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1 Pekka Kmrinen & Joachim Dittrich:

Overview on the German discussion on standards/frameworks related to TVET teacher education

1. Background analyses and related measures to support policy implementation Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) Contributor/ Wissenschaftsrat 2001: Empfehlungen Service-Stelle Bologna Platform zur knftigen Struktur der Lehrerbildung (Bologna service unit of the German The Science Council 2001: University Rectors Conference) Points for the analysis Recommendations for the future structure of teacher education The Science Council is a joint advisory body of The German (University) Rectors' Conference/ Who and Why?
Background/ Key actors the Federal Government and the Federal States. It was requested in January 1999 (by the Federal State of Lower Saxony) to undertake an analysis of the current stand of teacher education and to prepare recommendations for future development. The request was motivated by the need to examine the complementarity or division of labour between Universities, other Higher Education Institutes and practical training at schools. Equally there was a need to examine the role of research as support for pedagogic and professional development. The Science Council set up expert group and the report was adopted as The recommendations for the future structure of teacher education in 2001. The report consisted of a state-of-the-art analysis, of deficit analysis and of the recommendations. These focused on challenges for the teachers profession, on the future structure of studies, on institutional reforms, on professional development and on the role of research. Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) is the joint cooperation body of universities and other higher education institutions (Polytechnics) in Germany. HRK has launched a separate service unit that supports the introduction f the common European frameworks and patterns that have been agreed by national governments in the Bologna process. The service unit works in close collaboration with the Bologna-coordinators of universities, domainspecific monitoring activities and with specific initiative groups. The main thrust of the HRK Bologna service unit is to raise awareness of the new frameworks and patterns by transversal support activities (e.g. the Bologna-readers), focal activities (the BachelorMaster monitoring) and with domain-specific measures (e.g. the specific events dedicated to the issues on teacher education). Equally, domainspecific interest groups and initiatives have the possibility to use the forums of the service unit.

What (in general)?

Intervention/ Aims

Approach/ Focal points or Milestones

Which directions?
Perspectives or measures/ Current stand

The deficit analyses highlighted the encapsulation of the teacher education curricula into traditional institutional and conceptual barriers, isolation of different phases of studies from each other and conceptual gaps between research disciplines and teacher education curricula. As a response the report took the course to bring the relation with the occupational field (Berufsfeldbezug) back to the centre of teacher education curricula, related disciplines and attached research activities. This leading idea becomes manifest in the following specific recommendations. The main recommendations (from the perspective of the TT-TVET project) are the following: a) Reshaping career pathways and curriculum structures with the help of consecutive Bachelorand Masters programmes (that enable successive specialisation and focused professionalisation); b) Shaping a pattern of continuing professional development that links the pre-service education, in-service training and continuing professional development to an integrative career model; c) Reconsidering the institutional arrangements to make a stronger link between educational research and knowledge transfer (incl. cooperation between general pedagogics, subject disciplines and practical training at schools and colleges); d) Launching inter-institutional cooperation between universities and other HE institutions (Polytechnics) to create new synergy across the discipline structures and knowledge transfer.

Regarding the field of teacher education the service unit has produced a comprehensive overview on the implementation of the BachelorMaster structures in the Federal states (and on the related issues) by May 2005. Parallel to this, the service unit has gathered the statements of teachers unions and the national forums of the representatives of educational faculties. Finally, the service unit has provided links to regional initiatives and their resource bases, such as the consortium for promoting BaMa-structures in the universities of Lower Saxony and Bremen. From the perspective of teacher education the work of the service unit has provided among others the following possibilities a) to monitor the implementation at different Federal States and in parallel areas (e.g. the Lndermodelle catalogue) b) to put the proposed structural rearrangements into public debate, c) to link specific pedagogic innovations into the structural development, d) to disseminate the views of specific evaluation studies and expertise studies. (Regarding the last mentioned point an evaluation report of the Scientific Commission of the Federal State of Lower Saxony examines the teacher education provisions from the perspectives of vocational disciplines of teacher education (Berufswissenschaften der Lehrerbildung) along the lines laid down by the Science Council.

