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# Relaxation Time Trelax

The relaxation time is the time taken for a stars velocity to be changed signicantly by two-body encounters Dened as the time taken for change v 2 in v 2 to be the same as v 2 i.e. the time for v 2 = v 2

## For Trelax need to consider encounters between stars in detail.

Star-Star Encounters
Close encounters between stars can alter the stars orbits by their mutual gravitational attractions Need to predict the strength of this eect We can consider two kinds of starstar encounters: strong encounters a close encounter that strongly changes a stars velocity these are very rare in practice weak encounters occur at a distance they produce only very small changes in a stars velocity, but are much more common

Strong Encounters
Strong encounter between two stars dened so that change in potential energy initial kinetic energy at closest approach For two stars of mass m that approach to a distance r, G m2 r 2 where v is the initial velocity of one relative to the other Have a strong encounter radius rS rS Gm v2 1 m v2

## For an elliptical galaxy, v rS 3 109 m

300 km s1 0.02 AU !

## Distant weak encounters between stars

Need to estimate the change in velocity of a star caused by passing another star The change in direction will in general be small

The change in velocity will therefore occur perpendicular to the initial direction of motion

## Distant weak encounters between stars: the relaxation time

In practice, bmax is the scale of the system of stars: can use bmax R bmin is the scale on which strong encounters begin to operate, so bmin 1 AU 1.5 1011 m

## Examples of relaxation times

For an elliptical galaxy, v N 1011 stars 1M 300 kms1 = 3.0 105 ms1 3.1 1020 m 21

R 10 kpc

So

ln(bmax/bmin )

2.0 1030 kg

## Distant weak encounters between stars: the relaxation time

Examples of relaxation times
For a large globular cluster, v 10 kms1 = 104 ms1 1.6 1017 m 15 N 500 000 stars 0.7 M

R 5 pc

So

ln(bmax/bmin )

2.0 1030 kg

So star-star encounters are of signicance for globular clusters there is a very gradual redistribution of the orbits of stars in globular clusters over time, with cluster cores collapsing, and more massive stars and binary star systems congregating in the core ejection and evaporation of stars from the cluster can occur So: In galaxies, stars behave as a collisionless systems encounters between stellar systems are collisionless

## Nature of the gravitational potential in a galaxy

In a galaxy, the gravitational potential essentially has two components: broad, smooth, underlying potential due to the galaxy localised deeper potentials due to individual stars

It is the broad, smooth distribution that determines the motion of stars Can represent the dynamics of a system of stars using the gravitational potential (x, t) where x is the position vector of a point and t is the time If the galaxy has reached a steady state, is (x) only

## Phase space and the distribution function

To describe the dynamics of a galaxy, we could use: positions of each star, xi velocities of each star, v i where i = 1 to N , with N 106 to 1012 an enormous database

In practice, people use the distribution function f (x, v, t) the probability density in 6-dimensional phase space of position and velocity also known as the phase space density Number of stars in a rectangular box between x and x + dx, y and y + dy, z and z + dz, with velocity components between vx and vx +dvx, vy and vy +dvy , vz and vz + dvz , is f (x, v, t) dx dy dz dvx dvy dvz f (x, v, t) d3x d3v Number density n(x, v, t) is obtained by integration over the velocity components n(x, v, t) = =

## The Continuity Equation

Assume here that stars are conserved ignoring star formation, supernovae, etc. continuity equation Consider x vx plane within the 6-D phase space (x, y, z, vx, vy , vz ) in Cartesian coordinates Consider a rectangular box in the plane from x to x + x and vx to vx + vx

## But velocity vx means that stars move in x (vx dx/dt)

So there is a ow of stars through the box in both the x and the vx directions

## Can represent the ow of stars by the continuity equation: f t + vx + f x dt f + dx dt vy + f y dvy dt f dy dt + vz + x f dvz dt f dz dt +

dvx

= 0

Can be abbreviated as f t
3

+
i=1

xi

dxi dt

vi

dvi dt

= 0

## Continuity equation is sometimes also abbreviated as f t + x f dx dt + v f dv dt = 0

where, in this notation, for any vectors a and b with components (a1, a2, a3) and (b1, b2, b3), a
3

bi ai

i=1

(Not a direct dierentiation by a vector) Can simplify notation further use combined phase space coordinate system w = (x, v) components are (w1, w2, w3, w4, w5, w6) = (x, y, z, vx, vy , vz ) Continuity equation becomes f t
6

+
i=1

wi

(f wi) = 0

## The Collisionless Boltzmann Equation

We know that Trelax is very long for galaxies stars in galaxies are essentially collisionless Can derive an equation from the continuity equation that explicitly relates distribution function f , position x, velocity v and time t the collisionless Boltzmann equation

## A derivation of the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation

Continuity equation states f t
3

+
i=1

xi

dxi dt

vi

dvi dt

= 0

where f is the distribution function in the Cartesian phase space (x1, x2, x3, v1, v2, v3) Acceleration of a star is the gradient of gravitational potential : dvi = dt xi in each direction (i.e. for each value of i for i = 1, 2, 3)

We also have f t
3

dxi dt xi

## = vi, so, (f vi) + vi f xi = 0

+
i=1

But vi is a coordinate, not a value associated with a particular star: we are using the continuous function f rather than considering individual stars. vi is independent of xi xi (f vi) = vi f xi .

