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Dr.

Mukta Girdhar

India has a coastline of about 7516 Km 5,400 km along the mainland 132 km in the Lakshdeep 1900 km andman & Nicobar

The frequency of cyclone in the North Indian Basin is bimodal May-June- Secondary peak October-November-Primary peak

There are thirteen coastal state, union territory in the country, encompassing 84 coastal district which are affected by cyclone, East Coast North Orissa and west Bengal coast Andhra Pradesh coast between ongole and Machilipatnam Tamilnadu coast, south of Nagapatnam West Coast Maharastra coast (Gulf of Bombay) Gujrat Coast (Gulf of Kutch)

Cyclone prone Areas-India

Cyclone Accounts In India


Location Bengal Bengal Andhra Coast Tamil Nadu Bengal Andhra Coast Tamil Nadu Orissa Andhra Coast Orissa Andhra coast Tamil Nadu Bengal Bengal Andhra Coast Gujarat Gujarat Orissa Southern India and Sri Lanka Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Date/Area Oct.1847 Oct, 1874 Nov, 1946 Dec, 1972 Sept, 1976 Nov, 1977 May, 1979 Sept, 1985 Nov, 1987 June, 1989 May, 1990 Nov, 1991 April, 1993 Nov, 1994 Oct, 1996 June, 1998 May, 1999 Oct, 1999 Dec, 2000 Oct, 2005 Oct, 2006 Damages 75,000 people and 6000 cattle killed Damage to property and communication system. 80,000 people killed heavy loss to property and communication disrupted. 750 people and 30,000 cattle lost life. Damage to property and roads also reported 80 people and 150 cattle killed and communication disrupted. 10 people and 40,000 cattle lost life. Damage to property including communication 8547 people and 40,000 cattle lost life. Communication disrupted heavy loss to property. 700 people and 300,000 cattle lost life. Communication disrupted 84 people and 2600 cattle lost life. Land of 4.0 hac damaged. 50 people and 25,800 cattle lost life, 8400 houses, roads and other communication disrupted. 61 people and 27,000 cattle lost life, 145,000 houses, communication disrupted. 928 human lives lost, 14000 houses damaged. 185 people and 540 cattle. Property including roads worth 300 Crores damaged. Over 100 casualties, communication system including road disrupted and damaged. More than a thousand houses damaged in 26 villages damage to lake and fisheries, disrupted all communication. 1057 casualties, 647,000 houses damaged road network completely damaged. 1261 casualties, 2.57 Lakh houses damaged. 453 people died. Loss of property estimated to about Rs. 80 crores. 10,086 casualties, 21.6 Lakh houses damaged 500,000 temporarily homeless destroyed around 83,000 houses and property. Kill about 100 people, displace three lakh families, and destroy crops and local infrastructure. 41 deaths, 300000 livestock affected.

Broad Assessment
Vulnerability Atlas of India (1997) Vulnearability to Natural Disaster Population at risk Storm Risk & Poverty

Past Initiatives
Cyclone Distress Mitigation Committee (CDMC) in 1970. Similar committees were also constituted for the state of Orissa (1971) and West Bengal (1974). Committee of Secretaries (CoS) 1978 Cyclone Review Committee (CRC) 1979, submitted report 1984

Past Initiatives
A High Powered Committee (HPC) on Disaster Management (DM) was constituted in 1999, prior to the Orissa super cyclone. Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) has been set up on the recommendation of the IXth Finance Commission

Past initiatives by some States


World Bank-assisted Cyclone Emergency Reconstruction Project (CERP) taken up by the Government of Andhra Pradesh in 1990. 1996, The Government of Andhra Pradesh has set up a separate Disaster Management Unit (DMU) to implement the World Bank-funded Andhra Pradesh Hazard Mitigation and Emergency Cyclone Recovery Project (APHM & ECRP), and is currently functioning as the Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Mitigation Society (APSDMS). The Government of Orissa constituted the Orissa State Disaster Mitigation Authority (OSDMA), as a Government owned autonomous body after the October 1999 super cyclone five units of Orissa Disaster Rapid Action Force (ODRAF) which is specially trained and equipped force to deal with cyclones and other disasters. They are stationed at Jharsugda, Balasore, Cuttack, Chhatrapur and Koraput.

