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POST-WAR PROBLEMS AND THE REPUBLIC The damage done by the war to the Philippines and the Filipinos

was incalculable. The basic problems, therefore, that confronted the Commonwealth and, later, the Republic, was economic. Buildings, school houses, roads, bridges, livestock, sugar mills, agriculture, and banking institution had to be rehabilitated or reconstructed. The problem of collaboration also faced the government.

Explanation the end of the war, the Philippines is a having difficult problem, because the all resources and houses, would not easy to create again. This not a simples problem, because many Pilipinos would die in the war. Post-War Economic Conditions the ravages of war had left their imprint in the economy of the country. The all damage to different industries amount to about P582,500,000, while the domestic assets sustained a reduction of about P789,767,595. The P149,291,00 for the rice: P121,210,000 for the mining: P94,590,000 for the sugar: and P81,203,000 for the livestock. Explanation because we have a Post-war, the Philippines have a damage for the economy, and now we need to care an gating bansa upang mapaunlad pa ito ng wala ng maaaring mangyari sa ating bansa, the same in the Post-war na nangyari sa bansa. THE PHILIPPINE CIVIL AFFAIRS UNIT - Production was practically at a standstill when the Americans hit the beaches of Luzon. Food was extremely scarce. The condition become worse during and immediately after the battle of Manila when the peoples attention was centered on saving their lives not only from the atrocities of the Japanese but also from American bombs and guns. Explanation the Philippine Civil Affairs Unit, was organized for distributing Americans goods, free to the people and only to the numbers of persons of the family. Also providing job the salary ofP1.00 daily with food and p P1.20 daily with food, also providing consumers sails at fixed priced, but their continue to give reliefs goods for those cannot afford to buy. September 28, 1944 This agency province which had been recently liberated from Japanese rule. The Philippine Civil Affairs Unit is the first organized in New Guinea. PCAU Took the part of Leyte, PCAU paid the salaries of municipal officials and teachers in areas already in the hands of the American. Organized food distributing centers in Manila and provinces. Rice, cracked corn, sardines, salmon, and other American canned goods were distributed free to the people. The amount of goods distributed was based on the number of persons in a family. Because there was not much food to buy, even if one had the money, most of the heads of the families padded the number of persons comprising their families in order to get more goods.

Explanation Nag-bibigay lamang ng sila ng donation to those people who not buy a food for the family. Kaya nag-bibigay ang PCAU ng donation to the family exact relief goods.

Also provided employment to laborers who were each paid P1.00 daily with food and P1.20 without food. When enough money circulated as a result of employments created by the American Army, PCAU provided consumer goods to wholesalers at fixed prices. Those who could not afford to buy direct from the wholesalers continued to receive relief goods.

Explanation Nag provides the PCAU, who hired the people to employed, because may family would not buy a direct wholesales continued to receive relief goods. Kaya mas mainisipan nalang nilang magtrabaho kaysa walang makuhang pag kaen. President Osmea issued an Executive Order setting maximum prices for goods sold in liberate areas. Also recognize the government to make it responsive to the imperative needs to the nation.

Explanation Nag organized din siya para ang lahat ng tao ay have all they needs. REORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMAENT as the raging fires of Manila and the provinces subsided in the wake of the Japanese defeat in the field. March 7, 1945 signed the Executive Order providing for the restoration of the executive to imperative of the government as they existed before the war. February 12 the order must dated March 8 - Osmea swore in the new member of the cabinet. In a speech following the oath-taking, Osmea outlined the principles his government would follow. He said: We hereby affirm our fait in, and adherence and political system. . .in which people government officials and employees are not the master of the people but there servant. Explanation walang sino man ang maaaraing manakit sa atin, kung ang ang ating adherence ay pawang mapaganda ang pamumuhay natin, kaya kahit sino man ang umupo sa government not be the master of the people but there servant. We stand for the individual liberties, guaranteed by our constitution, for the right of every man and woman to enjoy life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Explanation kailangan na nating tumayo sa sarili nating kakayahan, because we need to enjoy the life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. THE CONGRESS CONVENED Most of the important affairs of the government should have been handled by the Filipino officials, but Mac Arthur, a man of action and of a military temper, actually made the important decisions for President Osmea. Explanation- this Congress Convened is the most important because we handled by the Filipino, but from the start, Mac Arthur in the Philippines together with the military temper, because actually made the important decisions for the President.

