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HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem GBSS8.1 BSS Feature Parameter Description Issue 01 Date 2009–04–30 HUAWEI

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem

GBSS8.1

BSS Feature Parameter Description

Issue

01

Date

2009–04–30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Subsystem GBSS8.1 BSS Feature Parameter Description Issue 01 Date 2009–04–30 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2010. All rights reserved.

No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions

and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice

The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied.

The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Address:

Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China

Website:

Email:

support@huawei.com

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

About This Document

About This Document

Purpose

BSS features consist of basic BSS features and optional BSS features. This document describes the following aspects of the BSS features:

l

Change History

l

Overview

l

Technical Description

l

Engineering Guidelines

l

Maintenance Information

l

Reference Documents

Product Version

The following table lists the product versions related to this document.

Product Name

Product Model

Product Version

BSC

BSC6000

Refer to the version information in each feature.

BTS

BTS3012

Refer to the version information in each feature.

BTS3012AE

Refer to the version information in each feature.

BTS3006C

Refer to the version information in each feature.

BTS3002E

Refer to the version information in each feature.

BTS3900 GSM

Refer to the version information in each feature.

BTS3900A GSM

Refer to the version information in each feature.

DBS3900 GSM

Refer to the version information in each feature.

About This Document

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Target Groups

This document is intended for people who have:

l

Basic GSM knowledge

l

Working experience on GSM

Organization

Conventions

1 Handover

Symbol Conventions

The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Symbol

Description

Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided,will result in

Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided,will result in death or serious injury.

Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided,

Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.

Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided,could result in equipment damage, data loss,

Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided,could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results.

Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time.

Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time.

Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

General Conventions

The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Convention

Description

Times New Roman

Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman.

Boldface

Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in boldface. For example, log in as user root.

Italic

Book titles are in italics.

Courier New

Examples of information displayed on the screen are in Courier New.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

About This Document

Command Conventions

The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Convention

Description

Boldface

 

The keywords of a command line are in boldface.

Italic

 

Command arguments are in italics.

[

]

Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are optional.

{

x | y |

}

Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars. One item is selected.

[

x | y |

]

Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected.

{

x | y |

} *

Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of all items can be selected.

[

x | y |

] *

Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.

GUI Conventions

The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Convention

Description

Boldface

Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are in boldface. For example, click OK.

>

Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Keyboard Operations

The keyboard operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Format

Description

Key

Press the key. For example, press Enter and press Tab.

Key 1+Key 2

Press the keys concurrently. For example, pressing Ctrl+Alt +A means the three keys should be pressed concurrently.

Key 1, Key 2

Press the keys in turn. For example, pressing Alt, A means the two keys should be pressed in turn.

About This Document

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Mouse Operations

The mouse operations that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Action

Description

Click

Select and release the primary mouse button without moving the pointer.

Double-click

Press the primary mouse button twice continuously and quickly without moving the pointer.

Drag

Press and hold the primary mouse button and move the pointer to a certain position.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Contents

Contents

 

iii

About This Document 1 Handover

1-1

1.1 Change History

1-2

1.2 Overview

1-6

1.3 Technical Description

1-9

1.3.1 Overview

1-9

1.3.2 Measurement Report Processing

1-15

1.3.3 Handover

Preprocessing

1-17

1.3.4 Handover Decision Based on Handover Algorithm I

1-20

1.3.5 Handover Decision Based on Handover Algorithm II

1-37

1.4 Maintenance Information

1-54

1.5 Reference Documents

1-86

Index

i-1

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Figures

Figures

Figure 1-1 Procedure for performing Huawei handover algorithms

1-9

Figure 1-2 Procedure of handover decision based on handover algorithm I

1-11

Figure 1-3 Handover decisions based on handover algorithm I

1-13

Figure 1-4 Procedure of handover decision based on handover algorithm II

1-14

Figure 1-5 Handover decisions based on handover algorithm II

1-15

Figure 1-6 Load handover between cells

1-30

Figure 1-7 Load handover

1-31

Figure 1-8 Edge handover

1-32

Figure 1-9 Fast-moving micro cell handover

1-33

Figure 1-10 Cell layers

1-34

Figure 1-11 Handovers with high priority

1-38

Figure 1-12 Handovers with normal priority

1-39

Figure 1-13 Edge handover

1-48

Figure 1-14 Fast-moving micro cell handover

1-49

Figure 1-15 Cell layers

1-51

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Tables

Tables

Table 1-1 NEs involved in handover

1-9

Table 1-2 Parameters related to the number of measurement reports

1-17

Table 1-3 Parameters related to handover penalty

1-18

Table 1-4 Parameters related to handover

1-54

Table 1-5 Counters related to handover

1-60

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

1 Handover

About This Chapter

1.1 Change History

1.2 Overview

1.3 Technical Description

1.4 Maintenance Information

1.5 Reference Documents

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1.1 Change History

The change history provides information on the changes in different document versions.

Document and Product Versions

Document

BSS Version

BSC Version

BTS Version

Version

01(2009-04-30)

8.1

V900R008C12

V300R008

There are two types of changes, which are defined as follows:

l

Feature change

Feature change refers to the change in the Handover feature of a specific product version.

l

Editorial change

Editorial change refers to the change in wording or the addition of the information that was not described in the earlier version.

01(2009-04-30)

This is the first commercial release of BSS8.1.

Compared with issue 02 (2008-06-30) of BSS8.0,issue 01 (2009-04-30) of BSS8.1 incorporates the changes described in the following table.

Change

Change Description

Parameter Change

Type

Feature

The following contents are updated and added:

The added parameter is listed as follows:

change

l

1.3.3 Handover

Penalty Time after AMR TCHF-H HO Fail(s)

Preprocessing

l

Enhanced Dual-Band Network Handover

 

Handover algorithm II is added, and the original handover algorithm is called handover algorithm I.

The added parameter is listed as follows:

HO Control Switch

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

Change

Change Description

Parameter Change

Type

 

Compared with handover algorithm I, handover algorithm II provides great change in handover decision procedure and classification. The details are as follows:

The added parameters are listed as follows:

l

Penalty Time on Load HO

l

Penalty Value on Load HO

l

Penalty Time on Interfere HO

l

The handover penalty is performed after the network characteristics adjustment and before the emergency handover decision.

l

TA HO Watch Time

l

TA HO Valid Time

l

BQ HO Watch Time

l

BQ HO Valid Time

l

The network characteristics adjustment is performed (for some factors) before the emergency handover decision procedure is initiated. The network characteristics adjustment is performed again

l

Interfere HO Static Time

l

Interfere HO Valid Time

l

UL BQ HO Static Time

l

UL BQ HO Last Time

l

HCS HO Watch Time

(for all factors) after the load handover decision is made.

l

HCS HO Valid Time

l

The comprehensive handover decision is made and the candidate neighboring cells are determined.

 

l

The classification of handover decision is changed.

l

The conditions for triggering the handovers and for selecting the target cell are changed. The handovers are listed as follows:

TA Handover, BQ Handover, Interference Handover, No Downlink Measurement Report Handover, Enhanced Dual- Band Network Handover, Load Handover, and Fast- Moving Micro Cell Handover.

