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Chapter Four Test Cell Structure and Function

Timeline of Cell Development Robert Hooke (British scientist) o 1665 he made discovery o Studied nature by using early light microscope o Looked at thin slice of cork Observed A great many little boxes Named Cells o Shape reminded him of little cubicles or cells o Looked at other stems roots and ferns and found more boxes o These boxes were the cell wall remaining from dead plant cells Anton van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch trader) o 1673 he made discovery o Made tiny microscopes out of precisely ground lenses 10x magnification of Hooke o Observed Microorganisms Saw Living Animal Cells (protists) Called them animalcules now called protists Cell Theory o Collection from information from many scientists Scientists began to organize information from Hooke and Leeuwenhoek into uniformed understanding of cells (150 years later) 1838 Schleiden concluded all plants were composed of cells 1839 Shwann concluded same for animals Virchow noted cells come from other cells o Basic Theory about the Cellular Nature of Life Three Parts I. All living things are composed of one or more cells II. Cells are the basic form of structure and function in an organism III. Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells

Internal Organization Prokaryotes o No membrane bound nucleus o No membrane bound organelles o DNA concentrated in nucleoid Eukaryotes o Have a membrane bound nucleus o Have Membrane bound organelles o Organelles Structure within a cell that preforms a specific function Surface Area: Volume o Size of the cell is limited to the cells outer surface area (cell membrane) to its volume o As a cell grows, its volume increases faster than its surface area Materials needed by cells and waste produced must pass into and out of cell through its surface center doesnt get everything it needs Microwave Analogy o If cell becomes to large volume increases way faster than surface area surface area wouldnt allow materials to enter or exit quickly enough o More microscopic cells with same surface area is more useful than one big cell

Structure to Function Different Cells have different Jobs Different structure o No unneeded organelles that dont help cell function Sperm Flagella o Swim Skin/Cheek Tiles & Layered o Protective Barrier Blood Puffy and Round o Holds Oxygen and can travel easily Nerve Long and thin strands and arms o Send, receive and pick up messages


Cytoplasm o Entire Region of cell inside the membrane o Includes Fluids and all organelles except nucleus Cytosol o Jelly like liquid that occupies free/extra space in the cell o Surrounds organelles

Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane Regulates what enters and exits the cell o Semi Permeable Structure o Phospholipid bilayer o Proteins Help to move particles across membrane that wouldnt otherwise cross (too large/charge) Not fixed moving in fluid mosaic model Phospholipids and proteins are not bolted into place but everything is constantly moving laterally and both proteins and the phospholipids stay upright Behaves more like fluid than a solid Looks like a moving mosaic if viewed under microscope Integral span entire membrane Chanel/Passage Way for Nutrients Similar to a Tunnel Peripheral found on one side Pick Up and Carry Nutrients to other side of Membrane Similar to a Ferry o Carbohydrate markers Acts as flag to signal certain molecules across Found on both inside and outside of membrane


Nucleus o Controls Cell Activities (Brain of the Cell) o Contains DNA Chromatin Uncoiled Found in Non-dividing Cells Chromosomes Tightly Coiled Found in a cell when it is Dividing Used so DNA is evenly split both cells equal DNA Nucleoplasm o Cytosol of the nucleus Nucleolus o Site of ribosome synthesis o Found in Nucleus (Denser Area) Nuclear Membrane/Nuclear Envelope o Surrounds Nucleus o Phospholipid Bilayer Nuclear Pores o Protein lined holes o Provide passage ways for RNA, ribosomes and other materials to leave and enter the Nucleus Take Job of Proteins

Other Organelles Mitochondria o Site of Cellular Respiration o More Numerous in cells that require more energy (Brain and Muscle Cells) o Has its own DNA (Mitochondrial DNA) o Structure Outer membrane Separates mitochondria from cytosol Inner Membrane Cristae Folded More Surface Area More Reactions More Energy Released Ribosomes o Site of protein synthesis

o Made in Nucleolus o Most Numerous Organelle o Not bound by membrane can exist in prokaryotic cells Free Floating in Cytosol/Cytoplasm Produces proteins used within the cell Attached Attached to ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Produces proteins that will leave the cell Proteins Created Move through Rough ER Directed and Delivered to Golgi Packaged and Tagged Vesicles Leave Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) o System of membranes and sacs that form a cellular highway o Moves substances within a cell o Rough ER Ribosomes Attached to ER Transports Proteins made by Attached Ribosomes out of the cell Found more numerous in cells in which export more proteins (digestive enzymes etc.) o Smooth ER Moves things throughout the cell Moves everything except proteins (rough) No ribosomes attached In Liver Detoxifies Golgi Apparatus o Found closer to outside of cell than ER o System of membranes that help make and package and label materials to be transported out of the cell Package/Surround with membrane Once Packaged they turn into a vesicle

Vesicles o Small, Spherical organelles that contain proteins (

Proteins are bound by a membrane o Lysosomes (drawn with dots) Vesicle that contains digestive enzymes Enzymes break down carbs/lipids etc. Phagocytosis Enclosing and digesting food particles (found in vesicles) for cell Food particles go into cytosol which goes to mitochondria Autophagy The recycling of old, no longer affective organelles Breaks down old organelles to later create new ones using the same particles Autolysis Have the ability to digest other cells Can be useful in development stages (baby hands takes away webbing) Cytoskeleton o Framework Provides Structure and Support o Moves Substances within the cell o Microtubules Hollow tubes Made form protein called tubulin Make up Spindal Fibers Make up Cilia and Flagella 9 pairs outside 1 pair inside o Microfilaments Long Threads/Strings/Strands Made up of Actin Controls Muscle Contractions Cilia/Flagella o Used by Animal Cells to Move (Locomotion) o 9 pairs of Microtubules on the outside one pair found in the middle Called 9 + 2 structure

Plant Cell

Cell Wall o Rigid Provides structure and support o Made of Cellulose o Provides Cells with Uniform Shapes o Has pores that allow substances to enter and exit Doesnt regulate Lets anything that fits through pores through o Primary Cell Wall Forms First Forms outside of cell membrane o Secondary Cell Wall Forms after Primary Wall Between Primary Wall and Cell Membrane Tough and Woody Limits the cell and does not allow it to grow any further Cannot Expand Central Vacuole o Fluid Filled Storage Organelle o Stores Water, Waste, Nutrients, Enzymes, Toxins etc. Toxins stored in central vacuole so it doesnt get into the rest of the cell and damage it o Gives cell resistance creates pressure against cell wall Makes Cell strong and crisp and stand upright When the Vacuole is Full, it occupies a lot of space which means all the organelles are pushed to the outside of the cell When it is empty the organelles can be found in the middle and everywhere else in the cell Full = Good/Happy Unlike Animal Cells, Plant Cells Cannot Explode o Once Vacuole is empty the plant starts to wilt and shrink o Made up of multiple smaller vacuoles fused together Plastids o Storage Organelles Double Membrane Own DNA o Chromoplasts Holds Pigments Carotenes (Red) Xanthophyll (Yellow) o Leucoplasts Store/Contain Starch Stored Energy

Colorless (Starch contains no Color) o Chloroplast Hold Chlorophyll Trap Sunlight Site of Photosynthesis Thylakoid Series of flattened, membranous sacks These sacs are what contain Chlorophyll Grana Group/Clustering of Thylakoid (looks like stack of pancakes) Stroma Liquid surrounds Thylakoids (Inside Chloroplast)