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Occupationaland

IndustrialHealth

NipinKalal

ccupationalandindustrialhealrhis a cross- disciplinaryareaconcernedwith protecting the safety,health and welfare of people engagedin work or employment.The goals of occupationalsafetvanclhcalthproerolnntts:in!.lLrde fbsterinsa sufcanclhealthrriorkenvironntent.it il.,r alsoprotectco-uorkers.ianrilr ntentber:.entplrr\er\. customers.andmanr others ,,rho mightbeaitectedbr the workplaceenvironment. Occupationalhealth has been tlescribedas the 'promotion

well-beingof all staff ', a descriptionreinfbrcedby

Health and SafetyExecutiveby concentr-atingon the

provision of a safeand healthyworkplacewherethe welfare of staff is a major factor.

Workplacehazards

and ntaintenanceof

physical and mental

the

work-relatedinjury in theUnitedStates,with2}million workersexposedto hazardousnoiselevelsat work and an estimated $242million spentannuallyon worker's compensationfor hearinglossdisability.

exposureto chemicals

suchas aromaticsolventsand metalsincluding lead, arsenic.andmercurycan alsocausehearingloss. Heat .ytresscan causeheat stroke,exhaustion. cramps.andrashes.Heatcanalsofog up safetyglasses orcausesweatypalmsordizziness,all of whichincrease therisk of otherinjuries.Workersnearhot surfacesor steamalsoiire at risk fbr burns.Dehydrationmay also resultf}om overexposureto heat.Cold stressalsoposes a dangerto many workers.Overexposureto cold conditionsor extremecold can lead to hypothermia, frostbite.trenchfoot,or chilblains. Electric'itt,poses a danger to many workers. Electricalinjuriescanbe dividedinto four types:fatal electrocution,electricshock,burns,andfallscausedby contactwith electricenergy. Vibratingmachinerylighting, andairpressurecanalso causework-relatedillnessand injury.Asphyxiationis anotherpotentialwork hazardin certainsituations.

Physical and mechanicul hazards Physicalhazardsarea commonsourceof injuriesin manyindustries.Theyareperhapsunavoidablein many industriessuchasconstructionandmining,butovertime peoplehavedevelopedsafetymethodsandprocedures to managetherisksof physicaldangerin theworkplace.

Falls areA common causeof occupationalinjuries and fatalities,especiallyin construction,extraction. transpoftation,healthcare,and building cleaningancl maintenance.

The NationalInstituteof OccupationalSaf'etyand Health defines"conflned space"as having limited openingsfor entry and exit and unfhvourablenatural ventilation,and which is not intendedfor con'.inuous employeeoccupancy.Thesekindsof spacescaninclude storagetanks,shipcompartments,sewers,andpipelines. Confinedspacescanposeahazardnotjust to workers,

but alsoto peoplewho try to rescuethem. Noise also presentsa fairly common workplace hazard:occupationalhearinglossis themostcommon

Oc:cupcttionalhearing /oss

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Constructionis oneof themost dangerousoccupationsin the world, incurringmoreoccupationalfatalitiesthan anyothersectorin boththeUnitedStates andin theEuropeanUnion. In 2009,the fataloccupationalinjury rateamong constructionworkersin theUnitedStates wasnearlythreetimesthatfbr all ll'orkers. Fallsareoneof the mostcommoncauses of fatalandnon-fatalinjuriesamong constructionworkers. Propersafety equipmentsuchasharnessesand guardrailsandproceduressuchas securingladdersandinspecting scaffoldingcancurtailtherisk of occupationalinjuriesin theconstruction industrv.

Musculoskeletaldisordersare avoidedby the :mploymentof goodergonomicdesignandthereduction

rf repeatedstrenuousmovementsor lifts.

Eiological hazards

r Bacteria,Virus,Fungi,Mold, Blood-bornepathogens, andTuberculosis Chemical hazsrds

r

Acids, Bases,Heavy metals,Lead, Solvents, Petroleum.Parliculates

D

Asbestosandotherfine dust/fibrousmaterials,Silica, Fumes(noxiousgases/vapours),Highly-reactive chemicals

r

Fire,conflagrationandexplosionhazards( Explosion, Deflagration,Detonation,Conflagration)

r

Psychologicalandsocialissues

r

Work-relatedstress.whose causalfactors include excessiveworking time andoverwork

r

Violencefrom outsidetheorganisation

r

Bullying, which may includeemotionaland verbal abuse

r

Sexualharassment

r

Mobbing o Burnout

I

Exposureto unhealthyelementsduringmeetingswith businessassociates,e.g.tobacco,uncontrolledalcohol

Occupationalsafetyandhealthbyindustry

Specificoccupationalsafetyandhealthconceffrsvary greatlyby ssctorand industry.Constructionworkers mightbeparticularlyatriskof falls.for instance,whereas fishermenmightbeparlicularlyatrisk of drowning.The United StatesBureauof Labor Statisticsidentifiesthe fishing, aviation.lumber, metalworking,agriculture, mining andtransporlationindustriesasamongsomeof the more dangerousfbr workers.