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Change

Change Description

Parameter Change

Type

 

The following handover decisions are not contained in handover algorithm II:

None.

l

Rapid Level Drop Handover

l

Independent load handover

l

PBGT Handover

l

Inter-Layer Handover

l

Handover due to MS movement to the border of the overlaid cell

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

Change

Change Description

Parameter Change

Type

 

The following handover decisions are added to handover algorithm II:

The added parameters are listed as follows:

l

Better Cell Handover Enable

l

Better Cell Handover

Better Cell HO Watch Time

Better Cell HO Valid Time

l

Handover Between a Full- Rate TCH and a Half-Rate TCH

l

l

l

Pathloss Ho. Enable

 

l

IntraCell AMR TCHF-TCHH Ho Allowed

l

IntraCell AMR TCHF-TCHH Ho Pathloss Threshold

l

IntraCell AMR TCHF-TCHH Ho ATCB Threshold

l

IntraCell AMR TCHF-TCHH Ho Qual. Threshold

l

IntraCell TCHF-TCHH Ho Stat Time(s)

l

IntraCell TCHF-TCHH Ho Last Time(s)

l

IntraCell Non-AMR TCHF-TCHH Ho Allowed

l

IntraCell Non-AMR TCHF-TCHH Ho Pathloss Threshold

l

IntraCell Non-AMR TCHF-TCHH Ho ATCB Threshold

l

IntraCell Non-AMR TCHF-TCHH Ho Qual. Threshold

l

IntraCell TCHF-TCHH Ho Stat Time(s)

l

IntraCell TCHF-TCHH Ho Last Time(s)

l

IntraCell AMR TCHH-TCHF Qual Ho Allowed

l

IntraCell AMR TCHH-TCHF Ho Pathloss Threshold

l

IntraCell AMR TCHH-TCHF Ho ATCB Threshold

l

IntraCell AMR TCHH-TCHF Ho Qual. Threshold

l

IntraCell TCHH-TCHF Ho Stat Time(s)

l

IntraCell TCHH-TCHF Ho Last Time(s)

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Change

Change Description

Parameter Change

Type

   

l

IntraCell Non-AMR TCHH-TCHF Qual. Ho Allowed

l

IntraCell Non-AMR TCHH-TCHF Ho Pathloss Threshold

l

IntraCell Non-AMR TCHH-TCHF Ho ATCB Threshold

l

IntraCell Non-AMR TCHH-TCHF Ho Qual. Threshold

Descriptions of handover algorithm II are added to 1.3.2 Measurement Report Processing.

None.

Editorial

The structure of the document is optimized.

None.

change

The following contents are updated and added:

None.

l

The definition of ATCB is added to 1.2 Overview.

l

1.3.3

Handover

Preprocessing is divided into

1.3.2

Measurement Report

Processing and 1.3.3 Handover Preprocessing to improve the readability.

l

In TA Handover, the description of handover penalty is moved to Limitations in TA Handover.

l

In BQ Handover, the description of handover penalty is moved to Limitations in BQ Handover.

1.2 Overview

Introduction

The GSM network comprises several cells with continuous coverage. The handover technique is introduced into the GSM system to enable the users who are in motion to continue with the current call without interruption, thus optimizing the network performance.

During a handover, the MS and BTS in service measure the conditions of uplink and downlink radio links respectively, record the measurement results into measurement reports (MRs), and

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

then send the MRs to the BSC. The BSC determines whether to trigger a handover based on the MRs and the actual conditions of the radio network.

Target Groups

This document is intended for people who have:

l

Basic GSM knowledge

l

Working experience on GSM

Terms

Term

Definition

Ping-pong

Ping-pong handover refers to the condition in which an MS is handed over back and forth between two cells because of the changes in signal quality or the improper settings of parameters.

handover

Co-site

Neighboring cells in the same BTS.

neighbori

ng cells

Raileigh

Raileigh fading is related to frequency. In radio propagation, signals inevitably undergo short-period amplitude changes. In other words, signal fading is frequency-specific.

fading

Chain

Chain neighboring cell is one of the configuration properties for a neighboring cell. During a quick handover, an MS is handed over to only the chain neighboring cells of the serving cell. Generally, the neighboring cells of the serving cell in the fast-moving direction of the MS are configured as chain neighboring cells. The configurations depend on the actual conditions.

neighbori

ng cell

ATCB

ATCB specifies how close the MS is to the cell center. If the ATCB is greater, the MS is closer to the cell center.

ATCB

ATCB handover is a special method of determining the border between an overlaid cell and an underlaid cell in the enhanced dual-band network. The coverage area of the overlaid cell is determined by ATCB_THRD, ATCB_HYST, and the signal strength difference between serving cell and neighboring cell.

handover

Frequency

When the transmit source of the radio wave is far from the receiving party, the wavelength is long and the frequency is low. When the transmit source is close to the receiving party, the wavelength is short and the frequency is high. The BTS of the serving cell can calculate the frequency offset (indicated by Δf) through the signals transmitted by the moving MS. If the absolute value of Δf is great, you can infer that the MS moves at a high speed. If Δf is a positive number, you can infer that the MS is moving towards the BTS. If Δf is a negative number, you can infer that the MS is moving away from the BTS.

offset

Different

In FH mode, the different frequencies set refers to a certain FH group. In non- FH mode, the different frequencies set refers to a certain frequency.

frequencie

s set

 

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Term

Definition

Enhanced

The enhanced measurement report is a new downlink measurement report that is provided by the MS. Compared with the normal measurement report, the enhanced measurement report is added with new contents, such as BER and FER. The enhanced measurement report provides the measurement information of up to 15 neighboring GSM/WCDMA cells, whereas the normal measurement report provides the measurement information of 6 neighboring GSM cells at most.

measurem

ent report

FULL

The FULL SET specifies the receive level and signal quality measured on TCH when the BTS transmits signals at full power.

SET

SUB SET

The SUB SET specifies the receive level and signal quality measured on TCH when the DTX function is enabled.

Ec/No

Ec/No means Signal Noise Ratio in WCDMA. It maps with C/I in GSM.

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym and

 

Abbreviation

Expansion

MS

Mobile Station

BSC

Base Station Controller

MR

Measurement Report

BQ

Bad Quality

TA

Timing Advance

BSIC

Base Station Identity Code

BER

Bit Error Ratio

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

AMR

Adaptive Multi Rate

ATCB

Adapter distance To Cell Border

RQI

Radio Quality Indication

RSCP

Received Signal Code Power

CPICH

Common PIlot CHannel

PBGT

Power BudGet Handover

Network Elements Involved

Table 1-1 lists the network elements (NEs) involved in handover.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

Table 1-1 NEs involved in handover

MS

BTS

BSC

MSC

MGW

SGSN

GGSN

HLR

NOTE

 

l

-: not involved

 

l

: involved

1.3 Technical Description

1.3.1 Overview

Huawei handover algorithms (handover algorithm I and handover algorithm II) involve measurement and MR reporting, MR processing, handover decision, and handover execution.

MR processing, handover decision, and handover execution. NOTE Huawei handover algorithms apply to the handovers on

NOTE

Huawei handover algorithms apply to the handovers on TCHs as well as the handovers on SDCCHs.

You can determine the handover algorithm used in a cell through HO Control Switch.

Figure 1-1 shows the procedure for performing Huawei handover algorithms (including handover algorithm I and handover algorithm II).

Figure 1-1 Procedure for performing Huawei handover algorithms

1-1 Procedure for performing Huawei handover algorithms Start MS in connection state MS performs measurement and
Start
Start

MS in connection state

Huawei handover algorithms Start MS in connection state MS performs measurement and MR reporting BSS performs

MS performs measurement and MR reporting

in connection state MS performs measurement and MR reporting BSS performs MR processing Handover decision based

BSS performs MR processing

measurement and MR reporting BSS performs MR processing Handover decision based on handover algorithm Handover

Handover decision based on handover algorithm

MR processing Handover decision based on handover algorithm Handover execution End Issue 01 (2009–04–30) Huawei

Handover execution

decision based on handover algorithm Handover execution End Issue 01 (2009–04–30) Huawei Proprietary and

End

decision based on handover algorithm Handover execution End Issue 01 (2009–04–30) Huawei Proprietary and

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Handover Decision Based on Handover Algorithm I

Figure 1-2 shows the procedure of handover decision based on handover algorithm I.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

Figure 1-2 Procedure of handover decision based on handover algorithm I Start No downlink measurement
Figure 1-2 Procedure of handover decision based on handover algorithm I
Start
No downlink measurement report
handover decision
MS starts minimum interval
protection
No
Whether minimum interval
protection of consecutive
handovers times out?
Yes
Handover preprocessing
Handover penalty
Basic queuing
Network characteristics adjustment
Forced handover
Quick handover
No
Whether minimum interval
protection of handover times
out?
Yes
Other handover decisions
Determines target cell according to
2G/3G priority selection conditions
and corresponding thresholds
Starts minimum interval protection
of consecutive handovers
End