3

d dxi f xi

f xi vi = 0

But

+
i=1

vi , so, vi
i=1

f xi vi

dvi

= +

xi
3

f xi

dvi f dt vi

= 0

## A derivation of the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation

So, f t
3

+
i=1

dxi f dt xi

dvi f dt vi

= 0

The left-hand side is the nite dierential df /dt. So the collisionless Boltzmann equation can also be written as df dt And as df dt f t
6

f t

+
i=1

dxi f dt xi

dvi f dt vi

= 0

+
i=1

wi

f wi

= 0

3

dxi f dt xi

= 0

i=1

## Deriving the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation using Hamiltonian Mechanics

Can derive the collisionless Boltzmann equation from continuity equation using Hamiltonian mechanics Hamiltons Equations relate the dierentials of the position vector x and of the (generalised) momentum p to the dierential of the Hamiltonian H: dp H H dx , = = dt p dt x (In this notation this means dxi dt = H pi and dpi dt = H xi for i = 1 to 3,

where xi and pi are the components of x and p) Substituting for dx/dt and dp/dt into the continuity equation, f t + x f H p + p f H x = 0

## Deriving the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation using Hamiltonian Mechanics

Dierentiating, H p d dp p m p m x p2 2m x + m x pp 2m + 0 d dp

= = =

(m)

((x, t) is independent of p)

H x

= = =

0 + m m x

(p2 = p p is indep. of x)

m x

f x p

## Deriving the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation using Hamiltonian Mechanics

But the momentum p = m dx/dt and the acceleration is 1 dp m dt = (gradient of the potential) x 1 dp = x m dt f p

So,

m dx f 1 dp + m t m dt x m dt f t + dp f dx f + dt x dt p

= 0

= 0

## Implications of the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation

Collisionless Boltzmann equation df /dt = 0

The density in phase space, f , does not change with time for a test particle if we follow a star in orbit, the density f in 6-D phase space around the star is constant has important implications So, if a star moves inwards in the Galaxy along its orbit, the number density of stars in space increases spread of stellar velocities around the star will increase to keep f constant velocity dispersion around the star increases as the star moves inwards The collisionless Boltzmann equation, and the Poisson equation together constitute the basic equations of stellar dynamics: df dt = 0 ,
2

(x) = 4G(x)

where f is the distribution function, t is time, (x, t) is the gravitational potential at point x, and (x) is the mass density at point x.

## Implications of the Collisionless Boltzmann Equation

The collisionless Boltzmann equation applies because star-star encounters do not change the motions of stars signicantly over the lifetime of a galaxy However, if the system were collisional, the CBE would have to be modied by adding a collisional term on the right-hand side

## The Collisionless Boltzmann Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates

So far we have considered Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z, vx, vy , vz ) However, the form f t
3

+
i=1

dxi f dt xi

dvi f dt vi

= 0

for the collisionless Boltzmann equation applies to any coordinate system. For a galaxy, it is often more convenient to use cylindrical coordinates with the centre of the galaxy as the origin.

The coordinates of a star are (R, , z) Cylindrical system particularly useful for spiral galaxies like our own z = 0 plane is set to the galactic plane (Note: is coordinate angle, is gravitational potential)

## The Collisionless Boltzmann Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates

The collisionless Boltzmann equation in this system is df dt = + t dt R dt dt z dv f dvz f dvR f + + = 0 + dt vR dt v dt vz f + dR f + d f + dz f

where vR , v, and vz are the components of the velocity in the R, , z directions Need to replace dvR /dt, dv/dt and dvz /dt with more convenient terms e.g. In a cylindrical coordinate system velocity and acceleration are dR dr d dz v = = R + R + e e z e dt dt dt dt a = dv dt = d2 R dt2 + R d dt +R
2

R + e d2 dt2 + e d2 z dt2 z e

dR d dt dt

where R , and z are unit vectors in the R, and e e e z directions standard result for any cylindrical coordinate system

## The Collisionless Boltzmann Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates

Representing the velocity as v = vrR + v + vz z e e e and equating coecients, dR dt = vr , d dt = v R , dz dt = vz

Acceleration can be related to the gravitational potential with a = . In a cylindrical coordinate system, R e R + e 1 R + z e z

Using this result and equating coecients, we obtain, d2 R dt2 2 R d dt d2 dt2 d2 z dt2
2

= = =

R 1 R d2 dz 2

dR d dt dt

+R

## The Collisionless Boltzmann Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates

Rearranging these and substituting for dR/dt, d/dt and dz/dt from , we obtain, dvR dt = R +
2 v

dv dt dvz

## = dt z Substituting these into the C.B.E., df dt +

2 v

vR v R

f t R

+ vR f vR +

f R

+ 1 R

v f R vR v + = 0

+ vz

f z f

+ +

f z vz

The collisionless Boltzmann equation in cylindrical coordinates It relates f to observable parameters (R, , z, vR , v, vz ) and the potential In many practical cases, particularly spiral galaxies, will be independent of , so / = 0 (but not if we include spiral arms where the potential will be slightly deeper).

## Orbits of Stars in Galaxies

Orbits: the trajectories of stars within gravitational potentials Orbits within galaxies are often complex not necessarily closed paths in general 3-dimensional (not in a plane) are in general highly chaotic true even if galaxies are in equilibrium (f in equilibrium) They are very dierent to familiar Keplerian orbits

## Examples of Orbits in Galaxies Spherical potentials

In a spherical potential the orbit is conned to a plane perpendicular to the angular momentum vector of the star.

