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FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL

Gabriela Pascholati do Amaral, Minister of Finance (???) Brazilian Delegation for the G8&G20 Youth Summit in Washington/2012

GLOBAL UNEMPLOYMENT REDUCTION Gabriela, o documento sem as referencias possui 1192 palavras. Acredito que o ideal que possua no maximo 800 palavras. As referencias devem ser no footnote e no existe a necessidade de colocar o link, somente a fonte e o ano se possuir essa informao. Reduz o texto para a quantidade de palavras recomendada e eu fao mais uma correo Since the 2008 financial crisis that led to a worldwide economic crisis, the global unemployment rate has been steadily rising, despite a small reduction in 2010-2011. It has been proffered by Ms. Dilma Roussef, president of the Federative Republic of Brazil, that fighting unemployment is the path to fight the crisis [1]. Given Brazils stand against the crisis and the resilience it has shown, the measures employed by the country should be taken into account for future reference. Brazil strongly believes that the G20 Framework for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth and the Cannes Action Plan for Jobs and Growth are two of the best paths to fight against not only youth unemployment, but also unemployment as a whole, and it will also be of aid in improving entrepreneurship, reducing gender inequality, amongst many other benefits. We reaffirm strongly that pursue economic growth, and not a contraction, is the best solution [2]
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Entrepreneurship and Small/Medium Enterprises

The Small/Medium Enterprises (SMEs) sector in Brazil equate to 20% of the total GDP of the country, as well as 99% of all formal businesses [3]. Considering entrepreneurship as a whole, Brazil is, according to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) [4], one of the countries with the highest rates of established business ownership. However, when considering the ease of doing business in the country, Brazil ranks quite low, in a similar position to Russia and India [5]. Bearing this in mind, Brazil recognizes the enormous importance that both SMEs and large enterprises have on a countrys economic growth, being that the former are the backbone of most developed and emerging economies, especially since they absorb part of the population with difficulties for entering the labour market and help keep the domestic, and some even the international, market dynamic [3]. In this recovering world, it is therefore of the utmost importance that this is discussed within the G20, to discuss how to offer as much support for the growth of entrepreneurship as possible, be it of a financial, legislative or expertise-sharing nature, and exchange good practices.

Education

Regarding SMEs, Brazil has a private entity of national reach called SEBRAE (Brazilian Service of Support to Micro and Small Entreprises) that handles all things related to this type of company. Regarding education, this entity offers and promotes a diversity of courses to help business owners in the most diverse aspects, from administration, accountability and finances to legislation and internationalization [6]. Brazil encourages the implementation of such programs in all G20 countries.

Regarding education in the country as a whole, Brazil still has many gaps to fill. According to UNESCO, even though we experience low rates of illiteracy, high rates of both gender equality and access to education, the quality of education in Brazil is considered quite poor, given a lack of infrastructure and few in-class hours, for example[7]. Even though there are lots of different programs, to assist the students in the most diverse ways, they are far from reaching the highest efficiency [8]. Therefore, Brazil supports the discussion of this topic in the Summit as a way of absorbing new ideas, borrowing good practices and maybe creating a more specific international agenda on the topic based on the G20 countries.

Innovation and Technology

In what concerns Innovation and Technology applied to the unemployment reduction spectrum, the aforementioned entity SEBRAE is also on par with this subject, and provides information, in areas such as how and where to get financing and which programs does the government have on the matter, consultancy, a network of relevant contacts and other actions [9] [10]. With this initiative, SMEs are capable to innovate and grow, which will strengthen them, which might bring to job creations and a more dynamic and growing internal market, which, in Brazils point of view, are the basis to fight off the damages of the crisis.