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

In handover algorithm I, five types of handover decisions are defined:

l

Quick handover (including quick PBGT handover and frequency offset handover). Good and stable services can be provided when the voice quality deteriorates during the fast movement of an MS. Quick handover is mainly applicable in the railway scenario.

l

Emergency handover. Emergency handover can ensure the call continuity when the radio environment severely deteriorates. Theoretically, the emergency handover has a bigger deviation than other handovers in terms of the selection of the target cell. In a normal cell, frequent emergency handovers should be avoided.

l

Enhanced dual-band network handover. In an enhanced dual-band network, the resources in the overlaid DCS1800 cell and underlaid GSM900 cell can be shared during the assignment and handover procedures. That is, the calls in the high-traffic GSM900 cell can be handed over to the low-traffic DCS1800 cell to balance traffic.

l

Load handover. Load handover enables the system load to be balanced among multiple cells so that the system performance can be ensured.

l

Normal handover. Normal handover ensures good services when an MS is moving.

Figure 1-3 shows the handovers provided in Figure 1-2 and their priorities in handover algorithm I.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

Figure 1-3 Handover decisions based on handover algorithm I

Emergency handover

TA handover

Interference handover

Rapid level drop handover

BQ handover

Starts protection timer after emergency handover is triggered.

protection timer after emergency handover is triggered. Enhanced dual-band network handover Load handover Normal

Enhanced dual-band network handover

Enhanced dual-band network handover
handover is triggered. Enhanced dual-band network handover Load handover Normal handover Edge handover Fast-moving

Load handover

Load handover
triggered. Enhanced dual-band network handover Load handover Normal handover Edge handover Fast-moving micro cell

Normal handover

Edge handover

Normal handover Edge handover Fast-moving micro cell handover Inter-layer handover PBGT handover Concentric cell handover

Fast-moving micro cell handover

Normal handover Edge handover Fast-moving micro cell handover Inter-layer handover PBGT handover Concentric cell handover

Inter-layer handover

Inter-layer handover
Fast-moving micro cell handover Inter-layer handover PBGT handover Concentric cell handover AMR handover 3G

PBGT handover

PBGT handover
micro cell handover Inter-layer handover PBGT handover Concentric cell handover AMR handover 3G better cell
Concentric cell handover

Concentric cell handover

Inter-layer handover PBGT handover Concentric cell handover AMR handover 3G better cell handover TIGHT BCCH handover

AMR handover

AMR handover
Inter-layer handover PBGT handover Concentric cell handover AMR handover 3G better cell handover TIGHT BCCH handover

3G better cell handover

3G better cell handover
Inter-layer handover PBGT handover Concentric cell handover AMR handover 3G better cell handover TIGHT BCCH handover

TIGHT BCCH handover

Handover Decision Based on Handover Algorithm II

Figure 1-4 shows the procedure of handover decision based on handover algorithm II.

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Figure 1-4 Procedure of handover decision based on handover algorithm II

No

No

No No

1-14

Start
Start

No downlink measurement report handover decision

No downlink measurement report handover decision
Start No downlink measurement report handover decision MS starts minimum interval protection Whether minimum interval

MS starts minimum interval protection

MS starts minimum interval protection

Whether minimum interval protection of consecutive handovers times out?

Quick handover (emergency handover)

Quick handover (emergency handover)

Whether minimum interval protection of consecutive handovers times out?

Yes

Emergency handover (not including quick handover) Load handover decision Network characteristics adjustment (all
Emergency handover (not including
quick handover)
Load handover decision
Network characteristics adjustment
(all factors)
Other handover decisions
Performs comprehensive decision of
handover result and determines
candidate neighbor cell
Starts minimum interval protection
of consecutive handovers
End
handover result and determines candidate neighbor cell Starts minimum interval protection of consecutive handovers End
minimum interval protection of consecutive handovers End Yes Handover preprocessing Basic queuing Network
Yes Handover preprocessing Basic queuing Network characteristics adjustment (some factors) Forced handover Handover penalty
Yes Handover preprocessing Basic queuing Network characteristics adjustment (some factors) Forced handover Handover penalty
Yes Handover preprocessing Basic queuing Network characteristics adjustment (some factors) Forced handover Handover penalty

Yes

Yes Handover preprocessing Basic queuing Network characteristics adjustment (some factors) Forced handover Handover penalty

Handover preprocessing

Basic queuing

Network characteristics adjustment (some factors)

Forced handover

Handover penalty

Yes Handover preprocessing Basic queuing Network characteristics adjustment (some factors) Forced handover Handover penalty
Yes Handover preprocessing Basic queuing Network characteristics adjustment (some factors) Forced handover Handover penalty
(some factors) Forced handover Handover penalty Issue 01 (2009–04–30) Huawei Proprietary and

Issue 01 (2009–04–30)

Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

In handover algorithm II, three types of handover decisions are defined, as shown in Figure

1-5.

Figure 1-5 Handover decisions based on handover algorithm II

Emergency handover

Quick handover

TA handover

BQ handover

Edge handover

Handover Execution

Intra-cell handover

Interference handover

Concentric cell handover

AMR handover

Handover between a full- rate TCH and a half-rate TCH

TIGHT BCCH handover

a full- rate TCH and a half-rate TCH TIGHT BCCH handover Inter-cell handover Fast-moving micro cell

Inter-cell handover

Fast-moving micro cell handover

Enhanced dual-band network handover

Better cell handover

3G better cell handover

handover Better cell handover 3G better cell handover The parameter Power boost before HO enabled or

The parameter Power boost before HO enabled or not determines whether the BTS of the serving cell transmits signals at the maximum power during a handover. If Power boost before HO enabled or not is set to StartUp, the BSC maximizes the transmit power of the BTS before sending a handover command to the MS. The BSC does not adjust the BTS power during the handover to ensure the success of the handover.

1.3.2 Measurement Report Processing

Measurement report processing involves measurement report interpolation and filtering.

NE Selection for Measurement Report Processing

The processing can be performed either on the BSC side or on the BTS side.

l

If MR.Preprocessing is set to No, then the processing is performed on the BSC side.

l

If MR.Preprocessing is set to Yes, then the processing is performed on the BTS side. By setting the parameters Transfer Original MR, Transfer BS/MS Power Class, and Sent Freq.of Preprocessed MR, you can specify the contents of the MRs to be provided and the period during which the MRs are provided. This decreases the signaling traffic on the Abis interface and the traffic volume processed by the BSC.

Data Selection for Measurement Report

The MR can be classified into enhanced MR and normal MR. The parameter Report Type determines the type to be used.

In the MR, the TCH measurement of the serving cell is classified into FULL SET and SUB SET. The MRs from the MS and BTS specify whether the DTX is adopted.

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

l

DtxMeasUsed is set to Open.

If the MR specifies that the DTX is used, the SUB SET value should be selected.

If the MR specifies that the DTX is not used, the FULL SET value should be selected.

l

DtxMeasUsed is set to Close.

If the MR specifies that the DTX is not used, the FULL SET value should be selected.

If the MR specifies that the DTX is used, the SUB SET value should be selected. The SUB SET value should be used regardless of the usage state of the DTX that the MR specifies.

Measurement Report Interpolation

The neighboring cell indexes are found on the basis of the BCCH frequencies and BSICs provided by the MS. Then, the uplink and downlink measurement results are obtained from the measurement reports.

l

If measurement reports are issued continuously, they are directly added to the measurement report list.

l

If measurement reports are not issued continuously and the number of lost measurement reports is smaller than the value of Allowed M.R Number Lost, the system performs operations as follows:

For the serving cell, the handover algorithm I performs the linear interpolation for the MRs. The lowest values are applied to the interpolation of MRs by the handover algorithm II according to the protocols; that is, level 0 (-110 dBm) and quality 7 are applied in the interpolation.

