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Sentence structure

I. Simple sentences Subject + verb: The rice (S) is burning (V). Subject + verb + complement: She (S) is (V) a lawyer ( C). She (S) is (V) intelligent (C). Subject + verb + indirect object: I (S) ve read (V) this book (IO). Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object: My friend (S) wrote (V) me (IO) a lovely letter (DO). Subject + verb + object + complement: They (S) made (V) him (O) a star (C). Complement (time) + subject + verb + direct/indirect object + complement (Place): Yesterday (T) he (S) sprained (V) his leg (DO) on the beach (P). Subject + verb + direct/indirect object + complement (Manner) + complement (Place) + complement (Time): They (S) found (V) that book (DO) easily (M) on the shelf (P) a month ago (T). Subject + adverb of frequency + verb + complement (M) + complement (P): We (S) always (AF) go (V) by bus (M) to school (P). II. Compound sentences We can link simple sentences to form compound sentences of two or more clauses. In a compound sentence, the clauses are of equal importance. We can make the link in the following ways: With a co-ordinating conjunction, e.g. and, but, so, yet, sometimes preceded by a comma: He loves her, but she doesnt love him. With a semi-colon or colon: I met David yesterday;/: hes just come out of hospital. With a semi-colon or a colon followed by a connecting adverb e.g. however, nevertheless, meanwhile, after all, finally: He performed well in the interview;/: however, he didnt get the job. III. Complex sentences They have a main clause and one or more subordinate caluses or phrases. We can link the clauses as follows: With relative clauses: Many people who are out of work become depressed. With noun clauses: Ive always known that he hated me. With adverbial clauses: Did you see him when he came in? With infinitive or participial constructions: To do the job properly, youll need to get some tools. She ran out of the house calling for help. IV. Conjunctions Common conjunctions: *to link: and, bothand, or, eitheror, neithernor, not onlybut. *to contrast: but, however, nevertheless, though/although, in spite of, despite, whereas. *to express a reason or purpose: because, for, since, so that, in order that *to express a consequence: so, therefore *to make an additional point: besides, moreover, anyway

V. Noun clauses A noun clause is sometimes called a that-clause. However, noun clauses do not always use that. * noun clause as object. Many verbs can be followed by a noun clause: I can guarantee (that) it will be there on time. Do you think (that) shell come? noun clause as subject. That you dont love him, is obvious. However, we more often use the construction: It + be/seem + adjective + noun clause: It is obvious (that) you dont love him. noun clause after certain adjectives, e.g. adjectives describing feelings: pleased, sorry, happy, delighted, upset, worried, concerned, surprised, grateful, and adjectives describing degrees of certainty: sure, positive, convinced, doubtful: Im concerned (that) he wont believe me. Are you sure (that) he said that?

noun clause after a large number of abstract nouns, e.g. belief, idea, fact, hope, promise, suggestion, thought, reason, implication, something/anything. As object: I dont like the suggestion that we do this job together. As subject: The thought that I upset her so much is awful.

noun clause with question words. Noun clauses that start with a question word do not start with that. As object: I will never understand why he did that. Or Why he did that I will never understand. I looked at what theyve done. As subject: What happened between us must remain a secret.

noun clauses with if/whether (not). As object: I dont know if/whether hes coming tonight. As subject: Whether or not hes coming tonight is still uncertain. It is still uncertain if/whether or not hes coming tonight. PRACTICE

I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Join the sentences with the suitable conjunction. There may be more than one possible answer for each sentence. We went to bed early. I would be able to get up early. Its an excellent course. Im very lucky to get a place on it. I dont rally want to go to the cinema tonight. I cant afford it. There is very little that the company can do about this. It is not their responsibility. Ive known her for a long time. I dont know much about her private life. Shes extremely generous. Her husband is the exact opposite. I didnt say that. I didnt even think it.