June 9 called Osmea a special session of congress. Manuel A. Roxas whose ambition was to be President of the Philippines, immediately spoke for the socalled collaborationist by declaring that all men who were employed during the Japanese occupation were actually loyal to the Commonwealth Government. It was Roxas way of wining to his side the powerful member of the Nacionalista Party who work, willingly or unwillingly, for the enemy. Mac Arthur, it seemed obvious, was behind Roxas drive for the presidency, for he considered Roxas the man of the hour, the strong man who could save the Philippines in critical period. Explanation nag ambition c Roxas na running for President of the Philippines. Mac Arthur seem Roxas have a potential to became a President of the Philippines, because have a man of hour and strong man. And this is the way to winning to the side of powerful member of Nacionalista Party. If he win or un-win. May 26 Roxas instructed his men to launch his candidacy. In the face of such political rebellion, Osmea declared that he would step aside to give way to Roxas if the latter wanted to run for the presidency. Explanation invited Osmea to have lunch for his candidacy, and then Osmea decided that he would step aside to give way to Roxas if the latter wanted to run for the presidency. Back Pay Law approved in 1948, promise to give three years back pay to all pre-war government employees after the end of ten-year period, that is in 1958. Explanation inaprubahan ung Back Pay Law noong 1948, kaya nag promise ang mga nagtatrabaho na magbabayad sila after the end of the ten-year period, that is in 1958. The Collaboration Issue - Osmea faced the problem of collaboration with an open mind. Explanation hinarap niya ang problema, ng bukas ang kanyang isipan. June 29, 1944 - the latter state that those who collaborated with the enemy should be removed from authority and influence over the political and economic life of the country. Explanation ito ung mga kakampi na umanib sa mga kalaban, upang mapabagsak ang economy, therefore enemy should be removed from authority and influence over the political and economic life of the country. August 14 at lease two bills were presented providing for the creation of a country to try the so-called collaborations. Explanation gumawa ng dalawang bill sina Roxas at Osmea para ,mag karoon ng sariling pondo ang Pilipinas September 11 American secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes reminded Osmea, in a cablegram, of the late President Roosevelts policy regarding collaboration in his statement of June 29, 1944.

Explanation pinapaalala ng dating President ang mga taong naging taksil sa knilang partido. Na walang sino man ang maaaring mag pabagsak ng economy. September 1945 the American agency, the Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC), handed over to the Commonwealth Government all the detained political prisoners, Three years of Enemy Occupation With the publication of Senator Claro M. Rectos brilliant book.in 1946,the cause of those who wanted all collaborators jailed was weakened. Explanation Create this book, for those Filipino have a bad memory in the fast war, because we will want to remind tau na ang mga kastila ang nag-pahirap sa atin. American Financial Aid The general economic situation arising from the raveges of the war led the American Government of survey the damage inflicted by the enemy on the Philippines. Explanation tinulungan tayo ng American Government para mapaunlad ulit an gating economy. Sa tulong nga ito, naging maganda ang pamumuhay natin. Tydings-McDuffie independence Act was sent to the Philippines to make the survey. Tydings in manila on May 23,1945 and intended to stay for four weeks. Explanation The bell Trade and Rehabilitation Act The proclamation of the Philippines independence on July 4,1946 was no opposition from across the pacific. But the matter of future trade relation was given some thought by American leaders. Explanation naitatag ang independence day, sa tulong mga American, but the matter of future trade relation was given some thought by American leaders. September 26, 1945 - Congressman C. Jasper Bell of Missouri introduced a bill providing for free trade relations between the United State and the Philippines for a period of twenty years. Explanation Congressman C. Jasper Bell, ay nag approved na sa free trade relations between the United State and the Philippines for a period of the twenty years. October he introduced a other bill providing for an eight-year free trade relation with the United State. After much discussions, the bill was approved. Explanation The Bell Trade Relation Act provided for free trade relation between the United State and the Philippines until 1954, after which goods coming from the United State and from the Philippines would be taxed five per cent tariff increase every year until full 100% was reached in 1974. Explanation the all bill, that have in the Philippines, that we go the America, because American country is the one of most country that help the Philippines to stand again that we have in the