For the neighboring cell, the lowest value is applied to the lost level value according to the protocols; that is, level 0 (-110 dBm) is applied in the interpolation.

NOTE

NOTE

 

If no MR is reported because the RX level in the neighboring cell is too low, level 0 (-110 dBm) is applied in the interpolation.

l

If measurement reports are not issued continuously and the number of lost measurement reports is greater than the value of Allowed M.R Number Lost, the previous measurement reports are discarded. When new measurement reports are issued, calculation is done again.

Measurement Report Filtering

Filtering is performed on measurement reports obtained continuously from the measurement report list. Averaging is performed on uplink/downlink RX level, uplink/downlink RX quality, TA, RQI, BTS power, 2G neighboring cell level, and the CPICH, RSCP, and Ec/No of neighboring 3G cell. The averaging minimizes the effect on the result of handover decision due to sudden changes in the measurement values.

Power control compensation needs to be performed for the downlink RX level of the serving cell by the handover algorithm II. If you compare the RX level of the serving cell after the power control with that of all BCCH TRXs of the neighboring cell, there is no mapping between them. In situations where the cells overlap severely, the handover is easily triggered, thus causing the ping-pong handover. After the power control compensation is performed, the RX level of the serving cell can reflect the coverage condition of the BCCH TRX of the serving cell. The power control compensation of the serving cell is performed after the interpolation processing and before the filtering processing. In general, the compensation of power control is calculated by adding the downlink RX level of the serving cell and twice the current downlink transmit Power Level of the BTS.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

The number of consecutive measurement reports required for filtering is determined by the measurement object and channel type. See Table 1-2 for details.

Table 1-2 Parameters related to the number of measurement reports

Measurement

   

Object

Channel Type

Parameter

Receive level of the serving cell

SDCCH

Filter Length for SDCCH Level

TCH

Filter Length for TCH Level

Quality of the serving cell

SDCCH

Filter Length for SDCCH Qual

TCH

Filter Length for TCH Qual

TA of the serving cell

TCH

Filter Length for TA

SDCCH

TA Filter Length for SDCCH Level

Receive level of the neighboring cell

BCCH

Filter Length for Ncell RX_LEV

SDCCH

NCell Filter Length for SDCCH Level

Power of the BTS in the serving cell

TCH

Filter Length for TCH Level

RQI

TCH

Filter Length for TCH Qual

If consecutive measurement reports are insufficient, the filtering fails. The handover decision is not performed.

1.3.3 Handover Preprocessing

Handover Penalty

According to the neighboring cell information in the measurement report and the parameters, the system performs handover preprocessing and adjusts the priorities of the neighboring cells.

The handover penalty is performed after successful fast-moving micro cell handover, TA handover, BQ handover, fast-moving micro cell handover, OL subcell to UL subcell handover within an enhanced concentric cell, and after the handover failures.

In handover algorithm II, in addition to the situations mentioned above, the handover penalty is also performed after successful or failed load handover and interference handover.

or failed load handover and interference handover. NOTE In handover decision procedure of handover algorithm

NOTE

In handover decision procedure of handover algorithm II, the handover penalty is performed after the network characteristics adjustment and before the emergency handover decision.

l After the quick handover, TA handover, BQ handover, or load handover (in handover algorithm II) is successfully performed, the penalty level is subtracted from the actual RX level of the original cell during the penalty period. Table 1-3 lists the parameters related to handover penalty.

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Table 1-3 Parameters related to handover penalty

Handover

Parameter

Quick

Quick Handover Punish Time(s)

handover

Quick Handover Punish Value(dB)

TA Handover

Penalty Level after TA HO

Penalty Time after TA HO(s)

BQ Handover

Penalty Level after BQ HO

Penalty Time after BQ HO(s)

Load

Penalty Time on Load HO

handover

Penalty Value on Load HO

(handover

algorithm II)

 

l

After the fast-moving micro cell handover is successfully performed, penalty is performed on all the neighboring cells of the micro cell. Related parameters are Penalty on Fast Moving Handover and Penalty Time on Fast Moving HO(s).

l

If an MS fails to initiate an intra-cell AMR TCHF to TCHH handover, it cannot initiate another intra-cell AMR TCHF to TCHH handover within Penalty Time after AMR TCHF-H HO Fail(s).

l

In handover algorithm II, after the interference handover is initiated, this handover is not allowed to be initiated again within Penalty Time on Interfere HO regardless of whether the handover is successful or not.

l

After the OL subcell to UL subcell handover within an enhanced concentric cell is successful, the handover from UL subcell to OL subcell is not allowed within Penalty Time of UtoO HO(s).

l

After the OL cell to UL cell handover in the enhanced dual-band network is successful, the handover from UL cell to OL cell is not allowed within Inter UL And OL Subcells HO Penalty Time(s).

l

After the handover fails, different penalties are performed on the target cell based on the causes:

If the handover to a neighboring 2G or 3G cell fails, the actual RX level of the target cell is subtracted by Penalty Level after HO Fail for neighboring cell ranking during the penalty.

HO Fail for neighboring cell ranking during the penalty. NOTE Based on the handover failure cause,

NOTE

Based on the handover failure cause, the penalty time could be UmPenaltyTimer, RscPenaltyTimer, or CfgPenaltyTimer.

If the OL subcell to UL subcell handover within a concentric cell fails, the handover from OL subcell to UL subcell is not allowed within Penalty Time after OtoU HO Fail(s).

If the UL subcell to OL subcell handover within a concentric cell fails, the handover from UL subcell to OL subcell is not allowed within Penalty Time after UtoO HO Fail(s).

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

Basic Ranking

Basic ranking is performed after handover penalty to generate a candidate cell list in descending order taking the following information into account: RX levels of the serving cell and neighboring cells carried in the MRs, hysteresis, usage of TCHs in the neighboring cells, and so on.

l

In the case of non-directed retry, if an MS in an external BSC cell occupies an SDCCH and Inter-BSC SDCCH HO ALLowed is set to No, then this cell should be removed from the candidate cell list. In other words, the handover to this external BSC cell is prohibited.

l

If a neighboring 2G cell and the serving cell are controlled by the same BSC and the TCH usage of the neighboring cell is 100%, then the neighboring cell should be removed from the candidate cell list; that is, the handover to this neighboring cell is prohibited.

l

If the downlink RX level of a neighboring 2G cell is lower than the sum of Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell and Min Access Level Offset, then the neighboring cell should be removed from the candidate cell list; that is, the handover to this neighboring cell is prohibited.

l

If the uplink RX level of a neighboring 2G cell is lower than the sum of Min UP Power on HO Candidate Cell and Min Access Level Offset, then the neighboring cell should be removed from the candidate cell list; that is, the handover to this neighboring cell is prohibited.

l

If a neighboring 3G cell is an FDD cell, the cell is processed according to FDD REP QUANT:

If FDD REP QUANT is set to Ec/N0, and the Ec/N0 of a neighboring cell is lower than Min Ec/No Threshold, the neighboring cell should be removed from the candidate cell list; that is, the handover to this neighboring cell is prohibited.

If FDD REP QUANT is set to RSCP, and the RSCP of a neighboring cell is lower than Min RSCP Threshold, the neighboring cell should be removed from the candidate cell list; that is, the handover to this neighboring cell is prohibited.

l

If a neighboring 3G cell is a TDD cell and the RSCP after penalty is lower than the Min RSCP Threshold, the neighboring cell should be removed from the candidate cell list; that is, the handover to this neighboring cell is prohibited.

l

Calculate the difference between the downlink RX level of the neighboring cells and the downlink RX level of the serving cell. Based on the difference, rank the neighboring cells in descending order.

Network Characteristics Adjustment

Network characteristics adjustment is a process in which the position of each cell in the candidate cell list is determined based on the related network information. Network characteristics adjustment provides the final candidate cell list for handover decision.