8. The suspect is critically ill in hospital. We cant interview him for the time being. 9. I like working here. The people are very friendly. 10.I could do the work tonight. I could get up early in the morning to do it. 11.In a way, I love the job. I hate it. 12.He looks a bit overweight. He is quite fit. 13.The economy has been in recession all year. Our sales have remained steady. 14.Ive brought a photograph. You can see how beautiful the place is. 15.The Government are getting worried. Theyre losing popularity. II. Underline the noun clauses in the following dialogue. Angie and Helen are talking at work. Angie is Helens boss. A: Helen, Im delighted to hear that youve decided to accept the post of junior manager. H: Yes. I just hope that it turns out all right. A: Oh, Im sure it will. Is there anything in particular that youre worried about? H: Well, yes. Im not sure how the staff will respond to me as a manager. After all, I am quite a bit younger than most of them. A: Oh, I wouldnt worry to much about that. I expect that some of them will be a bit hostile to you at first but theyll soon get used to the fact that youre the boss. Its important that you appear confident in your position, ecen if you dont feel very confident. The reason that youve got this position at your age is that youre good and you must remember that. H: Well, I hope that I will live up to your expectations of me. I will certainly try. Join the sentences together using a noun clause. Make changes where necessary. 1. Hes lying to you. Im sure. 2. You did something. It is unforgivable. 3. She still holds on to the belief. He isnt dead. 4. She hasnt made a complaint. We must be grateful for that. 5. Some people are coming to the meeting. I dont know how many. 6. She didnt lie to you about it. That suggestion is ridiculous. 7. Youre going with him. I presume that. 8. Judiths coming round tonight. Have you forgotten that? 9. She may have passed her exams. I dont know. 10.He didnt tell her the truth. She is very angry about that. 11.She may be good enough to do the job:she may not. It remains doubtful. 12.He has some emotional problems. That is quite apparent. 13.Where are we going to meet tonight? Have you arrange that? 14.How is she? Do you know? 15.Theyre getting married! Im delighted!

VI. Adverbial clauses of time, place, manner and reason. Adverbial clauses, like adverbs, tell us something further about the verb and answer the questions When?, Where?, How?, Why?, etc. Here are some of the most common conjunctions used to introduce adverbial clauses: TIME: when, after, before, as, as soon as, by the time (that), once, since, until/till, whenever, while PLACE: where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere

MANNER: as, as if, as though COMPARISON: than, asas REASON: because, as since PURPOSE: so that, in order that, in case RESULT: sothat, such a.that CONDITION: if, unless, provided/providing (that), so/as long as CONTRAST: although/though/even though, while, whereas, however, whatever, whenever, wherever NOTE! We generally use the present simple to refer to the future in adverbial clauses of time and condition: When/If I come to London, Ill come and see you. and use the present perfect in place of the future perfect: When Ive finished my dinner, Ill come and help you. PRACTICE Underline the adverbial clauses and complete them with an appropriate conjunction. In some sentences, more than one conjunction is possible. 1. Im sorry I wsnt here earlier, but I came ..I could. 2. Im staying in all weekendI can get my work done. 3. He spoke to was all my fault. 4. He didnt react.Id hoped; he was actually rather angry. 5. Things are never.badyou think they are. 6. You are growing fast. Youre taller.your mother is now. 7. Hed like to be an actor..his father would like him to be a lawyer. 8. Shes..interested in her work. 9. Ill meet like; I dont mind where it is. 10.I wont believe youIve seen it for myself. 11.She seems happyshe cant find a job. 12..I didnt feel very well, we decided to leave early. 13.The money was could find it. 14.Illl come with you we dont stay late. I need to be up early tomorrow. 15..I like him, I sometimes find him very irritating.

Put an appropriate conjunction before the adverbial clauses. Write the answers in the spaces provided below the text. 1) the petrol-fuelled internal combustion was first developed by the German engineers Benz and Daimler in 1885, our lives have changed completely. 2) the damaging effects of the motor car are now well-recognized , the number of cars on the road continues to grow every year. In 1950, there were fewer than 50 million cars in use around the world, but 3) cars became more widely available and relatively cheaper, this number grew to 500 million by 1999. We continue to drive cars 4) we know how dangerous they are in every respect. People seem to accept the higher number of deaths and injuries as a normal fact of life 5) smaller risks in other areas of life seem to generate more publicity and fear. We accept the


awful risk 6) it is somehow justifiable. 7) any other activity carried with it such a risk, there would be a huge public reaction. And what of the pollution? 8) research into car emissions started, it has become clearer and clearer how damaging the emissions are to health and the environment. Will we keep on driving our cars 9) much damage we do? It seems that people are 10) attached to their cars that they wont give them up for anything. To some people, their cer is more important to them 11)anything else. One of the obvious answers to the problem is better public transport 12) we could travel 13)we like on cheap, comfortable public transport, we would be less inclined to use the car. People will not stop using their cars 14)there is a good alternative. But we need to act now 15)is too late. We must change our attitude and our priorities 16)future generations can live in a cleaner world. 1since 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. 9. 10.. 11. 12 13.. 14.. 15.. 16