What (in detail)?

Specific proposals/ Positions

The specific recommendations of the Science Council on the future structures of teacher education are the following ones: The main model to be recommended for most parts of the teacher education (upper secondary, lower secondary) is a consecutive model that is grounded on a broad and transversal Bachelorphase (which is open for several options regarding the successive specialisation) and completed by specialisation phase at the Masters level and with a specific focus on the teachers profession. As a complementary model the Science Council recommends that the education of teachers for primary education and for the Hauptschule track an integrative and modular curriculum that leads to a Bachelor degree. However, for this track there is also a need to develop a progression route to higher degrees (based on a consecutive model).

In addition to the general support services for the German implementation of the Bologna process HRK launched a working group for preparing recommendations on the future of teacher education in Universities and HE institutes. The recommendations were approved in the 206. Plenary session of the HRK in February 2006. The working group was launched to draw conclusions from the somewhat controversial debate on the future of teacher education in the context of the Bologna process. The working group mapped the balance between consensual vs. controversial issues and drew attention to the open questions that need to be addressed in the further reform process. A more detailed overview of the recommendations of the HRK will be prepared in a later section of this document. The service unit provides a general platform and links to different initiatives. The interesting point with the current debate and the specific inputs on teacher education is that they bring into picture further links between the approach of the Science Council and the field of TVET.

Additional remarks
from the perspective of the TT-TVET project

The Science Council didnt address explicitly the field of TVET and most of the recommendations are dealing with general education. Yet, the above mentioned points are important for the specific discussion on the future role of TVET teacher education within changing structures.

2. Debate between the Conference of Cultural Ministers and the educational faculties & teachers unions Contributor/ Platform Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) the Standing Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Federal States Public discussion on the basis of the policy documents of the KMK

Points for the analysis The Standing Conference of Ministers of Education At this point it is worthwhile to note that the public Who?
Background/ Key actors and Cultural Affairs (KMK) is a joint coordinating discussion on the KMK documents is very much body between Federal States in matters of education overshadowed by critical issues and by concerns of a) the national teachers unions and associations and culture (that are regulated by the Federal States). In the German implementation of the and by Bologna process it is the central body for national b) the national cooperation forum of the policy development. representatives of educational faculties. Regarding the support for Bologna process, the These organisations have formulated the general responsibility for the awareness-raising measures concerns concerning and the resources for operative support have been a) the perception of teachership and of the status of handed to the HRK (and its Bologna Service unit). teachers in the light of new degree structures and Consequently, the role of the KMK has been that b) the sustainability of educational research of formulating national policy positions (based on disciplines in the light of proposed reorientation a consensus between the Federal States). of educational degree programmes. The KMK has produced at certain intervals policy The teachers unions and associations have documents that support joint policy shaping contributed to the debate with a joint statement among Federal States and give inputs to public that has been approved by all several national debate. Regarding the reforming of teacher associations that cover all levels of education. education the two crucial documents have been the following KMK resolutions: The national cooperation forum of the educational a) Ten theses on Bachelor-Master structures faculties (EWFT) has launched a comprehensive in Germany (12.6.2003) and study to review the position of the disciplineb) Cornerstones for the mutual recognition of based main subject curricula in educational sciences (Erziehungswissenchaftliche Bachelor and Master degrees in teacher education (2.6.2005). Hauptfachstudium).