After the network characteristics adjustment, the final candidate cell list (including neighboring cells and serving cell) is generated. The candidate cells are ranked in descending order by priority. Then, the handover decision procedure starts.

In handover algorithm II, the emergency handover decision is made after the network characteristics adjustment.

After the emergency handover decision, Penalty Value on Load HO is subtracted from the level of the original cell within Penalty Time on Load HO (s) if the load handover is successful. The level of the target cell changes after the penalty of load handover; then, the network characteristics needs to be readjusted.

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

In handover algorithm I, all related factors are adjusted in network characteristics adjustment phase; in handover algorithm II, some of the factors are adjusted before the emergency handover decision procedure is initiated.

Forced Handover

If the forced handover is triggered, the subsequent handover decisions are not performed.

The purpose of the forced handover is as follows:

l

If

no TCH is available in the serving cell during the MS access process, the directed retry

procedure is performed when Directed Retry Permitted is set to Yes.

l

When BTS maintenance is performed, the MSs under control of the related BTS should be handed over to the cells controlled by a functional BTS to ensure that no call drop occurs during BTS maintenance.

The forced handover is classified into these four types:

l

Outgoing cell handover (directed retry)

l

Outgoing BTS handover

l

Outgoing BSC handover

l

Specified target cell list handover

1.3.4 Handover Decision Based on Handover Algorithm I

According to the emergency condition of an MS in the network, the handover decision based on handover algorithm I is made in the following order: quick handover, emergency handover, enhanced dual-band network handover, load handover, and normal handover.

Handover decision based on handover algorithm I involves the following procedures:

l

Determining whether the serving cell meets the triggering conditions

l

Selecting corresponding candidate cells

In handover algorithm I, Inter-RAT HO Preference specifies whether a neighboring 2G cell or a neighboring 3G cell is preferred.

l

When Inter-RAT HO Preference is set to Preference for 2G Cell:

A

neighboring 2G cell is preferred. If the candidate cell list contains suitable neighboring

3G cells but no suitable neighboring 2G cells, a neighboring 3G cell is selected.

l

When Inter-RAT HO Preference is set to Preference for 3G Cell:

A

neighboring 3G cell is preferred. If the candidate cell list contains suitable neighboring

2G cells but no suitable neighboring 3G cells, a neighboring 2G cell is selected.

l

When Inter-RAT HO Preference is set to Preference for 2G Cell:

If the RX level of a candidate 2G cell is lower than or equal to HO Preference Threshold

for 2G Cell, a neighboring 3G cell is preferred.

If the triggering conditions of emergency handover are met and there is at least one candidate cell, then the emergency handover timer Min Interval for Emerg.HOs is started. Another emergency handover decision can be performed only when Min Interval for Emerg.HOs times out.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

Quick Handover

Quick handover aims to increase the handover success rate of an MS moving at a high speed and to ensure the call continuity and low call drop rate. Quick handover applies to the scenario where an MS moves fast along an urban backbone road, a selected route, or a high-speed railroad.

Quick Handover Types

Quick handover consists of frequency offset handover and quick PBGT handover.

l

Frequency offset handover

Whether the MS is moving away from the serving cell is determined based on the frequency offset information provided by an MS moving at a high speed. Frequency offset handover decision is made according to the uplink/downlink RX level of the serving cell and the path loss of neighboring cells.

l

Quick PBGT handover

Quick PBGT handover decision is made according to the path loss of neighboring cells.

For quick handover, the handover response speed is enhanced by:

l

Accurately calculating the moving speed of the MS

l

Derestricting the interval between handover decisions

l

Reducing the number of measurement reports for the handover decision

l

Introducing the α filtering

Quick Handover Preparation

The preparation for quick handover involves the following aspects:

l

Frequency offset is decoded from the measurement report.

Frequency offset of the MS is obtained from the uplink measurement report that the BTS sends to the BSC.

l

α filtering is performed on the measurement report.

Triggering Conditions

During handover decision, whether the triggering conditions of frequency offset handover are met is determined first. When the BTS cannot send the frequency offset information or the reported frequency offset information is invalid, quick PBGT handover is triggered if other conditions of frequency offset handover are met.

If Quick Handover Enable is set to Yes, the triggering conditions of quick handover are as follows:

l

The MS is moving away from the serving cell (the frequency offset in the measurement result is a negative value) and the moving speed of the MS is greater than Quick Move Speed Threshold(m/s).

l

The filtered uplink level of the serving cell is lower than Quick Handover Up Trigger Level(dB).

l

The compensated downlink level of the serving cell is lower than Quick Handover Down Trigger Level(dB).

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

l The path loss of configured chain neighboring cells is lower than the specified threshold of the path loss of the serving cell. In other words, PBGT(n) is greater than or equal to 0.

The triggering conditions of quick handover are as follows:

l

If the last three conditions are met simultaneously, the decision is made as follows:

If the first condition is met, a frequency offset handover is performed.

If the first condition is not met, a quick PBGT handover is performed.

l

If all the last three conditions are not met, quick handover is not triggered.

Target Cell Selection

The target cell must be a chain neighboring cell of the serving cell. The Chain Neighbor Cell parameter specifies whether a neighboring cell is a chain neighboring cell.

Limitations

The limitations on quick handover are as follows:

l

The serving cell cannot be selected as the target cell.

l

The candidate cells for quick handover must be chain neighboring cells of the serving cell. Each cell can be configured with a maximum of three chain neighboring cells.

l

After a quick handover is successful, the penalty is performed on the original cell during the penalty time to prevent an immediate handover back to the original cell. The penalty time and penalty value are specified by Quick Handover Punish Time(s) and Quick Handover Punish Value(dB) respectively.

TA Handover

Timing Advance (TA) handover is a type of emergency handover. The TA handover decision is made according to the TA value reported by the MS.

The TA value of a normal cell ranges from 0 to 63 and that of an extended cell ranges from 0 to 229. The TA can be stepped up or down in steps of 553.5 m. The TA value of 63 corresponds to a distance of 35 km.

Triggering Conditions

TA handover is triggered when the following conditions are met:

l

TA HO Allowed is set to Yes.

l

Filtered TA value in the measurement report provided by the MS is greater than or equal to TA Threshold.

The TA handover can be triggered only when the preceding two conditions are met simultaneously.

when the preceding two conditions are met simultaneously. NOTE From the perspective of the triggering conditions

NOTE

From the perspective of the triggering conditions of TA handover, TA can be regarded as a limitation to the size of a cell.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

Target Cell Selection

The target cell should have the highest priority in the candidate cell list after handover preprocessing. In addition, the target cell should meet the following conditions:

l

The serving cell cannot be selected as the target cell.

l

If TA Threshold of a co-site neighboring cell is lower than or equal to the TA Threshold of the serving cell, a handover to the neighboring cell is prohibited.

If the triggering conditions of TA handover are met but the candidate 2G cells are not suitable, the following operations are performed:

l

If a neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to Yes, and if the MS supports the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover is performed.

l

If no neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to

No,

or if the MS does not support the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the decision on whether

to initiate another type of emergency handover is made.

Limitations

After the TA handover is successful, the penalty is performed on the original cell. During Penalty Time after TA HO(s), Penalty Level after TA HO is subtracted from the level of the original cell to prevent an immediate handover back to the original cell.

BQ Handover

Bad Quality (BQ) handover is a type of emergency handover in which the system makes the decision based on the uplink/downlink RX quality on the Um interface.

The RX quality is measured in bit error rate (BER). The BSC measures the quality of a radio link based on the quality class in the measurement report. The probable cause of an increase in BER is that the signal power is too low or the channel interference increases.

Triggering Conditions

If BQ HO Allowed is set to Yes, the triggering conditions of BQ handover are as follows:

l

The uplink RX quality is greater than or equal to the uplink RX quality threshold of the serving cell.

l

The downlink RX quality is greater than or equal to the downlink RX quality threshold of the serving cell.