Past initiatives by some States


Orissa has established an extensive VHF network The Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA) was established for the implementation of the reconstruction programme. After Tsunami 2004 Gov decided to pass a DM Act-2005

National Cyclone Risk Mitigation project


World Bank assistance of about US $300 million, covering 13 coastal states and UTs. NCRMP consists of the following four components: i) Component A: Improvement of early warning dissemination system by strengthening Last Mile Connectivity (LMC) of cyclone warnings and advisories from source/district/sub-district levels to community. ii) Component B: Cyclone risk mitigation investment which has identified nine subcomponents like construction of cyclone shelters, construction of saline embankments, mangrove plantations, shelterbelt plantations, etc. iii) Component C: Technical assistance for hazard risk management and capacity building iv) Component D: Project management and institutional support

What are Cyclones?


A "Cyclonic Storm" or a "Cyclone" is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.

Cyclones are intense low pressure areas The amount of the pressure drop in the centre and the rate at which it increases outwards gives the intensity of the cyclones and the strength of winds.

There are different names of Tropical Cyclones in different regions, namely,

Hurricanes in Caribbean, Atlantic and North American Regions. Typhoon in Pacific. Severe Cyclonic Storm in Indian Ocean. Baguio in Philippines. Old timers in Australian West Coast call it Willy Willy

Parameters followed by World Meteorological Organization (W.M.O.) are:


Types of Disturbances
1. Low Pressure Area 2. Depression 3. Deep Depression 4. Cyclonic Storm 5. Severe Cyclonic Storm 6. Very Severe Cyclonic Storm 7. Super Cyclonic Storm Associated wind speed in the Circulation Less than 17 knots ( < 31 kmph) 17 to 27 knots ( 31 to 49 kmph) 28 to 33 knots ( 50 to 61 kmph) 34 to 47 knots ( 62 to 88 kmph) 48 to 63 knots ( 89 to 118 kmph) 64 to 119 knots ( 119 to 221 kmph) 120 knots and above ( 222 kmph and above

Naming of Tropical Cyclone


Tropical cyclones are named to enable easy identification and to eliminate confusion. Names are taken from the list which very from region to region and are selected few years earlier. The list is decided upon, depending on the region , either by the committees of the world meteorological organization or by National Weather offices involved in the fore casting of cyclone.

Types
There are six main types of cyclones: Polar Lows,
Polar Cyclones, Extra tropical cyclones, Subtropical cyclones, Tropical Cyclones, Meso Cyclones,

Polar Low
A Polar low is a small scale, short lived atmospheric low pressure system that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The systems usually have a horizontal length scale of less then 1,000km and exist less then a couple of a days.

Polar Cyclone
Polar cyclone is a low pressure weather system which spanning 1000 to 2000 km in which the air is circulating counter clockwise (in the northern hemisphere). Polar cyclone can occur at any time during the year

Extra Tropical Cyclone


Extra Tropical cyclone is a low pressure system, neither polar nor tropical. They normally occur in a mid latitude area. It is often describe as a low pressure area by weather fore cost.

Extra Tropical cyclone

Subtropical
It has the characteristics of tropical and Extra Tropical cyclone. They form near the equator region

Sub Tropical Strom

Mesocyclone
A mesocyclone is a vortex of air 2km to 4km in diameter. Air rises and rotate around vertical axis

Mesocyclone

Cyclone on Mars

Tropical Cyclone
A tropical cyclone is a warm storm system fuelled by thunderstorm near its centre. It feeds on the heat released when moist air rises and the water vapour in its condenses.

Characteristics
Tropical cyclones are characterized by destructive winds, storm surges exceptional levels of rainfall, which may cause flooding. Strong winds during cyclone

Gales
Gales are strong winds associated with Tropical Cyclones. They have the potential to cause immense damage to life and property

Typical Damage caused by gales are

Blowing of rooftops (Tin & Asbestos Sheets) Bending of electric and telephone poles Collapse of Microwave towers & high tension
transmission towers Blowing of advertisement hoardings etc.

