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Rene Zamarripa

Basic Measurements 4/9- 4/16 4/23/2012 Thermo-Fluid Lab MECH 3313 Dr. Norman Love

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For the pressure gauge the objectives are to practice calibration of a measurement device and to practice calculating experimental uncertainty. For the viscosity, the objective is to be familiar with experimental methods of viscosity measurment and to study the effect of temperature on viscosity variation. For temperature, the objectives were to construct and use thermocouples and to measure temperature on the surface of a flat plate.

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Table of Contents: Introduction..7 Background Theory.7-8 Experimental Apparatus..9 Experimental Procedure11 Data Presentation12 Discussion..17 Discuss and conclude.12-14 Results..18 Conclusion19 Recommendations.20 References..21 Appendices22

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Nomenclature -viscosity F-Force cp-Viscosity Values A-area x-mean value xi-sum of measurements sx-standard deviation -uncertainty

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List of figure: Figure 1-1-Pressure Gauge Figure 1-Pressure gauge apparatus Figure 2-Viscosity Apparatus Figure 3-Temperature apparatus Figure 4-calibration curve. Figure 5-viscosity versus temperature Figure 6- temperature versus time Figure 7-temperature versus time with hot plate.

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List of tables

Table 1- pressure gauge including all of the 5 pressures. Table 2- oil numbers along with the rpm and the viscosity values.

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Introduction

Pressure Gauge In the experiment we used a Bourdon tube gauge. The Bourdon pressure gauge uses the principle that a flattened tube tends to change to be straightened or larger circular cross-section when pressurized. Bourdon tubes measure gauge pressure, relative to ambient atmospheric pressure, as opposed to absolute pressure; vacuum is sensed as a reverse motion. We also used a dead weight tester. A dead weight tester apparatus uses known traceable weights to apply pressure to a fluid for checking the accuracy of readings from a pressure gauge. A dead weight tester (DWT) is a calibration standard method that uses a piston cylinder on which a load is placed to make equilibrium with an applied pressure underneath the piston. Deadweight testers take the pressure measured by a deadweight tester is defined through other quantities: length, mass and time. Typically deadweight testers are used in calibration laboratories to calibrate pressure transfer standards like electronic pressure measuring devices.

Figure 1-1 Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear or tensile stress. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while honey is "thick", having a higher viscosity. Put simply, the less viscous the fluid is, the greater its ease of movement (fluidity).

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The applied force is proportional to the area and velocity gradient in the fluid:

Absolute Viscosity

Temperature Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot. Heat spontaneously flows from bodies of a higher temperature to bodies of lower temperature; at a rate that increases with the temperature difference and the thermal conductivity. In this experiment we used T-Type thermocouple wires which were red and blue. The red wire had the conducting metal of Constantan and blue had copper. These wires can withstand temperatures between -200 to 300 Celsius. A thermocouple is a device consisting of two different conductors (usually metal alloys) that produce a voltage, proportional to a temperature difference, between either ends of the two conductors. We use the voltage of the atmosphere to calculate the temperature.

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Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

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Apparatus

Pressure Gauge Bourdon-Tube gauge Dead weight tester Weights Viscosity Rotary Viscometer Thermometer 1000 ml beaker Hot plate Stand

Temperature T-Type thermocouple wires Thermocouple welder Thermometer Hot plate Pc data acquisition system

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Pressure gauge: 1. First, we set up the dead weight making sure the valve on the side was fully closed. 2. Then we made our baseline reading which was the resting place of the gauge in which there was no pressure exerted. 3. Then we placed a weight on top and gave it a few pumps on the lever until the weight slightly rose. 4. Then we took down the pressure at which it was at 5. We did these steps 5 with the same weight and repeated more times with different weights Viscosity 1. First we set up oil 1 under the rotary viscometer 2. Then selected an rpm and gathered its viscosity value. 3. We did this for 3 different rpm settings 4. Then we proceeded to turn on the hot plate and took down the temperature of the oil at room temperature for a desired rpm. 5. Then we took 5 temperatures randomly along with the viscosity value. 6. After we took the temperatures, we change the oil to the next one and placed it under the viscometer. 7. We then proceeded to gather its viscosity value for 3 different rpm settings. 8. Then we turned on the hot plate one last time and took the temperature ever increments of 5 degrees Fahrenheit along with the viscosity value

Temperature 1. First we cut a thermocouple wire and shaved off the ends to expose the wire. 2. Using the thermocouple welder, we made a butt-joint at one end of the thermocouple wire.