The BQ handover is triggered when either of the preceding conditions is met.

The parameters for specifying the uplink and downlink RX quality thresholds are as follows:

l

For non-AMR calls, the parameter for specifying the uplink RX quality threshold is UL Qual. Threshold and the parameter for specifying the downlink RX quality threshold is

DL

Qual. Threshold.

l

For AMR FR calls, the parameter for specifying the uplink RX quality threshold is ULQuaLimitAMRFR and the parameter for specifying the downlink RX quality threshold is DLQuaLimitAMRFR.

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

l For AMR HR calls, the parameter for specifying the uplink RX quality threshold is ULQuaLimitAMRHR and the parameter for specifying the downlink RX quality threshold is DLQuaLimitAMRHR.

Target Cell Selection

The target cell should have the highest priority in the candidate cell list after handover preprocessing. In addition, the target cell should meet the following conditions:

l

If the target cell is a neighboring cell, the RX level of the target cell must meet the following condition:

Filtered downlink RX level of the target cell > Filtered downlink RX level of the serving cell + Inter-cell HO Hysteresis of the serving cell configured for the neighboring cell - BQ HO Margin + 64

NOTE

NOTE

 

In handover algorithm I, if there is only one cell in the candidate cell list and the cell is a neighboring cell, then the preceding condition need not be met.

l

In handover algorithm I, if there is no neighboring cell, Intracell HO Allowed is set to Yes, and the serving cell is not in the intra-cell handover penalty state, then the MS is handed over to the serving cell. A channel with different frequency band, different frequency, different TRX, or different timeslot is preferred (priority: different frequency band > different frequency > different TRX > different timeslot).

If the triggering conditions of BQ handover are met but the candidate 2G cells are not suitable, the following operations are performed:

l

If a neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to Yes, and if the MS supports the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover is performed.

l

If no neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to No, or if the MS does not support the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the decision on whether to initiate another type of emergency handover is made.

Limitations

After the BQ handover is successful, the penalty is performed on the original cell. During Penalty Time after BQ HO(s), Penalty Level after BQ HO is subtracted from the level of the original cell to prevent an immediate handover back to the original cell.

Rapid Level Drop Handover

Rapid level drop handover is a type of emergency handover.

In edge handover and PBGT handover, the mean value filtering and P/N decision methods are not responsive to short-period rapid level drop. Therefore, to solve the rapid level drop problem, the finite impact response filtering can be performed on the original RX level. This filtering method is responsive to the rapid level drop based on the drop slope of the original RX level.

Triggering Conditions

If Rx_Level_Drop HO Allowed is set to Yes, the triggering conditions of rapid level drop handover are as follows:

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

l

Filtered uplink level < Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold

l

A1 x C(nt) + A2 x C(nt - t) + A3 x C(nt - 2t) + … + A8 x C(nt - 7t) < B

Here, A1 indicates Filter Parameter A1, A2 indicates Filter Parameter A2, A3 indicates Filter Parameter A3, A4 indicates Filter Parameter A4, A5 indicates Filter Parameter A5, A6 indicates Filter Parameter A6, A7 indicates Filter Parameter A7, and A8 indicates Filter Parameter A8.

B indicates Filter Parameter B.

Target Cell Selection

The target cell should have the highest priority in the candidate cell list after handover preprocessing. In addition, the target cell should meet the following conditions:

l

The target cell has a higher priority than the serving cell.

l

The serving cell cannot be selected as the target cell.

If the triggering conditions of rapid level drop handover are met but the candidate 2G cells are not suitable, the following operations are performed:

l

If

a neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to

Yes, and if the MS supports the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover is performed.

l

If

no neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to

No, or if the MS does not support the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the decision on whether

to initiate another type of emergency handover is made.

Interference Handover

In handover algorithm I, interference handover is a type of emergency handover.

Interference handover helps protect the interfered calls and reduce the network interference. It is applicable to scenarios with interference.

In handover algorithm I, the difference between interference handover and BQ handover is that in BQ handover the bad quality resulting from both coverage and interference is checked. In interference handover, the bad quality resulting from coverage is not checked.

Triggering Conditions

If Interference HO Allowed is set to Yes, the triggering conditions of interference handover are as follows:

l

The filtered value of uplink RX quality is greater than or equal to the specified RX quality threshold at the current uplink RX level.

l

The filtered value of downlink RX quality is greater than or equal to the specified RX quality threshold at the current downlink RX level.

The interference handover is triggered if either of the previous conditions is met.

The parameters for specifying the uplink and downlink RX quality thresholds are as follows:

l For non-AMR FR calls, the parameter for specifying the RX quality threshold is RXQUALn, where 1 n 12.

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

l For AMR FR calls, the parameters for specifying the RX quality threshold are RXQUALn (1 n 12) and RXLEVOff.

If n = 1, the RX quality threshold is RXQUAL1.

If 2 n 12, the RX quality threshold is RXQUALn + RXLEVOff.

Target Cell Selection

In handover algorithm I, the target cell should have the highest priority in the candidate cell list. In addition, the target cell should meet the following conditions:

l

If Intracell HO Allowed is set to Yes and the intra-cell handover penalty timer expires, the serving cell can be selected as the target cell.

NOTE

NOTE

 

When a number of consecutive intra-cell handovers occur, Forbidden time after MAX Times is triggered and the intra-cell handover is prohibited in the corresponding period.

l

If the filtered level of a neighboring cell after handover penalty Inter-layer HO Threshold of the neighboring cell + Adjacent Cell Inter-layer HO Hysteresis - 64, this neighboring cell can serve as the target cell.

If the triggering conditions of interference handover are met but the candidate 2G cells are not suitable, the following operations need to be performed:

l

If a neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to Yes, and if the MS supports the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover is performed.

l

If no neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to No, or if the MS does not support the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the decision on whether to initiate another type of emergency handover is made.

Handover Due to No Downlink Measurement Report

Handover due to no downlink measurement report is performed on the basis of the uplink quality. The purpose is to ensure the call continuity and minimize the possibility of call drops.

Handover due to no downlink measurement report is generally caused by adverse radio environment on the uplink. In this case, the requirements of the filtering algorithm cannot be met, so other handover decisions cannot be performed.

Triggering Conditions

In handover algorithm I, the triggering conditions of handover due to no downlink measurement report are as follows:

l

No Dl Mr.HO Allowed is set to Yes.

l

There is no downlink information in the measurement report of the call.

l

The filtered value of uplink quality is greater than or equal to No Dl Mr.Ul Qual HO Limit.

l

The number of lost downlink MRs is smaller than Cons.No Dl Mr.HO Allowed Limit.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

l For TCH, the number of saved MRs with uplink quality value is greater than Filter Length for TCH Qual; for SDCCH, the number of saved MRs with uplink quality value is greater than Filter Length for SDCCH Qual.

When all the previous conditions are met, the handover due to no downlink measurement report is triggered.

Target Cell Selection

In handover algorithm I, the conditions for selecting the target cell are as follows:

l

The ranked neighboring cells recorded in the last complete measurement report are saved as candidate cells.

l

Preferably a neighboring cell is selected as the target cell.

l

If no neighboring cell is available, the serving cell is selected as the target cell.

Enhanced Dual-Band Network Handover

Enhanced dual-band network handover is performed based on the traffic volume of the overlaid and underlaid cells and based on the receive level.

Enhanced dual-band network handover is classified into the following types:

l

Handover due to high load in the underlaid cell

l

Handover due to low load in the underlaid cell

l

Handover due to MS movement to the border of the overlaid cell

Triggering Conditions of Handover Due to High Load in the Underlaid Cell

The triggering conditions of the handover due to high load in the underlaid cell are as follows:

l

The two cells are in the enhanced dual-band network and Load HO From UL Subcell to OL Subcell Allowed is set to Yes.

l

The MS supports the frequency band on which the overlaid cell operates.

l

The handover due to high load in the underlaid cell is performed only on TCHs.

l

The load in the underlaid cell is higher than or equal to UL Subcell General Overload Threshold(%).

l

The load in the overlaid cell is lower than Inner Cell Serious Overload Threshold(%).

l

The system traffic volume is lower than or equal to Allowed Flow Control Level of UL And OL Subcell HO.

l

The current call is within the handover margin and the receive level is greater than or equal to Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB).