war. Kaya lahat ng bill na dapat ay sa Philippines napupunta, hindi na magawa, sapagkat sa kanila lang ito dapat ibigay. Tydings Rehabilitation Act as a complement to the Bell Trade Relations Act. April 30, 1946 President Truman signed the bill into a law. The Rehabilitation Act provided for an outlay of $620,000,000 to begin to those who suffered damage during the war. Explanation nag provides siya ng malaking pera para makatulong sa mga taong na damage during the time of war. The Election of 1946 when Mac Arthur returned to the Philippines the official of the Laurel Government were forcibly taken by the Japanese. Some of them were taken to Baguio in the wake of the retreating Japanese army, while others were flown to Japan. Explanation - Mac Arthur, back in the Philippines because, he is the official of the Laurel Government, and the other go to Baguio together with Roxas. The others go back to Japan. November 1941 Manuel A. Roxas, elected senator in the election, was one of those taken to baguio. Mac Arthur , a friend of Roxas, ordered his men to liberate. Roxas proceeded to maneuver for his election to the presidency. To create a good impression on the minds of the electorate, Mac Arthur issued statement clearing Roxas of any taint of collaboration with the enemy. Explanation Roxas elected in Bguio, for giving a good impression on the mind of the electorate. He ordered to Mac Arthur because he is her friends. Mac Arthur believed, was too slow, the American general applied pressure on Osmea to call Congress to a regular session. Explanation believed that the pressure of Osmea was so too slow, para palaguin ang economy ng Philippines. Osmea did not believe in the wisdom of calling Congress to session, for he feared that the legislative body might fall into the hands of persons tainted with collaboration. Explanation not believed he dont want go to the bad hands the economy of the Philippine

Roxas harassed Osmea by either sitting on or disapproving President Osmeas nominations to important position in the government. The heavy burden of state and his delicate health led Osmea to the conclusion that it was time for him to retire. He made his announcement to his men, saying that if Roxas wanted to be the President he, Osmea, would be graceful enough to give way to the younger Roxas. Roxas himself was not in good health , and this fact led him to believe that now was the time to serve the country and so persuaded him to run for the presidency. Thus, the Nacionalista Party was split in two factions: the Osmeas factions and the Roxas faction.

Explanation January 4, 1946 Congress met in a special session and set the election on April 23. Roxas began strengthening the machinery of this faction, which was named the Liberal Wing of the Nacionalista Party. Explanation dito nag simulang lumakas ang kapit ni Roxas s partido sa tulong ng Nacionalista Party. Paul V. McNutt the American High Commissioner to the Philippines. Explanation siya ang pinaka mataas na American Commissioner sa Philippines. Mrs. Aurora Aragon Quezon - the late Presidents wife. Explanation siya ang asawa ng dating president. Osmea was a passive man who, many people believe, was too slow in the face of a national crisis. Explanation all people have passive to believe in too slow in face of a crisis. Elpidio Quirino majority of the Liberal candidates for senator and representative. Explanation siya ang naging candidates sa Liberal for senator at naging representative. July 4, 1946 Philippines independence was proclaimed and Roxas become the first President of the Republic. Explanation the day of independence day, Roxas will be the first President of Republic.