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3. Then we connected the wire into data acquisition software and we each took room temperature every one of us taking 30 seconds longer than the last. 4. Then we turned on the hot plate 5. We used the last thermocouple which was connected to the software and took the temperature readings 6. As soon as the temperature on the software would become constant, we would take the time and increase the temperature on the hotplate 7. We did this for 3 different temperatures

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Pressure Gauge
Table 1

L40 430 431 431 431 430

PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI

L50 439 440 440 440 439

PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI

L60 441 441 441 442 442

PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI

L70 458 458 459 458 458

PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI

L80 462 462 462 463 463

PSI PSI PSI PSI PSI

Discuss and Conclude

1. Pressure is being calibrated in this case because of the piston it has in the tester. As more pressure in the fluid increases, the weight slowly rises, thus creating the pressure reading. 2
470 460 Measured value 450 L40 440 430 420 410 40 50 60 True Value 70 80 L50 L60 L70 L80

Calibration Curve

figure 4 4 The deviation between the actual and measured values is rather high. This is due to the calibration of the gauge which at normal pressure was 400.

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Viscosity Table 2 Oil 1 SPEED CP 30 RPM 20 RPM 101.1 TEMP F 75 78 82 84 90 30 RPM 106.4 CP 106.4 86 78.4 70.4 61.2 50 RPM 109.7 OIL 2 12 SPEED RPM CP 116 30 RPM TEMP F 75 80 85 90 95 20 RPM 122.7 CP 130 125.6 124 95 75.6 30 RPM 127.4

140 120 100 Viscosity 80 60 40 20 0 75

Viscosity vs Temp

Viscosity oil 1 Viscosity Oil 2

80

85 Temperature in F

90

95

Figure 5

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Temperature
24 23.8 23.6 Temperature in C 23.4 23.2 23 22.8 22.6 22.4 22.2 1 43 85 127 169 211 253 295 337 379 421 463 505 547 589 631 673 715 757 Time Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4

Temerature vs Time

Figure 6 Figure 4
180 160 140 120 Temp 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 98 195 292 389 486 583 680 777 874 971 1068 1165 1262 1359 1456 1553 1650 1747 Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

Temp vs time with hot plate

Time

Figure 7 Discuss and conclude 2. It takes 1:48 for the first setting and 4:14 for the second and 4:50 for the last. This was because the temperature of the hot plate was not yet hot enough.

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In table 1, we have all of the data acquired for the pressure gauge including all of the 5 pressures. In table 2, we have all of the data including the oil numbers along with the rpm and the viscosity values. In figure 4 its the calibration curve. In figure 5 it is the viscosity versus temperature in the viscosity lab In figure 6 it is temperature versus time in the temperature lab In figure 7 its the temperature versus time but with the hot plate on.

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Pressure gauge Discussion: The data we got for the pressure gauge experiment was in accordance to the procedure because as we put the dead weights on the tester and pumped the lever to increase the pressure, we would slowly levitate the weight and the pressure would be recorded on the gauge. But since the gauge was not calibrated perfectly at zero, we had to start the experiment and calibrate it at 400 psi. This however did not change the experiment outcomes; we could still get the actual measurement of these weights by subtracting the 400.

Viscosity Discussion: The data that we acquired for this experiment was according to the procedure because as the rotary viscometer would begin to spin at a certain rpm with oil 1, the viscosity values would begin to show on the screen. This however would vary as we would increase the rpm of the viscometer, steadily increasing the values. As we changed the oils to oil 2, we automatically began to see the changes in the viscosity because the rpm was at low revolutions and the value of viscosity was rather higher than the oil 1.

Temperature. The data that we acquired for this experiment was according to the procedure because as we would connect the thermocouples that we welded together into the data acquisition software, the temperature of the surrounding air would show up on the data acquisition program. As we would wait several seconds holding the thermocouple in the empty space, the temperature would fluctuate, thus not being very accurate. So we then took turns connecting our own thermocouples into the software and increasing the time we would hold it by 30 seconds, we would began to get more accurate as the time would go on.