When all the preceding conditions are met, the handover due to high load in the underlaid cell is triggered.

If the load of the underlaid subcell in the cell is higher than or equal to UL Subcell Serious Overload Threshold(%), then the handover margin is adjusted in a period of UL Subcell Load Hierarchical HO Period(s) subtracted by Modified Step Length of UL Load HO Period(s). The step length for handover margin adjustment is specified by Step Length of UL Subcell Load HO(dB).

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

Triggering Conditions of Handover Due to Low Load in the Underlaid Cell

The triggering conditions of the handover due to low load in the underlaid cell are as follows:

l

The load in the underlaid cell is lower than UL Subcell Lower Load Threshold(%).

l

The system traffic volume is lower than or equal to Allowed Flow Control Level of UL And OL Subcell HO.

l

The current call is within the handover margin and the receive level is greater than or equal to Outgoing OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB).

When all the preceding conditions are met, the handover due to low load in the underlaid cell is triggered.

If the load of the underlaid subcell is lower than UL Subcell Lower Load Threshold(%) for a specified period, then the handover margin is adjusted in a period of OL Subcell Load Diversity HO Period(s). The step length for handover margin adjustment is specified by Step Length of OL Subcell Load HO(dB).

Triggering Conditions of Handover Due to MS Movement to the Border of the Overlaid Cell

The triggering conditions of the handover due to MS movement to the border of the overlaid cell are as follows:

l

SS(s) < Thdouter

l

SS(u) - SS(n) < ATCB_THRD - ATCB_HYST

Here,

SS(s): specifies the filtering compensated downlink RX level in the serving cell.

Thdouter: specifies Outgoing OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB).

SS(u): specifies the downlink level (power compensation is performed on the downlink level based on the measurement) of the underlaid cell where the call is originated. If the SS(u) value cannot be obtained, you can infer that the decision of enhanced dual-band network handover is not performed and the decision condition is met by default.

SS(n): The best neighboring cell is the one whose measured BCCH level is the highest among neighboring cells. SS(n) is the signal level of the best neighboring cell that operates on the same frequency band, locates at the same layer, and has the same priority as the underlaid cell but is not co-sited with the underlaid cell. If such a neighboring cell is not available, the value of SS(n) is -110 dBm.

ATCB_THRD: specifies Distance Between Boundaries of UL And OL Subcells (dB).

ATCB_HYST: specifies Distance Hysteresis Between Boundaries of UL And OL Subcells(dB).

Handover due to MS movement to the border of the overlaid cell is triggered if either of the preceding conditions is met.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description 1 Handover NOTE l In the ATCB handover algorithm, the border

NOTE

l

In the ATCB handover algorithm, the border between the overlaid and underlaid cells is determined according to the signal strength of the serving cell and that of neighboring cells. If SS(s) = SS(n), the system considers that the MS is located at the border of the underlaid cell. If SS(s) - SS(n) > ATCB_THRD, the system considers that the MS is located in the coverage area of the overlaid cell. The coverage area of the overlaid cell is determined according to different networking and coverage conditions of the existing network. In addition, the overlaid cell of the serving cells and the overlaid cell of the neighboring cells will not overlap regardless of the distance between BTSs.

l

The handover margin specifies the range of signal level. In the case of overlaid/underlaid load handover on the enhanced dual-band network, the MSs whose downlink levels are within the handover margin are handed over level by level.

Target Cell Selection

The requirements for target cell selection in the enhanced dual-band network are as follows:

l

For the handover due to high load in the underlaid cell, the MS must be handed over to the overlaid cell.

l

For the handover due to low load in the underlaid cell, the MS must be handed over to the underlaid cell.

l

For the handover due to MS movement to the border of the overlaid cell, the MS is handed over to the neighboring cell that ranks first among neighboring cells. The MS should not be handed over to the cell that ranks after the serving cell. Generally, the target cell is the underlaid cell. The target cell can also be another neighboring cell.

Limitations

The limitations on the handover due to high load in the underlaid cell are as follows:

l

If the cell where the call is located is on an enhanced dual-band network, Attributes of UL And OL Subcells is set to Underlaid Subcell.

l

The Load HO From UL Subcell to OL Subcell Allowed parameter should be set.

l

The maximum range of the handover margin is from 63 to Incoming OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB). The MS with the highest receive level is handed over first.

The limitations on the handover due to low load in the underlaid cell are as follows:

l

If the cell where the call is located is on the enhanced dual-band network, Attributes of UL And OL Subcells is set to Overlaid Subcell.

l

The Load HO of OL Subcell to UL Subcell Enabled parameter should be set.

l

The maximum range of the handover margin is from 63 to Outgoing OL Subcell HO level Threshold(dB). The MS with the lowest receive level is handed over first.

The limitations on the handover due to MS movement to the border of the overlaid cell are as follows:

l If the cell where the call is located is on the enhanced dual-band network, Attributes of UL And OL Subcells is set to Overlaid Subcell.

Impact of the Enhanced Dual-Band Network Handover on the Existing Algorithm

The impact of the enhanced dual-band network handover on the existing algorithm is as follows:

l On the enhanced dual-band network, the MS should not be handed over to a cell in the same underlaid/overlaid cell group when the load handovers between the overlaid cell and

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

the underlaid cell (specified by Load HO From UL Subcell to OL Subcell Allowed and Load HO of OL Subcell to UL Subcell Enabled) are allowed. This is to prevent a load handover of a normal cell from colliding with a load handover between the overlaid cell and the underlaid cell on the network.

l The PBGT handover algorithm may cause inter-cell handover; thus, the MS should not be handed over to the cell in the same group in the case of PBGT handover between cells on the enhanced dual-band network.

Load Handover

In the network, some cells carry heavy load whereas the overlapping upper-layer cells and the neighboring cells may carry light load. To balance the load of these cells, the load handover is required.

In a load handover procedure, some load in heavy-load cells is switched to light-load cells. Meanwhile, the load in neighboring cells is not switched to heavy-load cells.

Load handover can be performed between cells at different layers. Figure 1-6 shows the details.

cells at different layers. Figure 1-6 shows the details. NOTE For details about the inter-RAT load

NOTE

For details about the inter-RAT load handover, see the 2G/3G Interoperability feature.

Figure 1-6 Load handover between cells A cell with a heavy load A cell with
Figure 1-6 Load handover between cells
A cell with
a heavy load
A cell with
A cell with
a light load
a light load
A cell with
a heavy load
A cell with
A cell with
a light load
a heavy load
A cell with
a light load

To perform load sharing, increase Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold so that the load at the border of a cell is switched to a neighboring cell with light load.

Whether a cell carries heavy load or light load is determined by the traffic volume in the cell, that is whether the traffic volume (generally TCH usage) in the cell exceeds the preset threshold.

l

If the traffic volume in a cell is greater than Load HO Threshold(%), you can infer that the load in this cell is heavy. The load handover algorithm needs to be enabled.

l

If the traffic volume in a cell is lower than Load Req.on Candidate Cell(%), you can infer that the load in this cell is light and the cell can receive load from the heavy-load cells.

Load handover may lead to many handovers. Therefore, the load of the system CPU should be considered before load handover is performed. In other words, the system traffic volume should be taken into account. In addition, to prevent too many MSs from being handed over at a time, load handover is performed step by step. In other words, the edge handover threshold is increased on the basis of Load HO Step Level (CLS_Ramp) and Load HO Step Period (CLS_Period).

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

When the increase in the edge handover threshold equals Load HO Bandwidth (CLS_Offset), the edge handover threshold is not increased any more. See Figure 1-7 for details.