Storm Surge
Storm surge is a abnormal rise of sea water near the coast, Storm surge depends on Cyclone intensity Bathymetry of the coastline Coastal configuration Angle at which the cyclone strikes the coast Time of landfall

Storm Surge

The worlds highest recorded storm tide was about 12.5 m (about 41 ft) and it was associated with the Backergunj cyclone in 1876 near the Meghna estuary in present-day Bangladesh. A storm tide of closer magnitude (12.1 m) was also observed in West Bengal at the mouth of the Hooghly River in association with a severe cyclone in October 1737

Structure
Horizontal structure Vertical Structure

Horizontal Structure
There are four major components of Horizontal structure
1-Eye- Centre of the mature cyclonic storm Size is 10-50 km in diameter within a central dense overcast region, generally free of clouds and is surrounded by thick wall of clouds 2- Eye Wall- 10-15 km thick wall of connective clouds where maximum winds occur. This is the most dangerous part of the cyclone 3- Rain/Spiral band- Beyond the eye wall region, the major convective clouds in a cyclonic storm responsible for heavy rains, have a spirally bandad structure. These bands are hundreds of km long and few km wide 4-outer storm area- This is the region beyond 250 km from the centre where the wind is cyclonic but wind speed decreases slowly outside

Vertical Structure
There are three layers 1-Inflow layer
The lowest layer from the surface to about 3 km is called the inflow layer where the wind is towards the centre.

2-Middle layer
The layer between 3 to 7.6 km up to storm is called the middle layer where the wind flow is mostly tangential with little are no radial component

3-Out flow layer


The layer above 7.6 km up to storm is called outflow layer where the wind is anti-cyclonic

Life cycle of Cyclone

Development of cycle of tropical cyclones may be divided into three stages:a) Formation and Initial Development. b) Full Maturity. c) Modification or decay.

Formation and Initial Development Stage:


Following atmospheric and oceanic conditions are necessary for development of a cyclone storm: A warm sea temperature in excess of 26 degrees centigrade, which provides abundant water vapour in the air by evaporation. High relative humidity of the atmosphere which facilitates condensation of water vapour into water droplets and clouds, releases heat energy thereby inducing a drop in pressure.

It is an intense low pressure system that develops over the warm waters of the Oceans It is associated with Gales (strong winds), Heavy rains and Storm surges Wind speeds of the order of 200 kmph Rainfall of the order of 40 50 cms/day Storm surges of 7 metres high

Mature Tropical Cyclones:


The main physical feature of a mature tropical cyclone is a spiral pattern of highly turbulent giant cumulus thunder cloud bands. These bands spiral inwards and form a dense highly active central cloud core which wraps around a relatively calm and cloud free eye. The eye looks like a black hole or dot surrounded by white clouds.

Modification or Decay:
A tropical cyclone begins to weaken in terms of its central low pressure, internal warm core and extremely high winds as soon as its source of warm most air begins to ebb or are abruptly cut off. The weakening of a cyclone does not mean the danger to life and property is over. When the cyclone hits land, especially over mountainous or hilly terrain, riverine and flash flooding may last for weeks.

Times of formation
Worldwide, tropical cyclone actively peak in the late summer when water temperature are warmest. Each basin, has its own seasonal pattern. On a worldwide scale, may is the least active month and september is the most active month.

Potential Damage Elements


Strong Winds (150-250 Km/Hr) Damage installations, dwellings, communication systems; trees, roofs may be blown off, Roads/ Railway tracks affected. Heavy Rains- Prolonged heavy rains(20-30 cm/day) may lead to flash floods, soil erosion, water polluted. Outbreak of epidemics. Problems during relief works Storm Surge- Most destructive element Abnormal rise of sea level (2 to 5 m or more) Inundation of coastal belt at the time of land fall

Secondary Effect
Disease Power outages Damage to infrastructure Water Supply Communication

Important Tropical Cyclone


Bhola Cyclone (1970) Devastating cyclone in the history, it stuck on the east of Pakistan now it is a part of west Bangal, nearly 500,000 people died. Wind speed-185km/h

Other Countries: -

On 3rd May 2008,Cyclone Nargis devastated Myanmar killing 134000 people. The massive destruction caused by Nargis was largely because of a combination of factors. It hit the highly populated and low lying Irrawaddy River Delta in a high tide period of the Bay Of Bengal, which is the worlds most notorious cyclone basin. On 15th November 2007,Cyclone hit the Bangladesh coast. It was the strongest cyclone to hit the country. The head of the Red Crescent in Bangladesh had expected the death toll to reach as high as 10,000. Over 3,000 other fishermen were reported missing on over 500 fishing boats. Total damages came close to $450 million. On August 23, 2005, Hurricane Katrina the costliest and one of the five deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States hit the same. At least 1,836 people lost their lives in Hurricane Katrina and in the subsequent floods.