## An example of an orbit in a spherical potential

Figure by James Binney

Axisymmetric potentials
Orbit is approximately conned to a plane that precesses Plane is inclined to the axis of symmetry and rotates about the axis Orbit on the plane is similar to that in a spherical potential

Triaxial potentials
Some orbits in a triaxial potential can be complex Triaxial potentials often tumble about one axis can lead to chaotic star orbits

## Examples of orbits in a xed (non-tumbling) triaxial potential

Figure by James Binney

Chaos
Chaotic nature of some orbits stars initially moving along similar paths will diverge end up with very dierent orbits divergence is exponential in time stretching and folding in phase space simulations show that the timescale for divergence (e-folding time) is Tdiverge Tcross and gets shorter for higher star densities In some special cases there is no chaos the system is said to be integrable

## Integrals of the motion

To solve collisionless Boltzmann equation for stars in a galaxy need further constraints on the position and velocity can be done using integrals of the motion Integrals of the motion they are functions of a stars position x and velocity v that are constant along its orbit Useful in potentials (x) that are constant over time distribution function f is also constant over time and f can be written as a function of integrals of the motion Examples : energy in a potential constant over time: 1 E(x, v) = 2 mv 2 + m(x) in an axisymmetric potential (e.g. our Galaxy), the z-component of the angular momentum, Lz , is conserved Lz is an integral of the motion in a spherical potential, the total angular momentum L is constant L is an integral of the motion and the x, y and z components separately are 3 integrals of the motion

## Isolating integrals and integrable systems

CBE implies df dt = 0

So if we move with a star in its orbit, f is constant locally as the star passes through phase space at that time But if the system is in a steady state (potential is constant over time), f is constant along the stars path at all times star orbits map out constant values of f An integral of the motion for a star (e.g. energy per unit mass, Em) is constant (by denition) integral denes a 5-D hypersurface in 6-D phase space The motion of a star is conned to that 5-D surface in phase space f is constant over that hypersurface. For a dierent value of the isolating integral (e.g. a dierent value of Em) hypersurface will be dierent f will be dierent

So f (x, y, z, vx, vy , vz ) = fn(I1) where I1 is an integral of the motion I1 here isolates a hypersurface the integral of the motion is known as an isolating integral Integrals that fail to conne orbits are called non-isolating integrals A system is integrable if we can dene isolating integrals that enable the orbit to be determined In integrable systems each orbit is conned to a 3-D toroidal subspace in 6-D phase space each orbit lls the surface of the torus evenly phase space is lled by nested tori carrying orbits we need 3 integrals of motion to specify which torus the orbit is on need 3 isolating integrals

## The Jeans Theorem

Any steady-state solution of the CBE depends on the phase-space coordinates only through integrals of motion in the galaxys potential, and any function of the integrals yields a steady-state solution of the CBE

Integrals of the motion functions of a stars position x and velocity v that are constant along its orbit useful in potentials (x) that are constant over time distribution function f is also constant and can be written as a function of integrals of the motion example : energy in a potential constant over time: 1 E(x, v) = 2 mv 2 + m(x)

An orbit is regular if it has as many isolating integrals that can dene the orbit unambiguously as there are spatial dimensions

If dynamics is conned to one real-space dimension (two dimensions in phase space) no stretching and folding = orbits are regular (we can compute orbit unambiguously in space) system is integrable, so not chaotic In a spherical system, eectively all orbits are regular system is integrable, so not chaotic In some potentials called Stckel potentials the a dynamics decouples into 3 eectively 1-dimensional systems system is integrable, so chaos-free

Small perturbations of non-chaotic systems produce only small regions of chaos orbits well described through perturbation theory

## The Jeans Equations in Cartesian Coordinates

In Cartesian coordinates (x1, x2, x3) the rst of the Jeans Equations is n t
3

+
i=1

n vi xi

= 0

## The second of the Jeans Equations is (n vi ) t

3

+
j=1

xj

n v i vj

xi

for each of i = 1, 2, 3

## The third of the Jeans Equations is n vi t

3

+ n
j=1

vj

vi xj

= n where

xi

xj

2 (nij )

j=1

for each of i = 1, 2, 3,
2 ij =

v i vj

vi

vj

## The Jeans Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates

In cylindrical coordinates (R, , z) and assuming axisymmetry (so / = 0), the rst of the Jeans Equations is n t + 1 R R Rn vR + z n vz = 0

2 (n vR ) +

(n vR vz ) = n R

## + for the R direction t (n v ) + R

n R

2 2 vR v

(n vR v ) + +

(n vvz ) v R v = 0

2n R

## for the direction t R z

2 ( n vz )

( n vz ) +

( n v R vz ) + + n v R vz R

= n

## for the z direction

The Surface Mass Density of the Galactic Disc near the Sun
The mean surface mass density within a perpendicular distance z of the galactic plane at galactocentric radius R is 1 2 (R, z) = (n < vz >) 2Gn z So, if we can measure star densities n and z-direction velocities vz as a function of height z above/below the galactic plane = can solve for , the surface mass density We obtain (R, z) as a function of z

vz = radial velocity vr if we observe towards the galactic poles straightforward to measure spectroscopically

## 2 Complication: need to measure z (n < vz >) as function of z dierential of observed quantities

Need to allow for the contribution of the dark matter halo to get surface density d(R0) of the Galactic disc itself Can tell us whether there is a dark matter contribution to the disc itself (as well as the dark matter in the dark halo)