Figure 1-7 Load handover

Load handover band Border of normal handover Cell A Cell B CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLS_Offset CONF_HO_RXLEV
Load handover band
Border of normal handover
Cell A
Cell B
CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLS_Offset
CONF_HO_RXLEV
CONF_HO_RXLEV+CLS_Ramp

Triggering Conditions

If Load HO Allowed is set to Yes, the triggering conditions of load handover are as follows:

l

The CPU usage of the system is less than or equal to System Flux Threshold for Load HO.

l

The current load of the serving cell is greater than or equal to Load HO Threshold.

Target Cell Selection

The conditions for selecting the target cell are as follows:

l

Filtered RX level after handover penalty Inter-layer HO Threshold + Adjacent Cell Inter-layer HO Hysteresis - 64

l

The serving cell cannot be selected as the target cell.

l

If the target cell and the serving cell are in the same BSC, a load handover is performed when the current load of the target cell is lower than Load Req.on Candidate Cell.

l

If the target cell and the serving cell are not in the same BSC, a load handover is performed when the load of the target cell is lower than Load Handover Load Accept Threshold (%) and Inter-BSC Load Handover Allowed is set to Yes.

Examples

The system assigns MSs to different load handover margins based on the downlink RX level. The load handover algorithm is used to hand over the MSs out of a cell step by step.

1. The MSs in load handover margin 1 are handed over to the neighboring cells. Load handover margin 1 specifies the area where the downlink level ranges from Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold to the sum of Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold and Load HO Step Level.

2. After a Load HO Step Period elapses, the MSs in load handover margin 2 are handed over to the neighboring cells. The load handover margin 2 specifies the area where the downlink

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

level ranges from Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold to the sum of Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold and (2 x Load HO Step Level).

3. The load handover stops when the traffic volume in the cell is less than or equal to Load HO Threshold.

The load handover is performed step by step to prevent call drops caused by a sudden increase in CPU load or the congestion in the target cell.

Edge Handover

Edge handover is performed on the basis of receive level.

To trigger an edge handover, the receive level of the target cell should be at least one hysteresis value (specified by Inter-cell HO Hysteresis) greater than the receive level of the serving cell.

Triggering Conditions

If Edge Handover Allowed is set to Yes, the triggering conditions of edge handover are as follows:

l

Either of the following conditions is met.

The filtered downlink RX level of the serving cell is lower than Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold.

The filtered uplink RX level of the serving cell is lower than Edge HO UL RX_LEV Threshold.

l

RX level of the neighboring cell > RX level of the serving cell + Inter-cell HO Hysteresis

An edge handover is triggered when the P/N criterion is met, that is, when the previous conditions are met for Edge HO Valid Time(s) within Edge HO Watch Time(s).

Figure 1-8 shows the edge handover.

Figure 1-8 Edge handover

Cell 1 Cell 2 -97 dBm -85 dBm
Cell 1
Cell 2
-97 dBm
-85 dBm

Target Cell Selection

The target cell should have the highest priority among the candidate cells. In addition, it should meet the following conditions:

l

The serving cell cannot be selected as the target cell.

l

After cells are ranked, the target cell must have a higher priority than the serving cell.

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

A cell becomes the target cell if the previous conditions are met for Edge HO AdjCell Valid

Time(s) within Edge HO AdjCell Watch Time(s).

If the triggering conditions of edge handover are met but the candidate 2G cells are not suitable,

the following operations are performed:

l

If a neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to Yes, and if the MS supports the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover is performed.

l

If no neighboring 3G cell is available, if Inter-RAT Out BSC Handover Enable is set to No, or if the MS does not support the 2G/3G inter-RAT handover, the decision on whether to initiate another type of handover is made.

Fast-Moving Micro Cell Handover

Fast-moving micro cell handover is performed from a micro cell to a macro cell according to the relative speed of an MS so that the number of handovers can be minimized.

Fast-moving micro cell handover applies to the following scenarios:

l

If an MS is moving fast in a micro cell, it is handed over to a macro cell.

l

To prevent an MS that is moving fast in a macro cell from entering a micro cell, time penalty is performed on the micro cell so that the fast-moving MS camps on the macro cell.

Figure 1-9 shows the fast-moving micro cell handover.

Figure 1-9 Fast-moving micro cell handover

Umbrella cell Micro cell
Umbrella cell
Micro cell

Triggering Conditions

If MS Fast Moving HO Allowed is set to Yes, the handover decision procedure of fast-moving

micro cell handover is as follows:

1. When the triggering conditions of edge handover or PBGT handover are met, the fast- moving micro cell handover decision is started.

2. When the period during which the MS camps on the serving cell is shorter than MS Fast- moving Time Threshold(s), the number of cells through which the fast-moving MS passes is incremented by one.

1 Handover

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description NOTE The cell counted by the system must

NOTE

The cell counted by the system must locate at a layer lower than layer 4. In other words, it must be a non-Umbrella cell.

3. When the number of cells that the MS passes in fast movement reaches MS Fast-moving Watch Cells, the fast-moving micro cell handover is triggered if the number of cells that the MS passes in fast movement counted by the system is greater than or equal to MS Fast- moving Valid Cells.

Target Cell Selection

In handover algorithm I, the target cell should have the highest priority among the candidate cells. In addition, the target cell should meet the following conditions:

l

The target cell must be at layer 4, that is, Umbrella cell.

l

Filtered RX level of the target cell Inter-layer HO Threshold + Adjacent Cell Inter- layer HO Hysteresis - 64

Limitations

After the fast-moving micro cell handover is successful, the penalty is performed on all the neighboring micro cells. During Penalty Time on Fast Moving HO(s), Penalty on MS Fast Moving HO is subtracted from the RX level of every neighboring micro cell.

Cell Layer and Cell Priority

With Huawei multiband handover algorithm, a proper traffic volume distribution can be realized among multiple frequency bands.

Huawei multiband handover algorithm divides cells into four layers, with 16 priorities at each layer. The Layer of the Cell parameter specifies at which layer a cell is located. This algorithm is applicable to complex networking scenarios. Figure 1-10 shows the cell layers.

Figure 1-10 Cell layers

Umbrella Cell

GSM900
GSM900

Layer 4

Macro Cell

GSM900
GSM900
GSM900
GSM900
GSM900
GSM900

Layer 3

Micro Cell

DCS1800
DCS1800
DCS1800
DCS1800
DCS1800
DCS1800

Layer 2

GSM900 GSM900
GSM900
GSM900
DCS1800
DCS1800
DCS1800
DCS1800

Pico Cell

GSM900 GSM900
GSM900
GSM900
DCS1800
DCS1800
DCS1800
DCS1800

Layer 1

HUAWEI GSM Base Station Subsystem BSS Feature Parameter Description

1 Handover

In Huawei multiband handover algorithm, a GSM network covering a certain area is divided into four layers, which are:

l

Layer 4: Umbrella cell. The umbrella cells are generally GSM900 cells having the wide coverage feature. It also implements fast MS connection.

l

Layer 3: Macro cell. The macro cells are generally GSM900 cells, which are commonly used in current GSM system and serve majority of subscribers.

l

Layer 2: Micro cell. The micro cells are generally DCS1800 cells having the small coverage feature. They enable capacity expansion.

l

Layer 1: Pico cell. The pico cells are generally DCS1800 cells, which are used in hot spots and blind spots.

The cell at the lower layer has a higher priority.

Inter-Layer Handover

Inter-layer handover is a type of normal handover. It is used to enable the cells at low layers to absorb traffic volume.

To balance the traffic volume flexibly and to meet the requirements of different network topologies, the GSM network is divided into several layers. See Fast-Moving Micro Cell Handover for details.

Triggering Conditions

If Level HO Allowed is set to Yes, the triggering conditions of inter-layer handover are as follows:

l

The layer at which the target cell is located has a higher priority than the layer at which the serving cell is located.

l