in a reduction of the dispersant and detergent properties of the oil. Consequently, the heat transfer characteristics deteriorate because of the adverse eect of calcium on the other additives.

5. Conclusions The reported results of the oils conrm that the heat transfer characteristics depend strongly on the additives concentration in the engine oil. The oils could be classied according to their additives as follows:  Oils A and B, which have large concentrations of boron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc with low concentration of calcium, achieve the best boiling characteristics.  Oils C and E, which have small concentrations of boron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc with large concentrations of calcium, attain the worst boiling characteristics, particularly at large wall superheat for oil C.  Oil D has large concentrations of boron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and calcium and provides low boiling characteristics particularly at small wall superheats. As the wall superheats increase, the detergent additives become more eective, and thus, oil D achieves better boiling characteristics than those of oil C. Owing to the higher concentration of the performance packages presently required for engine oils, the detrimental interactions of additives might increase, resulting in a reduction of the detergentdispersant eciency. The results show that a large concentration of calcium has a negative interaction with the other additives, resulting in an adverse eect on the heat transfer characteristics. Thus, care should be taken to avoid large concentrations of calcium in the oil additives.


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The mono-grade oils (A and B) provide better heat transfer characteristics than the multi-grade oils (D and E). Boiling heat transfer is enhanced for low viscosity and high thermal conductivity and specic heat. The dierences in the other properties of the oils are insignicant. The incipient boiling heat ux of oil A at a bulk temperature of 40 C is higher than that of oil E by a factor of 2.26. Oil A achieves heat uxes higher than those of oil E by average values of 2.144.44 at wall superheats from 10 to 110 C and bulk temperatures between 40 and 150 C. Reduction of the oil bulk temperature from 175 to 40 C enhances the boiling heat ux for oil A by about 165% at a wall superheat of 50 C.

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