First done by Oort (1932) In 1980s by Bahcall and by Kuijken & Gilmore

## [From Kuijken & Gilmore, MNRAS, 239, 605, 1989]

Modern values (R0) = 50 10 M pc2 No evidence of a dark matter component to the Galactic disc (but dark matter from the dark halo is present in the disc)

## The Interstellar Medium in Galaxies Introduction

Interstellar medium ISM gas and dust distributed between stars in a galaxy Mass in gas mass in dust : Mdust 0.1 Mgas Generally a small fraction of a galaxys luminous mass 0 % for an elliptical 1 25% for a spiral (varies smoothly from type Sa to Sd) 15 50 % for an irregular Very diuse in the plane of our Galaxy, particle number density 103 109 atoms m3 Mixture of : gas remaining from the formation of the galaxy gas ejected by stars gas accreted from outside (infalling diuse gas or ISM of accreted galaxies) Very important to the evolution of a galaxy = forms stars Important observationally observe dynamics emission lines from gas are prominent Chemical element composition is 90% H, 9% He, trace of heavy elements heavy elements in the gas can be depleted into dust grains

Gas
Gas readily emits detectable radiation can be studied relatively easily Gas is of low density = observe forbidden lines (cf. permitted lines) spectral lines not normally observed in laboratory have low transition probabilities in laboratory, excited states are collisionally de-excited before they can radiate in ISM, times between collisions lifetimes of excited states Notation: H I, H II, He I, He II etc. I neutral atom II singly ionised (loss of one electron) III doubly ionised (loss of two electrons) So, H I is H0, H II is H+, He I is H0, He II is H+, He III is H++, H Square brackets indicate forbidden lines e.g. [O II]

Cold Gas
Cold gas emits in radio and microwave region

## 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen

Atomic hydrogen HI emits at 21cm wavelength from hyperne splitting of ground state of H atom coupling of nuclear and electron spins

Energy dierence between states E = 9.41025 J = 5.9 106 eV = Rest wavelength 0 = 21.1061 cm Rest frequency 0 = 1420.41 MHz

Transition probability A = 2.87 1015 s1 = Typical lifetime of excited state is = 11 million years

1/A

## Cold Gas: 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen

21cm transition cannot be observed directly in laboratory but hyperne splitting of ground state observed in Ly transitions in lab In ISM, 21cm line observed primarily in emission, but also in absorption against a background continuum radio source H I observations = information on velocities of gas e.g. for Galactic rotation

## Cold Gas: Molecules

H2 is very dicult to detect directly no radio lines H2 band absorption in far ultraviolet no direct radio observations of H2 in cold dense gas clouds Other molecules do emit in radio/microwave can trace cold dense gas CO particularly useful CO strong lines at 1.3 mm and 2.6 mm from rotational transitions CO is tracer of H2 density A large number ( 100) of molecules (and radicals) has been found, some relatively complex

## Hot Gas: H II Regions

Hot gas is readily observed in the optical emission lines from largely ionised gas H II regions mostly ionised gas around hot, young stars O and B-type stars stars emit strongly in ultraviolet (UV) UV photons with < 912 (E > 13.6 eV) will A ionise hydrogen: H 0 H + + e protons and electrons recombine produce excited hydrogen atoms

electrons cascade down energy levels, emitting photons radiative decay photons in UV, optical, infrared and radio freebound transitions continuum radiation prominent optical lines from those transitions down to the rst excited level (n = 2) Balmer lines (transitions down to ground state (n = 1) Lyman lines are in UV in each series, label lines , , , , ..., in order of increasing wavelength transitions from n to n-1 levels are the strongest lines are strongest boundbound transitions emission lines

## Hot Gas: H II Regions

Lyman series lines are : Ly = 1216 A A Ly = 1026 Ly = 973 A Balmer series H H H H lines are : = 6563 A = 4861 A A = 4340 = 4102 A (in UV) (in optical)

Collisional excitation can also occur not for H atoms (no suitable enegry levels given the velocities of particles in gas of temperature T 104 K)

but N II, O II, S II, O III, Ne III do the [O III] lines at 4959 and 5007 are prominent A A

## Hot Gas: H II Regions

One UV photon from star produces one hydrogen Balmer series photon observation of Balmer lines of nebula number of UV photons from ionising star This happens because the gas is opaque to to Lyman photons, but transparent to other photons because most H atoms are in the ground state Lyman continuum photon from star will be absorbed by neutral H atom ionises H atom to produce free electron this electron then is captured again, emitting a photon if the electron goes straight to the ground (n=1) state, remits photon of same energy as the rst back to where we started if electron goes to some other state (n > 1) by emitting a photon, it could be: to n=2 state emits Balmer contiuum photon in going to n=2 one UV photon produces one Balmer photon (then to ground level with Ly which will eventually escape)

## Hot Gas: H II Regions

to n > 2 state can then decay to the n=2 state, emitting one Balmer line photon, or bypass it by going to n=1 but a transition to n=1 produces a photon that can excite another ground-state H atom, which then will go through the process in turn, eventually producing one Balmer photon So one UV photon produces one Balmer (line or continuum) photon

H II regions also produce thermal continuum emission free-free emission free electrons from ionised hydrogen interact with protons without recombination electrons are accelerated radiation but not blackbody gas is transparent to free-free photons no redistribution of energy of the free-free photons spectrum is fairly at at radio frequencies