Orissa SuperCyclone:-1999
Wind speed_ 260-300km/h Storm Surge-30 feet Hit- 90 mile coastal area Impact Loss of human life-9615 Population affacted -12 million Cattle death-4,00,000 Number of village affacted:-7,921 Damaged house-8,00,000 Agriculture area damaged-1.67 million

POST-CYCLONE SATELLITE DATA


02 Nov,1999 04 Nov,1999 05 Nov,1999

Radarsat

Radarsat

IRS-1D WiFS

IRS-1D WiFS

IRS-1D WiFS

IRS-1C WiFS

08 Nov,1999

11 Nov,1999

13 Nov,1999

Gujrat Cyclone

Gujrat Cyclone
Coast line-1600km Wind speed-160-170 Storm surge-3m high, heavy rain fall Impact 12 district affacted Loss of human life-1173, missing1774 Population affacted -12 million Damaged house-2.5,00,000 Estimated loss-190 crores

Aila Cyclone-2009
West Bengal, Bangladesh, Formed 23May Hit 26 May Wind speed-110Km/h Death-325, 8000missing Damage-552.6 million doller

Cyclone Risk Mitigation & Preparedness Framework

Nodal agencies for monitoring and early warning of disasters

India Meteorological Department (Cyclones, Floods, Drought, )

Present Cyclone Warning Organisation in India


Area Cyclone Warning Centre (ACWCs) at Calcutta, Chennai and Mumbai. Cyclone Warning Centres (CWCs) at Bhubneswar, Vishakhapatanam and Ahmedabad.

NETWORK OF WX RADARS

26 Nos STORM WARNING RADARS

- 17 Nos.
- 9 Nos.

Enhancement of Observational Network


Land based Ocean based

Land Based Observation


Early establishment of planned Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) and Rain-gauge Network. Establishment of at least one High Wind Speed Recorder and one surge recorder for each coastal district, vulnerable to cyclones (on priority basis). Enhancement of a Doppler Weather Radar Network over coastal regions at an interval of 300 km along the coast

Ocean Based Information


Enhancement of shallow water and deep water buoy network over Indian seas. Enhancement of ocean observations involving ships, Coast Guard

Space-Based Observations
Ensure the operational service of at least two geostationary satellites over Indian seas at any given point of time, especially during cyclone months.

Generation of high spatial resolution data sets of land-surface parameters on weekly/ bi-weekly basis utilising IRS and other global satellites

Cyclone warning Generation


IMD Cyclone warning centres
(Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai)

Area Cyclone Warning Centres (Vishakhapatnam, Visakhapatnam, Bhubaneshwar)

This process is co-ordinated in the office of Dy Director General of Meterology Weather Forecasting Pune Dy Director General (Cyclone Warning) at NHAC (Northern Hemiesphere Analysis Centre) Delhi

RSMC
Regional Specialised Meteorology Centres

Six RSMC Centres (Recognised by WMO)


RSMCDelhi, RSMCHonolulu (USA), RSMCTokyo (Japan), RSMCSt. Denis (La-reunion), RSMCNadi (Fiji), RSMCMiami,

As an international commitment through the WMO/ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific) Panel on TCs, TC advisories are issued by RSMC, New Delhi, to ESCAP panel member countries during TCs in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The three hourly advisory messages are issued eight times a day. The ESCAP Panel countries are Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

Doordarshan and All India Radio (AIR) stations at New Delhi are provided cyclone warning information by RSMCNew Delhi for inclusion in the national broadcast/telecast. Information on cyclone warnings is furnished on a real time basis to the Control Room in the MHA, Government of India and NDMA, besides other ministries and departments of the Government and to the cyclone prone state governments. User specific warnings are issued to commercial shipping lines, the merchant navy, ports, Fisheries Departments and fishermen, government agencies, all transportation services (land, ocean and air), farmers, others specially registered with IMD, AIR, Doordharshan and other TV channels, print media and the general public.