Intervention/ Aims

Approach/ Milestones

5 The Ten theses has defined some common Perspectives or measures/ pointers for future policy development in the context of Bologna process (e.g. the autonomous Current stand status of Bachelor and Masters degrees, the consecutive degree structure, profiling, quality development and the European compatibility). The Cornerstones has pushed the policy process further towards making common agreements on the criteria for mutual recognition (e.g. internal structures and scope of studies, accreditation process, transitional regulations). At the same time the KMK document have been taken as points of reference for the positioning and critical debate of the educational actors and for related public events. In this context it is essential to note the points that What (in detail)? are considered as the most critical ones in the Specific proposals/ ongoing process: Positions a) The division of the formerly unified degrees to autonomous Bachelor and Master degrees, b) The differentiated profiling and status of the new Bachelor and Master levels in terms of academic vs. professional recognising, c) The status of (general) pedagogic, disciplineoriented and subject didactic studies in the reformed curricula. The contributions of the KMK cover the whole Additional remarks from the perspective of the scope of HE studies and the whole variety of teacher education curricula. Therefore the specific TT-TVET project issues for the field of TVET are not addressed. Yet, in the public discussion representatives of diverse fields of teacher education raise common concerns.

Which directions?

The joint position of the teachers associations focuses primarily on the risk that the BachelorMaster structure would be used to downgrade the basic qualification of teachers to Bachelor level. The argument of the associations is that Bachelor graduates can neither be seen as conceptually advanced nor professionally prepared to undertake the teachers responsibilities. The position of the national forum of the educational faculties focuses on the risk that the educational sciences would lose their scientific core structures and academic progression prospects if the shift to professionalisation is promoted as a radical contrast to academisation. The joint position of the teachers associations focuses on making the point that teacher education should be maintained at the level of university-based Masters degrees. The position of the national forum of the educational faculties examines thoroughly different developmental proposals which may contribute to the transparency or blurring of the educational discipline structures. It also makes a strong point on the need to secure a general (and not restricted) progression to doctoral studies. Regarding the education of TVET professionals it is worthwhile to note that the above mentioned positions raise many concerns that are linked to the field of TVET. It seems that there is a broader need to discuss the diverse options and prospects for professionalisation in teacher education.

3. Positions of the scientific/professional communities in the field of TVET Contributor/ Gesellschaft fr Arbeitswissenschaft Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Platform Erziehungswissenschaft (DGfE)/ Sektion (GfA)/ Arbeitsgemeinschaft GewerblichBerufs- und Wirtschaftspdagogik (BWP) Technische Wissenschaften (GTW) Points for the analysis The DGfE is the academic association for GTW is a group of members of the Gesellschaft Who?
Background/ Key actors pedagogical sciences in Germany. Its section Berufs- und Wirtschaftspdagogik (BWP) claims the same role for the field of vocational education and training. The literal translation of Berufs- und Wirtschaftspdagogik is Vocational and Industrial Pedagogy. The term Wirtschafts, however, could also be translated as of economics which coincides with the fact, that the majority of TVET scientists in Germany deal with the economic discipline. fr Arbeitswissenschaft e.V. who are active in teaching, research and/or development of a vocational discipline or its didactics. GTW stands for the development of scientific disciplines which a) carry out research on occupational workprocesses with view on prospective development of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) processes b) analyse, shape and evaluate TVET processes c) develop academic education of TVET professionals in vocational disciplines Purpose and goal of the DGfE is the further The main goals of GTW are the development of R&D and education in the field of professionalisation of the TVET profession and science-based pedagogy. The section BWP aims its members, as well as the development of to develop research and academic teaching on academic disciplines, that create knowledge about pre-vocational and vocational education and the interrelation between work, technology, and training, putting special emphasis on institutional education and training. These interrelations are development, learning theories, historical and specific to each vocational discipline and thus can comparative TVET research. BWP follows the only be understood with profound knowledge of concept of linked scientific subjects, e.g. the work-processes and the technology in economic sciences for economic VET or question while considering learning potentials engineering sciences for technically oriented offered in these settings. TVET teachers and VET. The section BWP therefore concentrates on trainers have to be educated in a way, that they