## Example Optical Spectrum of a HII Region

Spectrum of the Orion Nebula

Prominent lines in optical spectra of HII regions: [O II] 3727 A [O III] 4959 A [Ne III] 3869 A [O III] 5007 A H 3970 A He I 5876 A H 4102 A [N II] 6548 A H 4340 A H 6563 A H 4861 A [N II] 6584 A

## Hot Gas: Planetary Nebulae

Planetary nebula gas around hot evolved stars gas ejected by star through mass loss UV photons from star ionise gas gas emits photons like H II regions similar emission processes to H II regions relatively luminous and have prominent emission lines can be observed in other galaxies can trace distribution and kinematics of stars

## Hot Gas: Supernova Remnants (SNRs)

Supernovae eject material at very high velocities into ISM shocks, heats and disrupts ISM low density components signicantly aected dense molecular clouds less aected hot gas can be blown out of the Galactic disc into the halo strong emission line radiation

## Hot Gas: Masers

Some very high density H II regions around young stars or around old evolved stars can show maser emission density 1014 H nuclei m3 population inversion between certain energy states of molecules due to radiative excitement transitions are in the radio the overpopulated state decays by stimulated emission maser emission coherent emission polarised very narrow emission lines of high intensity OH and H2O masers are known useful kinematic tracers

## Hot Gas: Synchrotron Radiation

Synchrotron radiation is produced by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic elds helical motion of electrons emitting radiation continuum, non-thermal observed in radio and some in optical photons emitted in the instantaneous direction of electron motion polarised perpendicular to magnetic eld synchrotron sources include jets e.g bipolar outows from young stellar objects, lobes of radio galaxies, jets from active galactic nuclei

## Absorption line spectra

If interstellar gas is seen in front of a continuum source light from the source is absorbed by the gas at particular wavelengths number of lines and molecular bands some absorption features not fully understood particular problem diuse interstellar bands e.g. at 2.2 m in the infrared probably caused by carbon molecules, possibly by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Cold interstellar CN CN has rotational transitions like most heteronuclear molecules result in radio lines and in the splitting of lines in the optical observations of absorption by cold CN in the continuum optical spectra of background stars relative populations of the rotational modes (from optical line strengths) temperature of the CN this is found to be 2.7 K in many cases cold clouds are in thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background

## The Components of the gaseous ISM

Convenient to divide diuse gas in ISM into distinct components also called phases: cold neutral medium neutral hydrogen (H I) and molecules temperatures T 10 100 K relatively high densities warm neutral medium H I but T 103 104 K lower densities warm ionised medium ionised gas (H II) T 104 K lower densities hot ionised medium ionised gas (H II) very high temperatures T 105 106 K but very low densities These phases are pressure-conned are stable in the long term

Interstellar Dust
Dust particles silicates or carbon compounds relatively small, but with a range in size largest 0.5 m with 104 atoms but some have 102 atoms like large molecules Observational eect dust absorbs and scatters light Diminishes light of background sources extinction e.g. dark nebulae, zone of avoidance for galaxies at low galactic latitudes Light of wavelength with a specic intensity I passing through an element of the interstellar medium will experience a change in intensity dI. This is related to the dierence in optical depth d across the element by dI = d I Integrating over the line of sight from a light source to an observer, the observed intensity is I = I 0 e where I 0 is the light intensity at the source and is the total optical depth along the line of sight

Interstellar Dust
What is the loss of light in magnitudes ? Magnitude m in some photometric band is related to the ux F in that band by m = C 2.5 log10( F ) where C is a calibration constant So, the change in magnitude caused by an optical depth in the band is A = + 1.086 The observed magnitude m is related to the intrinsic magnitude m0 by m = m0 + A where A is the extinction in magnitudes. A depends on the photometric band. For example, for the V band, V = V 0 + AV

Interstellar Dust
Mean interstellar extinction curve

## For the V photometric band, AV

3.3 EBV

There is much stronger absorption in the blue than in the red interstellar reddening by dust

A is a strong function of wavelength and A 1/ (but not the 1/4 of the Rayleigh law)

## EBV is the colour excess how reddened a source is

Interstellar Dust
If the intrinsic colour can be predicted, i.e. predict (B V )0 (e.g. from spectrum) EBV = (B V ) (B V )0 EBV data can be used to map dust Galactic plane is strongly aected by IS extinction in optical and UV Line of sight to Galactic Centre is completely opaque in optical and UV X-rays can pass through dust

## Interstellar Dust: Polarisation by Dust

Dust grains are not spherical Spinning dust grains tend to align with Galactic magnetic elds long axes approximately perpendicular to eld Extinction produces polarisation of light polarisation parallel to magnetic eld Polarisation measurements of starlight direction of Galactic magnetic eld Reected light from dust reection nebulae polarised light from reection nebulae (magnetic elds)

## Interstellar Dust: Radiation by Dust

Dust absorbs light warms dust emits blackbody radiation (or close to black body) So dust has diuse black body emission superimposed on a reected starlight spectrum Wien displacement law: maximum of Planck function B at temperature T is at a wavelength max = 2.898 103 T Km