Four-Stage Cyclone Warning System


Pre-Cyclone Watch Issued as soon as a depression forms

Cyclone Alert
Issued at least 48 hours before commencement of bad weather Cyclone warning Issued at least 24 hours before commencement of bad weather Post-landfall outlook Issued 12 hours before cyclone landfall

Seven stage warning System

General Counter Measures


Effective early warning Evacuation of people from low lying areas

Public Education & Awareness

Special Problem Areas

Assessment of effects and needs may be difficult due to bad weather Widespread destruction or loss of counter disaster resources (transport, emergency food, medical supplies etc.) Difficulty of access and movement in carrying out urgent relief operations Search & Rescue
Rehabilitation of agriculture (tree crops, salinity).

Potential for reducing Hazard


Coastal Belt Plantation or bio shield
Coastal belt plantation can reduce the effect of the hazard. Forest act as a buffer zone against strong wing and cyclonic storm. The lack of forest cover allow water to inundate large area and cause destruction Improving Vegetation cover Improvement of the vegetation will increase water infiltration in to the soil. The root of the plant and tree will intact the soil and prevent erosion. Plantation of trees in a row act as a wind break and cause less destruction

Hazard Mapping
Meteorological records of the wind speed and direction give the probability of the wind in this region. Past records and paths can give the pattern of particular wind speeds. A hazard map will illustrate the areas vulnerable to the cyclone. It will be useful to estimate the severity of the cyclone and damage intensity of the region.

Engineered Structures
Houses can be strengthen to resist wind and flood damage. A row of plant row will act as a shield. It reduce the energy Building should be wind and water resistant Building storing food supplies must be protected against the wind and water Communication line should be installed underground Provide strong hall for community shelter in vulnearable locations.

Cyclone Shelters:
One of the most successful means of reducing loss of human lives during cyclones, is the provision of cyclone shelters. In densely populated area, where large scale evacuation is not usually possible community buildings, buildings used for large gatherings like schools, dharmshalas, hospitals, prayer halls, temples, churches, etc can be used as cyclone shelters. They should be so designed so as to provide a blank faade with minimum apertures in the direction of prevailing winds. Shorter side of building should face the storm

Sea Wall
A seawall is a coastal defense constructed usually of reinforced concrete on the inland part of a coast to prevent the ingress of storm surges arising out of cyclones. Sometimes the sea wall is constructed with a multiple purpose of reclaiming low lying land or preventing coastal erosion. The height of sea walls is determined according to the maximum observed height of storm surges which may be as high as 10 meters. Sea walls can be vertical, sloping or curved. Modern concrete sea walls tend to be curved to deflect the wave energy back out to sea, reducing the force. There are instances of many sea walls which were constructed after devastating cyclones and which successfully
prevented such disasters.

Different Vulnerable Sector


Marine resources:-Coastal Vegetation, Agriculture,
Fisheries Shiping Oil & Natural gas Mining salt

Local Issues
Cattle Breeders Gujrat cyclone:-50,000 cattles Orissa Cyclone:-370,000 Loss:-US$ 26 million

Many cattle breeding communities live nomadic lives. This makes tracking and warning difficult when cyclone approach. Evacuating cattle within short time period is difficult Difficulties arises in processing loss claims as it is possible to identify and associated carcasses with owners Cattle catch diseases after cyclones. Treatment may costly and may result in fatalities Disposal of carcasses is very difficult Partially decomposed carcasses make it difficult for human to excavate pits and burry them after the first few days

Casual Laborers
Informal association with the employers These worker cannot claim any damage entitlement from the employers Documented evidence of their existence is missing because of that it is difficult to come with actual human loss;

Specific Preparedness Measures Specific preparedness measures to counter the impact of tropical cyclones may be classified into two categories, namely Long Term and Short Term:

Long Term Measures


The long term or seasonal measures need to be planned, implemented and operationally tested and co-ordinated by means of simulation exercise well before a seasonal threat commences. Among these are pre-season co-ordination meetings held at headquarters, district and local levels. In these meetings operational contingency plans are reviewed and amended. Thereafter training and community preparedness programs conducted and community inspections made of all facilities and services that constitute community lifelines.

Short Term Measures


These relate to a state of readiness to cut in once a contemporary cyclone threat is announced. Among these are domestic, vocational and animal husbandry arrangements to safeguard the survival, property assets and livelihoods of individual families and communities.