Cortstntctiott

Constructionisoneof themostdangerousoccupations in theu trrld.incurrinsluoreoccupationallatalitiesthan any'othersectorin boththr-'UnttedStatesaudin the EuropeanUnion. In 1009.thetataloccupationalinjury rateamongconstructionnorkersin the UnitedStates wasnearlythreetimesthat for all workers. Falls are oneof the mostcommoncausesof fatal andnon-tatal injuries among constructionworkers. Proper safety equipmentsuch as harnessesand guardrailsand proceduressuchas securingladdersand inspecting scaffbldingcancurlail therisk of occupationalinjuries in theconstructionindustry.

Agriculture

Agricultureworkersareoftenatrisk of work-related injuries,lungdisease,noise-inducedhearingloss.skin disease.aswell asceftaincancersrelatedto chemical useorprolongedsunexposure.On industrializedfarms, injuriesfrequentlyinvolve the use of agricultural machinery.Themostcommoncauseof f'atalagricultural injuriesin theUnitedStatesis tractorrollovers,which can be preventedb1 the useof roll over protection structuresu hichlinrittheriskof injuryin caseatractor rolls orer.!61 Pesticidesandotherchemicalsusedin fannine can alsobe hazardousto worker health,and workerserposedto pesticidesmayexperienceillnesses or birrhdefects.

As the numberof servicesectorjobs has risenin developedcountries,moreand morejobs havebecomesedentary, presenting adifferentarcay of health problems thanthoseassociatedwith manufacturing andtheprimary sector. Contemporaryproblems suchas the growingrateof obesityandissuesrelating to stressandoverworkin manycountries havefurthercomplicated theinteraction betweenwork andhealth.

Sen,ice sector

As the numberof servicesectorjobs hasrisen in developedcountries.nroreandmore jobs havebeconte sedentarr.presentinu a differentarrav oi health

problemsthanthoseassociatedu ith manuf.rcturing anti

thepnmarl'sector. Contemporan,problems suchasrhe

growingrateof obesityandissuesrelatingto srressand

overworkin many countrieshavefurthercomplicated the interaction betweenwork and health.

Occupational Safetyand Health Management Systems

International

In 2001, the International Labour Organization(ILO)

published ILO-OSH 2001, also titled

occupational safetyand healthmanagement systems,, to assist organizations with introducing OSH managementsystems.[24] Theseguidelines encourage

continual improvement in

achievedvia aconstantprocess ofpolicy,

planning & implementation, evaluation, andactionfor

improvement. all supported by constantauditins to determinethe successof OSH actions.

,,Guidelines on

employeehealth and safety,

organization,

andResponsibilities ofOccupational

loles

HealthandSafety professionals

The roles andresponsibilities of OSH professionals

vary regionally,but may include

environments, developing,endorsingandencouraging measuresthat might preventinjuries and illnesses, providing OSH information to employers,employees, and the public, providing medical examinations. and assessingthe successof worker healthprograms.

The main required tasksof an Occupational Health andSafetyPractitionerinclude:

evaluatingworking

HealthAction.

October2012

a

Systematicevaluationsof the working environment

a

Endorsingpreventative measureswhich eliminate reasonsfor illnessesin the work place

o

Gir inginfbrmationin thesubjectof employees,healt

o

Gir in_sinformarion on occupational hygiene. ergonomicsandalsoenr.ironmental andsafetyrisks in the work place. In the Netherlands,requiredtasksfor healthand

safetystaff areonly summarilydefined,andinclude:

.

.

Voluntarymedicalexaminations

A consulting room on the work environment for the workers

Health check assessments(if neededfor the iob concerned)

'The maininfluenceon theDutchlaw onthejob of

r

the safetyprofessional is through the

on eachemplorer to usethe servicesof a certified rrorkingconditionsserr.iceto advisethemon health 'certified

suftrcienrnumbersoi four typesof

and :afeIr'.

requirement

-{

service'must employ

certifiedexperts

to co\er rherisksin theorsanizations whichusethe

service:

r

A safetyprofessional

o

An

occupational hygienist

o

An occupationalphysician

Risk assessment

Modern occupational safetyand health legislation

usually demandsthat a risk assessmentbe carried

out prior to making anintervention.It shouldbe

in mind that risk managementrequiresrisk to be

managedto a level which is aslow asis reasonablv practical.

kept

This assessment should:

o

o

o

o

Identify the hazards

Identify all affectedby the hazardand how

Evaluatethe risk

Identify andprioritize appropriatecontrol measures.

Thecalculationof risk is basedonthelikelihoodor probability of theharmbeingrealizedandtheseveriry of the consequences. This can be expressed mathematically as a quantitative assessment(by

assigninglow,mediumandhighlikelihoodandseverity

with integersand multiplying them to obtain a risk factor), or qualitatively as a descriptionof the circumstances by which the harmcould arise.I

(Principal, J.R. Institute of Nursing, Sagwara, ,;:,f;:#:,