## Interstellar Dust: Radiation by Dust

For T = 10 K, max = 290 m For T = 100 K, max = 29 m For T = 1000 K, max = 2.9 m Dust emission can be observed in mid-IR e.g. from space IRAS but temperature of blackbody is surprisingly high T 103 K much hotter than most of the dust Emission from hot dust thought to be due to heating of some dust grains of small size by single UV photons a minority of the grains grains so small (< 100 atoms) that 1 UV photon T 103 K for that particle stochastically heated grains grains cool by black body radiation, in IR This could explain the correlation between radio continuum luminosities of galaxies and their IR luminosities e.g. at 6 cm (radio) and 100 m (IR) independent of galaxy type Star formation UV photons stochastic heating of dust IR emission and star formation supernovae relativistic electrons synchrotron radio emission So radio emission and IR emission both depend on the star formation rate

## The Chemical Evolution of Galaxies

Chemical evolution how the abundances of the chemical elements have built up over time in our Galaxy and in other galaxies elemental abundances in stars and in the ISM how the elemental abundances correlate with parameters like time, location in galaxy, stellar velocities Denitions metals elements other than H and He also heavy elements metallicity fraction of heavy elements X mass fraction of hydrogen Y mass fraction of helium Z mass fraction of heavy elements with X + Y + Z = 1 Primordial nucelosyntheis 91 % H, 9 % He by number 77 % H, 23 % He by mass + trace of Li7 i.e. X = 0.77, Y = 0.23, Z = 0.00 Nucleosynthesis in stars creates heavy elements enriched material in stellar interiors

Enriched material can be ejected into the ISM in later stages of stellar evolution supernovae, mass loss

Chemical Evolution
Star formation heavy elements into ISM new star formation in ISM stars with enhanced heavy elements Recycling of gas Type II supernovae massive stars M 8M eject enriched material into ISM 107 yr after formation rich in C, N, O Type Ia supernovae binary systems eject enriched material 108 yr after formation rich in Fe Main sequence lifetime TM S of a star is very strong function of the mass Stars with masses M 0.8M have TM S > age of the Universe So mass that goes into low mass stars is lost from the recycling process Samples of low mass stars preserve abundances of the ISM from which they formed if material is not dredged up from the stellar interiors true for G dwarfs for example So G dwarfs samples of abundances through history of Galaxy Solar abundances: X = 0.70, Y = 0.28, Z = 0.02

## Chemical Evolution: The Simple Model

The Simple Model of chemical evolution simulates the build up of the metallicity Z in a volume of space The Simple Model makes some simplifying assumptions: the volume initially contains only unenriched gas initially there are no stars and no heavy elements the volume of space where the evolution takes place is a closed box no gas enters or leaves the volume the gas in the volume is well mixed the same chemical composition throughout instaneous recycling occurs following star formation, all newly created heavy elements that enter the ISM do so immediately the fraction of heavy elements ejected into the ISM after material forms stars is constant

## Chemical Evolution: The Simple Model

The Simple Model predicts the metallicity distribution for a sample of long-lived stars: N (Z) N1 1 eZ/p

1 eZ1/p

where N (Z) is the number of these stars having a metallicity Z and less N1 is the value of N (Z) today and Z1 is the value of Z1 today

## Chemical Evolution: The Simple Model

The observed cumulative metallicity distribution for stars from the Hipparcos Catalogue (from Kotoneva et al., MNRAS, 336, 879, 2002), compared with the simple model prediction for p = 0.010 and Z1 = Z = 0.017.

## Chemical Evolution: The Simple Model

The observed dierential metallicity distribution for stars from the Hipparcos Catalogue (from Kotoneva et al., MNRAS, 336, 879, 2002), compared with the simple model prediction for p = 0.010 and Z1 = Z = 0.017.

## Chemical Evolution: The Simple Model

The [O/Fe] element abundance ratio plotted as a function of [Fe/H] (from Edvardsson et al., Astron. Astrophys., 275, 101, 1993).

## Chemical Evolution: Denitions

Abundance ratios by number are expressed relative to the Sun using a parameter [A/B], where A and B are the chemical symbols of two elements, and is dened as [A/B] = log10 where N (A) N (B) log10 N (A) N (B)

## represents the abundance ratio in the Sun.

Ratio of iron to hydrogen in a star relative to the Sun [Fe/H] = log10 N (Fe) N (H) log10 N (Fe) N (H)

The [Fe/H] parameter for the Sun is 0 by denition (as are all other ratios)

Examples Mildly metal-poor star in the Galaxy: [Fe/H] 0.3 Very metal-poor star in the halo of the Galaxy: [Fe/H] 1.5 to 2 Metal-rich star in the Galaxy: [Fe/H] +0.3 Interstellar gas in the Galaxy has a near-solar metallicity: [Fe/H] 0

Rotation Curves
Gas and young stars orbit in nearly circular orbits in disc of galaxy Measure bulk velocity v at a radius R v 2 at that R R So measure v(R) across R the mass distribution v(R) is the rotation curve Observations show rotation curves of spiral galaxies are nearly at Optical observations of star light are limited to modest radii Need HI radio observations for larger radii Need to be sure of presence of dark matter haloes

## Example of a Rotation Curve: NGC 2841

Optical image of NGC 2841 in blue light following the disc out to 40 kpc

## HI rotation curve from 21cm radio observations

Rotation Curves
The square of the circular velocity is v
2 (R) 0

= 2G

R R

(R ) dR

## where (R) is the mass surface density. The kernel function K

R R

behaves as:

For an exponential disc, (R) = 0 exp(R/R0), and this gives the following for v 2 and R(R) :