Intervention/ Aims

7 the pedagigic core of TVET without paying too much attention to subject-specific differences. Essentially, BWP wants assure the quality of TVET teacher education and thus always references the traditional models of TVET teacher education. are able to exploit these options in their daily work in vocational education and training. That is why GTW works for an academic TVET teacher education which is grounded in the vocational disciplines. A mere pedagogical add-on to e.g. engineering sciences is considered not to be adequate. GTW has developed framework curricula for teacher education in the technically oriented vocational disciplines which, however, up to now do not adhere to Bachelor/Master structures. GTW was not able to develop a common framework for Bachelor/Master structures before universities in Germany were forced to restructure their TVET teacher education study programmes. Also an attempt to join forces with the relevant section of DGfE failed in early 2006 partly due to mismatch in philosophical concepts for TVET teacher education. Development of common Bachelor/Master framework curricula for selected vocational disciplines is under way but face considerable difficulties because accreditation processes at various universities are already running. The perspectives for a nation-wide unified TVET teacher education is influenced by several influences/developments: a) In Germany a reform of the distribution of competences between the federal government and the governments of the federal states is under way, which will assign responsibility for academic education to the states

Approach/ Milestones

The section BWP developed a core curriculum for the vocational pedagogy part of academic TVET teacher education courses in 2003. As the most influential German academic association in TVET BWP regularly issues recommendations to policymakers, to take this core curriculum also as guideline in the restructuring process of TVET teacher education to Bachelor/Master-structures (Bologna-Process).

Which ways?
Perspectives or measures/ Current stand

BWP also observes critically the activities of the policy-makers. Among others they propose to introduce new models of TVET teacher education only after soundly evaluated pilot studies. Especially they oppose to out-of-university upgrading for in-service personnel, as long as the quality is not guaranteed. Meanwhile they cope in a more constructive manner with the inevitable Bologna process. Nevertheless they still stick to the core curriculum and suggest transferring traditional structures as much as possible into the new Bachelor/Master models.

8 Thus, the allegation of BWP policy-makers would governments. let out the opportunity to modernise and enhance b) The upcoming European Qualification the qualification of TVET teachers in and by Framework will tend to unify TVET in means of the restructuring process could be also Europe and thus pose some pressure on the made to BWP. unification of TVET teacher education. c) There is some incentive for globalisation of academic education in Germany, so that also in TVET teacher education opportunities for international cooperation will play a growing role. BWP suggests 3 models for TVET teacher At the moment the members of GTW are What (in detail)? education: concerned with restructuring curricula at the Specific proposals/ Consecutive model: The Bachelor phase is mostly individual universities to Bachelor/Master Positions dedicated to the linked subject, teacher structures. qualifications are mainly acquired during the A joint effort to unify approaches cannot be Master study. observed at the moment (mid of 2006). Non-consecutive model: On the basis of a However quite a number of members are Bachelor degree (related to the specific subject) targeting international cooperation at their the necessary competences are acquired during institutions. the Master study phase. 2nd Master degree: On the basis of a Master degree or equivalent (related to the specific subject) and some work experience the necessary competences are acquired during the Master study phase which can be shorter than in the above two cases. The core curriculum on vocational pedagogy Because of the apparent need for activity, results Additional remarks elaborated by the TT-TVET project could enter from the perspective of the defines less than 20% of a TVET teacher academic curriculum. Even though named easily in the work of GTW, provided the project TT-TVET project berufliche Fachrichtung (vocational discipline) results are oriented towards the UNIP portfolio of the studies of the (technical) subject are done in vocational disciplines and are based on the worktraditional academic disciplines, thus are likely to process approach.

9 lack the relation to occupational work-processes and are not really linked to the field of vocational pedagogy. At most of the universities in Germany, however, this model seems to be the only feasible one due to constraints for the development of real vocational disciplines.

Web links (to original sources in German language)

A. Key actors/Platforms
1) Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) The Standing Conference of Cultural Ministers 2) Wissenschaftsrat (WR) The Science Council 3) Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK ) (HRK Main page) (HRK Service-Stelle Bologna) 4) Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Erziehungswissenschaft (DGfE), Sektion Berufs- und Wirtschaftspdagogik (BWP) 5) Gesellschaft fr Arbeitswissenschaft (GfA), Sektion Gewerblich-Technische Wissenschaften (GTW) 6) Bundesverband der Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an beruflichen Schulen e.V.

