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| Schlumberger tam mee TH CTT] ETAL ELE a a FOREWORD ‘The study of Petroleum Engineering covers a broad spectrum of geology, physics and applied mathematics spanning the geological processes by which hydrocarbons are formed and accumilated into reservoirs, the properties of reservoir rocks and the behavior of formation oil, water and gases during the process of extraction. ‘This booklet was distilled fram the mass of Literature available on the subject with the objective of providing the incoming engineer with an overall view of the industry and with the fundamentals of reservoir and production that a Schlumberger general field engineer requires. The reservoir and wells are interacting elements of a composite system in which the well provides access to the reservoir and is the means by which measurements (and our revenues) are made. Considerable emphasis is placed on well. perfor ance and testing as these are areas of direct involvement with our Production logging and well completion services. With the advent of computor log processing, field integrated log analysis has ‘become possible and reservoir mapping of reserves is a developing extention of our logging activities into reservoir managenent. ‘The study of fractured reservoirs would nommally be considered beyond the scope of an introductory petroleun engineering course. However, due to the great importance of this unconventional type reservoir to Middle East oil production, Chapter 10, written by Prof. Van Gold Racht of the University of Trodheim, has been included summarizing the subject. We would like to thank Manfred Wittmann and Dr. G. Stewart of EHS Marketing PR for their help in reviewing the draft of this booklet. . Aitken ‘guly 1980 CONTENTS Chapter, Page > ow Introduction 1-1 A. Conditions favorable for hydrocarbon reservoir formation 41 B. Oil field units of measurement 1-2 Cc. SI oilfield units 1-3 Geology and hydrocarbon accumulations 21 A. Introduction (geological terminology) 2-1 B. Historical geology 2-2 Cc. Structure of the earth 24 D. Classification of rocks 2-7 E. The origin and habitat of oil 2-11 F. Hydrocarbon reservoirs 2-13 G. Sub-surface mapping 2-16 H. Reservoir temperature and pressure 2-17 3.-__Reservoir Fluid behaviour 341 A. Classification of oil and gas 3-1 B. Phase behaviour in hydrocarbon reservoirs 34 C. Reservoir fluid properties 3411 1) source of fluids data 3411 2) compressibility of gases 3-12 3) conversion factors between surface and downhole volumes: 316 a) gas formation volure factor, Bg 3-17 b) oi1 formation volume factor, Bo 3-19 ©) water formation volume factor, By 3-23 4) fluid density correlations 3-24 5) viscosity correlations 3-26 D. Rock compressibility 3-28 B. Appendix - Fluid Conversion Charts 3-29 Reservoir Rock properties a1 A. Porosity 4-1 B. Permeability 4-3 C. Measurement of permeability 4-6 D. Measurement of porosity 4-8 E, Measurement of capillary pressure (mercury injection) 4-9