Rotation Curves
Form of R and v 2 as fn. of R are very similar, but v 2 is displaced by a factor e in R But the rotation curve shape due to exponential disc is distinctive Can recognise eect of mass not in disc form Rotation curves with a bulge and with a dark halo added to an exponential disc:

Gravitational Lensing
Mass deects light eect is extremely small in general but large enough to be important in astronomical context Examples: microlensing by stars, brown dwarfs etc. in Galactic halo deection of light, radio waves by the Sun lensing by distant galaxies lensing by galaxy clusters Gravitational deection of photons is described by general relativity A light ray passing an object of mass M with an GM ) is deected impact parameter R (with R c2 by an angle 4GM = c2 R

If lensing takes place over a short enough distance that the deection can be taken to be sudden geometrically thin lens otherwise thick lens

## Gravitational Lensing: the Lensing Equation

Make two approximations: The deecting mass is much smaller in size than the distances to the observer and the object being observed (the source) The deection angle is always very small

Source

Apparent source

Lens Plane s

D_s

D_l

## Gravitational Lensing: Einstein radius and Einstein rings

The value of () will be inuenced only by interior mass for a circular mass distribution () So, if the mass distribution ts within the Einstein radius get same lensing for any circular mass distribution of value M independent of lens geometry, as long as it is circular & within the Einstein radius Bodies that t within the Einstein radius are known as compact For a distant source,
DLS DS

1 RS D L

RE

where RS is the Schwartzschild radius so RE is bigger if DL is larger for more distant lenses lensing is easier to detect if we are far from the lens

## Gravitational Lensing: Arrival Time Surface

Surface dened by T () = constant known as time delay surface or arrival time surface Where T () is stationary at a maximum, minimum or saddle point constructive interference an image from Fermats Principle At an image, the smaller the curvature the greater the magnication of the image Geometric part of T parabola with minimum at = S ) Potential if () > 1 maximum around that place image

If there is a maximum and a minimum saddle point also third image (number of maxima) + (number of minima) = (number of saddle points) + 1

## Quasars with Multiple Images

Multiply-imaged quasars occurs when a foreground galaxy lies within E of a quasar 2 image systems have 1 minimum + 1 saddle point ( + maximun at centre of image but is very large & |M | is small image too faint to see) 4 image systems have 2 minima + 2 saddle points ( + unobservable max. at centre) Important because: quasars vary in time measure time delays along dierent path lengths small size of quasars information on small scale in lensing source Time delays follow light variations of 2 images of quasar measure time delay dierence in T () if is known from observations of lensing object T0 DL DS c DLS Produces 2 or 4 images on a scale of 1 arcsec

information on cosmological distance scale Hubble constant But dicult in practice () /C is poorly known (e.g. dark matter distribution) limits accuracy of H0 determination

## Quasars with Multiple Images

Small-scale information the optical continuum emission of quasars comes from a very small region the optical line emission of quasars comes from a larger region lensing object is granular on small scale individual stars microlensing of the optical continuum region by many stars complicated network of caustics

## can think of it as caustics on source plane

optical continuum region ts between the caustics, but line emission region is too big proper motions move the caustics continuum region sometimes falls on caustic, often between but emission line region does not show lensing modelling nds continuum region of quasars 100 AU sudden changes in brightness

## Gravitational Lensing: Galaxy Clusters

Galaxy clusters have large gravitational potential have large enough angular size for many background galaxies weak lensing of background images clusters are usually not dynamically relaxed, so mass distribution can be relatively complex Arcs in clusters background images can be drawn into arcs some clusters have many arcs in deep, high-resolution imaging, e.g. with HST an arc is close to a zero eigenvalue of M 1 and is stretched along the eigenvalue Weaker lensing eects images of background galaxies experience elongation even if eigenvalues 1 can detect eect statistically derive the distribution of mass directly (dark matter as well as visible) total mass broadly follows visible mass technique can be used in the eld too (not just in clusters) 1

## Gravitational Lensing: Microlensing in the Milky Way

Candidates for the dark matter in the Galactic halo include: very low mass stars brown dwarfs compact massive objects - MACHOs (Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects) All can be detected by their microlensing eects Nuclear burning can act as an energy source in stars with masses down to 0.08M below this mass: brown dwarfs A large population of low mass probably would be seen locally but brown dwarfs might escape optical surveys

Predicted form of the light curve of a gravitational microlensing event shown for impact parameters of RE (smallest), 0.5RE and 0.2RE (largest). The unit of time is how long it takes the source to move a distance RE .

An example of a gravitational microlensing event towards the Galactic bulge from the OGLE project.

## Gravitational Lensing: Microlensing in the Milky Way

To have any hope of detecting microlensing events were the dark matter halo in the Galaxy composed of microlensing objects we would need: long path length through the dark matter halo eld containing very large numbers of stars 106 107 stars to give large enough

Possible elds include: the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Need to monitor brightnesses of 106 stars regularly for long periods Problem of variable stars but microlensing has a characteristic light curve non-repeating no colour change in lensing Results Many lensing events observed ( 103), mostly in Galactic Bulge smaller number in the LMC and SMC But fewer than would have been observed were the dark matter halo of the Galaxy made only of MACHOs etc. Many of these lensing events can be explained by conventional numbers of low mass stars the Galactic Bulge