Youth Employment

In Brazil, as well as in the rest of the world, unemployment is higher amongst the young population, with 13,4% in a situation of unemployment[11]. Even though with rates much lower than other countries in the world, especially in Europe, like Spain with roughly 50% of unemployed youth, or Italy with circa 27%, Brazil has been showing great improvement in the area, having been able to reduce the rates by half since 2003, even amidst the crisis [11]. The country is also the only country possessing a Decent Work Agenda targeted solely at its youth, in

a partnership with the International Labour Organization [12], and the new Labour Minister, Brizola Neto, has listed it as one of his primary focuses while in office [13]. However, we are also far from having perfect rates, and therefore recognize this as a major issue to be discussed in the G20 Summit. Gender Equality

Brazil is amongst the top 40 in the Womens Opportunity Index [14], it ranked 82 of 135 in the Global Gender Gap Report [15], 80 in the Gender Inequality Index [16] , 72 in the Gender Equity Index[17], and is considered to be one of the countrys with the highest rate of female entrepreneurship (GEM) [4], to name a few. With that in mind, it is safe to say that Brazil is a country that suffers little with discrimination [18], but it is also perceivable that there are still some gender equality issues, such as wage discrepancies, even though none so severe as in some other countries, and is therefore willing to discuss measures and procedures that may help improve the current position it and other G20 member hold.

BUSINESS TRANSPARENCY

Given the international flow of trade nowadays, business transparency is a means to facilitate and improve this flow, therefore, its encouragement, enforcement and improvement are of paramount importance.

Public-Private Partnership

The PPP is an extremely important contract between the private sector and the government that enables development within the most diverse sectors, given that the public and the private sector complement each other regarding means and expertise. Therefore, the

improvement of this partnership is vital for many growth and job-related aspects, such as extended financing, improvement and broadening of national infrastructure and the creation of jobs. It is thus important that this issue be discussed in the G20 Summit, since it is a small part of the whole issue that is fighting unemployment. Corporate Governance Guidelines

Brazil has its own institute for corporate governance-related aspects. Albeit not an official organization, the Brazilian Institute for Corporate Governance has been chosen as the main reference in the topic in Latin America [19], it has developed its own code of conduct regarding corporate governance, with extensive similarities to OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. Even though corporate governance in Brazil does not present itself as such an issue as it does in the United States, for example, given a more regulatory presence of the State since the countrys financial and economical crisis after the end of the dictatorship, there are some aspects that should be improved, such as the participation of the board, better protection of the stockholders, and less company-related corruption. Therefore, Brazil encourages the continuity of this discussion in the summit to come, in hopes that more effective measures are agreed upon.

REFERENCES

[1]

http://en.mercopress.com/2011/11/08/rousseff-warns-about-global-unemployment-calls-for-

plans-to-generate-jobs [2]http://www2.planalto.gov.br/imprensa/artigos/artigo-da-presidenta-da-republica-dilmarousseff-para-o-jornal-financial-times-versao-em-ingles [3]http://www.brasil.gov.br/empreendedor/empreendedorismo-hoje/o-mapa-das-micro-epequenas-empresas [4] http://www.gemconsortium.org/ [5] http://www.doingbusiness.org/ [6]http://www.sebrae.com.br/customizado/inovacao/acoes-sebrae/capacitacao

[7]http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/suplementos,qualidade-da-educacao-no-brasil-ainda-ebaixa-aponta-unesco,498175,0.htm [8]http://gestao2010.mec.gov.br/download/sinopse_acoes_mec.pdf [9]http://www.sebrae.com.br/customizado/inovacao/politicas-de-apoio/apoio-e-fomento [10]http://www.sebrae.com.br/atender/customizado/inovacao/inovacao/promocao-dainovacao/integra_bia/ident_unico/12534 [11]https://conteudoclippingmp.planejamento.gov.br/cadastros/noticias/2012/2/19/desempregoentre-jovens-cai-a-metade-no-brasil [12]http://www.brasil.gov.br/noticias/arquivos/2012/05/04/brasil-e-unico-pais-a-ter-agenda-detrabalho-decente-especifica-para-juventude/print [13]http://odia.ig.com.br/portal/economia/desemprego-jovem--desafio-1.436944 [14]http://www.eiu.com/site_info.asp?info_name=womens_economic_opportunity&page=noads [15]http://www.weforum.org/issues/global-gender-gap [16]http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/gii/ [17]http://www.socialwatch.org/taxonomy/term/527 [18] http://genderindex.org/country/brazil [19]http://www.ibgc.org.br/Home.aspx