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Pressure gauge In table #1, we can see all the major data that was collected from the experiment, including, the dead weight and the pressures we got with our calibrated gauge. Since the gauge was not at zero, we calibrated it to 400 and then just subtract the 400 by the calibrated results and compare them to the dead weights results. In figure 4, the calibration curve, we can see the different pressures compared to the dead weight pressure. As the dead weights pressure rose by 10, the calibrated pressure rose, but not at a steady increasing rate. Viscosity: In table #2, we can see all the major data that was collected from the experiment, including the rpm settings in both oil 1 and 2, the temperatures and the viscosity values. We saw that in oil 1 the rpm setting would be slightly higher than that of oil 2 meaning that the viscosity of the oil 2 was greater. Then as we would turn on the hot plate and stir the oils, we would see that the viscosity values would sharply decrease. This occurred in both oils as seen in figure 5. Both oils were put to the hot plate experiment and as the graph show that oil 2 temperature would increase, viscosity sharply drops almost constantly. To maintain the constant pressure throughout the oil we had to stir.

Temperature In figures 6 we can see just how accurately our data can be with more time. As the thermocouple was exposed in increasing time intervals of 30 seconds more each time, the temperature would become a more accurate reading. The thermocouple that was held for 2 minutes got the most accurate results as shown. In figure 7 we have the graph of the 3 different hot plat settings recorded until they reached steady state. We can see that the second setting took a long time. An educated guess would be that the hot plate was the culprit because its electrical and takes a long time to heat up the plate.

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Pressure Gauge: The main results we got in the pressure gauge experiment was closely related to the theory because as the fluid would get compressed in the piston, there was just enough pressure to lift the dead weight just enough to keep it suspended in the air. We would read the results in the Bourdon-Tube gauge. But since the gauge wasnt functioning properly, we had to calibrate it at 400 which was the original place the needle was at resting place. The deviation between the actual and measured values was rather large because of the calibration of the gauge.

Viscosity: The results that we got clearly resembled what lies in the theory of viscosity. Meaning that when the viscometer would began to spin with a certain rpm, the force that the viscometer puts out to create those rpm is the viscosity value. This value differs between rpm. For example in oil 1 the viscosity values were between 100 at 20 rpm. However in oil 2 for 20 rpm the viscosity values were around 120 meaning that the more viscous of the two oils was oil 2. But as we began to increase and add heat to the oils, the viscosity of the oils began to decrease meaning that as the oil heats up the viscosity decreases.

Temperature The results that we obtained in the temperature experiment helped us to construct thermocouples and measure temperature with them. This clearly resembles the underlying theory. As the thermocouple sits for a long time at steady temperature, the results are more accurate than a thermocouple that sits for 30 seconds. This same theory applies to thermometers because we need to leave the thermometer at the temperature we want to measure as to get accurate results. But as we began applying heat to the thermocouple the time interval between that moment and steady state would take several moments, because of the electric hot plate that takes its time to accomplish the desired heat setting.

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Recommendation Pressure gauge A recommendation for the pressure gauge would be to have computerized software that accurately measures the pressure. Viscosity A recommendation for the viscosity experiment would be for the viscometer to give steady cp results.

Temperature A recommendation for the temperature experiment would be for the software to have an immediate reading of the temperature instead of waiting for steady state.

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References

1) fluidengineering.co.nr/Manometer.htm 2) http://www.omega.com/literature/transactions/volume3/pressure3.html 3) J. P. Holman Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 2002. 4) "Thermocouple temperature sensors". Temperatures.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 5) Kondepudi, D. (2008). Introduction to Modern Thermodynamics, Wiley, Chichester, Section 32. pages 106-108.

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Appendices Uncertainty analysis Pressure Gauge Xi sx 153 30.6 61.2 198 39.6 79.2 207 41.4 82.8 291 58.2 116.4 312 62.4 124.8

84.9456 109.9296 114.9264 161.5632 173.2224 =30.6 84.94 =39.6 109.9 =41.4 114 =58.2 161.5 =62.4 173.2

Viscosity Oil 1 xi 402.4 x 80.48 sx 160.96 Oil 2 550.2 110.04 220.08

223.41248 305.471 =80.48223.41 =110.04 305.474