## Example of Gravitational Lensing: Lensing by a Point Mass

For a point mass, the lens equation is Sx = x x
2 r 2 E

Sy = y

y
2 r

2 E

## and this gives 1

2 r 2 x 2 4 r 2 E

M 1

1 =

x y
4 r

2 E 2 y 4 r

2 E

x y

2 E 4 r

1
2 r

+2

1

= 1

4 E 4 r

## Example of Gravitational Lensing: Lensing by an Isothermal Sphere

Isothermal lens in projection the 1/r 2 isothermal sphere

## The lens equation for the isothermal lens is Sx = x and gives 1

2 x 2 E

x r

2 E

Sy = y

y r

2 E

M 1

1 + 3 r r = x y 2 3 r E

x y 1

3 r 2 y 1 + 3 r r

2 E

2 E

1

= 1

E r

## Gravitational Lensing: Magnication

M
1

2 T ()

In Cartesian coordinates M 1

1 2 x xy = 2 2 1 2 y x y

M 1 = (1 )

1 0 0 1

## cos 2 sin 2 sin 2 cos 2

|M | = [(1 )2 + 2]1

## Gravitational Lensing: Example of Lensing in Galaxy Cluster

Gravitational lensing by a cluster of galaxies. This Hubble Space Telescope image of the cluster Abell 2218 shows many arcs caused by the lensing of distant background galaxies by the mass distribution in the cluster [NASA image recorded with the Hubble Space Telescope by Andrew Fruchter and the ERO Team and released by the Space Telescope Science Institute (as STScI-2000-07)]

## Gravitational Lensing: Einstein Radius

Perfect alingnment between observer, source and lens produces an Einstein ring Einstein radius = radius of Einstein ring Angular radius is E = 4GM c2 DLS DL DS radians

where M is the mass of the lens DL is the distance to the lens from the observer DS is the distance to the source from the observer DLS is the distance between the lens and source G is the constant of gravitation c is the velocity of light The physical radius is RE = D L E = 4GM DLDLS c2 DS

## Gravitational Lensing: Microlensing in the Galaxy

A point lens has two images at =
1 2

2 2 S + 4E

where angles are measured from the position of the lens S is the position of the source E is the Einstein angular radius of the lens (plus a third image at = 0) Lensing produces a total amplication in area Mtot where u S /E u2 + 2 = u u2 + 4

## Gravitational Lensing: Example of a Galactic Bulge Microlensing Event

The observed light curve of microlensing event BUL SC3 91382 from the OGLE survey. [Plotted with data provided by the OGLE project.]

## The Structure of the Galaxy

The Galaxy is a typical spiral galaxy type Sbc probably has a bar

## The Timing Argument for the Mass of the Galaxy

The equation of motion of the M31Galaxy system = dt2 where l is the separation t is time M is the combined mass: M = MM31 + MGalaxy Starting point: l = 0 at Big Bang (time t = 0) l is currently d2 l GM l2

Current observational constraint: decreasing with time Solution for this case: t = 0 ( sin ) l =
2 GM 0 3
1

(1 cos )

## The Timing Argument for the Mass of the Galaxy

How to solve for total mass M Current observational data: separation l0 = 750 kpc dl
t0

t0

dt t0 = 14 Gyr

= 121 km s1

## sin 0 (0 sin 0) (1 cos 0)2

Observational data give sin 0 (0 sin 0) (1 cos 0)2 Numerical solution is = 2.32

0 = 4.28

1 3

2 GM 0

## The Structure of the Galaxy

The Galaxy has distinct components: Disc (or thin disc) mostly stars, some gas exponential density prole in R and z : (R, z) = 0 eR/R0 ez/z0 where R0 and z0 are scale lengths in R and z directions scale height z0 is dierent for dierent ages of stars young stars have smaller scale heights rotationally supported vcirc 220 kms1 small velocity dispersion around this (15 kms1 for young stars, 40 kms1 for old) includes gas and dust close to galactic plane HI gas layer ares (and warps) at large radius Thick disc more extended system of stars than the thin disc moderately metal-poor, older stars rotationally supported, but vcirc slightly smaller than for thin disc velocity dispersion larger than for thin disc Bulge spheroidally distributed in central regions old stars very wide range in metallicity largely pressure supported

## The Structure of the Galaxy

Bar in central regions elongated structure Stellar halo spheroidally distributed slightly attened includes diuse eld stars and globular clusters very old (13 Gyr), very metal poor stars ([Fe/H] 1 to 2.5) (But some globular clusters are only moderately metal-poor, forming a more attened system) relatively small contribution to the total mass of the Galaxy pressure supported vel. dispersion = 200kms1 net tangential velocity v 190 kms1 asymmetric drift Dark matter halo spheroidally distributed dominates mass of the Galaxy extends out to large radii

## The Structure of the Galaxy

Historically people described stellar populations with 2 populations : Population I relatively young stars of solar metallicity in disc Population II old, metal-poor stars in bulge and stellar halo This system was too crude developed in 1950s into 5 subtypes Today people tend to describe populations in terms of Galaxys components

## The Timing Argument for the Mass of the Galaxy

Distance and velocities of six Local Group dwarf galaxies and predictions for dierent values of GM/ .
By Alan Whiting

## The Structure of the Galaxy: Kinematics

Radial (U) and tangential (V) velocity components of main sequence stars in the solar neighbourhood using Hipparcos proper motions for dierent colours of stars. (From Walter Dehnen, 1998).

Epicyclic orbits

## The Structure of the Galaxy

Looking down from North Galactic Pole Viewed from the Sun

## The Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

-5

-10

-15 0 10 X (kpc) 20 30