Training and Community Participation Systematic methods must be employed to inform people about the threat of a disaster. There are several methods of promoting public information and education: Public dissemination of information through mass media like radio, television, newspapers including vernacular, poster campaigns, town councils and village meetings. Education programmes Separate designs for different age levels may be offered in schools, universities and to locals as part of curriculum. Training programmes should be offered for local officials who will play a part in disaster mitigation, preparedness and post disaster assistance. Community based training that emphasies post disaster activities to be given at village and taluk level.

Post Disaster Assistance The initial response by local authorities should (Municipality/Taluk/Village) include: Evacuation Emergency shelter Search and rescue Medical assistance Provision of short term food and water Water purification Epidemiological surveillance Provision of temporary lodging Reopening of roads Reestablishment of communication networks and contact with remote areas Debris clearance Disaster assessment Provision of seeds for replanting

T he Cyclone season Check the house: secure loose tiles. Carry out repair works for doors and windows; Remove dead woods or dying tress close to the house; anchor movable objects like loose tin sheds, loose bricks garbage cans sign boards etc. which can fly in strong winds; Keep some wooden boards ready so that glass windows can be hoarded, if needed; Keep a first aid box handy; Demolish condemned buildings: Keep some extra batteries for transistor radio: Keep some dry non-perishable food ready for emergency use: and Keep essential medicines for yourself and your family members.

When Cyclone Alerts and Warnings are on Listen to radio and TV; When you have heard about a cyclone keep monitoring the warnings. This will help you for preparing yourself for cyclone emergency: Pass on information to others: Dont pay any heed to rumours: Believe in official information: Do not spread rumours: When a cyclone alert is on for your area, continue normal working listen to the radio warnings and act accordingly: Remember that a cyclone alert means that the danger is with 24 hours. Keep alert: When your area is under cyclone warning get away from lowlying beaches or other low lying areas close to the coast: Leave early before your way to high ground or shelter gets flooded: Do not delay and run the risk of being marooned; If your house is well built on high ground, take shelter in the safer part of the house. However if asked to evacuate, do not hesitate to leave the place: Board up glass windows;

When Evacuation Is Instructed Head for the proper shelter or evacuation points indicated for your area; Do not worry about your left over property. At the shelter or relief camp, follow instructions of incharge Remain in shelter or relief camp, until informed to leave.

Post-Cyclone Measures One should remain in shelter until informed to return home; Get inoculated against infectious diseases immediately; Strictly avoid any loose and dangling wire from the lamp post; If you are to drive, drive carefully Clear debris from your premises immediately.

After Disaster: Time period of Debris clearance usually 48-72 hrs is sufficient in case of moderate volume of Debris. Priority of Debris clearance is given to clear Debris from emergency evacuation routes, access roads to critical facilities. Message to be conveyed to the local residents for co-operation and help when clearance work is going on. For life saving measures, emergency removal of Debris is utmost important. Conducting daily briefing with Debris Manager and other officials, regarding daily progress of work and other issues.

continued

Traffic police control plan for rapid and safe disposal of Cyclone Debris at disposal site. Co-ordination with other Municipal/ District agencies regarding priorities, responsibilities, additional contractor resources and processes for emergency procurement. Always ask for State/Centers assistance for Cyclone Debris removal if needed.

Beyond Disaster: Regular monitoring of Debris removal activity and Documentation. Regular meeting with key Debris operation staffs for estimated time line and completion date. After completion of Debris operations, Debris management sites are properly closed and restored in accordance with technical requirements.

Labour and acceptable time requirement: Labour: Temporary, permanent employees from Municipality/District/ State authorities. Volunteers, Workers from different NGOs and disaster affected community volunteers. As for as time requirement is concerned, for cyclone Debris clearance, it should start as early as possible.

Availability of heavy equipments and other resources: Heavy equipments required-Bulldozers, Dumpers, Cranes Trucks with trained and skilled drivers, labours and mechanics for repair work. Fully equipped Cutters and welders with their assistants & helpers. The equipments used for Debris clearance will be procured from Government Authorities, private companies donated from National and International agencies. Equipments owned by individuals will also be used.

Role of Municipalities, District governments,State government and Central government: Role of Municipality: site selection for debris dumping,
providing trucks, dumpers, bulldozers, cranes and trained, efficient workers. Role of District Government:-the district administration is the focal point for implementation of all governmental plans and activities. The District collector administer the day to day function of relief work which includes debris clearance in all departments at the district level. Role of State Government:- providing authentic plans and guidelines for Debris management and funding.

Sandy Cyclone