10 7) Gewerkschaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft (GEW)

B. Positions on Teacher education B1) Wissenschaftsrat The Science Council

Empfehlungen zur knftigen Struktur der Lehrerbildung (Presseerklrung, Empfehlungstext als pdf-Datei, Anhang zur Empfehlung)

B2) Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) The Standing Conference of Cultural Ministers

10 Thesen zur Bachelor- und Masterstruktur in Deutschland (Beschluss der Kultusministerkonferenz vom 12.06.2003) - The KMK theses on Bachelor-Master structures in Germany Eckpunkte fr die gegenseitige Anerkennung von Bachelor- und Masterabschlssen in Studiengngen, mit denen die Bildungsvoraussetzungen fr ein Lehramt vermittelt werden (Beschluss der KMK vom 02.06.2005) - The KMK cornerstones on mutual recognition of Bachelor-Master programmes in teacher education

B3) Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK)

Empfehlung zur Zukunft der Lehrerbildung in den Hochschulen Beschluss in der Kurzfassung und Beschluss Lehrerbildung (lang)

B4) Reactions to the KMK positions (Teachers and educationalists in General education)
Bachelor qualifiziert nicht fr Lehrerberuf, Stellungnahme des Deutschen Lehrerverbands, des Allgemeinen Fakulttentag, des Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakulttentag, des Philosophische Fakulttentag und des Deutschen Hochschulverbands, 11.07.05 Der Erziehungswissenschaftliche Fakulttentag der Hochschulen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Beschluss 3/2004 Beschluss zur Einfhrung konsekutiver Studiengnge in der Erziehungswissenschaft. Stellungnahme 19.11.2004 Konsekutive Studiengnge GEW-Stellungnahme zum Bologna-Prozess Dok-HuF-2004-11.pdf (160,55 KB)


Gemeinsame Stellungnahme des Bundesverbandes der Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an beruflichen Schulen e.V. (BLBS) und des Bundesverbandes der Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an Wirtschaftsschulen e.V. (VLW) August 2003

C. Positions with a focus on TVET teacher education C1) Wissenschaftliche Kommission Niedersachsen
Forschungsevaluation an Nds. Hochschulen und Forschungseinrichtungen / Berufswissenschaft der Lehrerbildung /Stand: Mrz 2002 (575 KB)

C2) Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Erziehungswissenschaft (DGfE), Sektion Berufs- und Wirtschaftspdagogik (BWP)
Frankfurter Beschluss: Stellungnahme der Sektion Berufs- und Wirtschaftspdagogik zum Abschlubericht der KMK-Arbeitsgruppe "Neustrukturierung der Ausbildung zum Lehramt an berufsbildenden Schulen" (21 kb) Stellungnahme zur Einrichtung gestufter Studiengangsmodelle als Ersatz fr die existierenden berufs- und wirtschaftspdagogischen Diplom- und Studiengnge fr das Lehramt an berufsbildenden Schulen (Beschluss der Mitgliederversammlung in Zrich am 22. Mrz 2004) (41 kb)

C3) Gesellschaft fr Arbeitswissenschaft (GfA), Sektion Gewerblich-Technische Wissenschaften (GTW)

Stellungnahme vom 6.1.2003 Beschreibung: Stellungnahme der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gewerblich-technische Wissenschaften und ihre Didaktiken (GTW) in der Gesellschaft fr Arbeitswissenschaft e. V. (GfA) zum Entwurf fr eine neue KMK-Rahmenvereinbarung fr die Ausbildung und Prfung der Lehrmter fr berufliche Schulen vom 6.1.2003 Hamburger Erklrung Beschreibung: Hamburger Erklrung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gewerblich-Technische Wissenschaften (GTW) in der Gesellschaft fr Arbeitswissenschaft e.V. (GfA) zur Professionalisierung der Berufspdagogen im internationalen Kontext und zur aktuellen Situation des deutschen Berufsbildungssystems vom 5.10.2004