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WCDMA Load Control

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Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Know the load control principles Know the load control realization methods in WCDMA system Know The load control parameters in WCDMA system

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. Load Control Overview 2. Basic Load Control Algorithms

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. Load Control Overview 2. Basic Load Control Algorithms

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Load Definition
Load: the occupancy of capacity Two kinds of capacity in CDMA system
Hard capacity
Code channels Hard ware resource: Transport resource, NodeB processing capability (CE)

Soft capacity
Interference (UL) Power (DL)

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Uplink Load Definition


Cell Load Factor: UL

1 = 1 noise rise

RTWP noise rise = PN

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Downlink Load Definition


Common Measurement in Node B UL Load Cell Load Factor (based on RTWP) RTWP (Received Total Wideband Power) Transmitted carrier power of all codes not used for HS-PDSCH or HS-SCCH transmission DL Load Total Carrier Power (TCP) HS-DSCH Required Power HS-DSCH Provided Bit Rate R99 and HSDPA load control HSDPA load control HSDPA load control R99 load control Scenario R99 load control

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

The Objectives of Load Control


Keeping system stable Maximizing system capacity while ensuring the coverage and QoS

PUC

CAC IAC

LDR OLC

1. Before UE access 2. During UE access

3. After UE access Time

PUC: Potential User Control CAC: Call Admission Control IAC: Intelligent Admission Control LDR: Load Reshuffling OLC: Overload Control

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Load Control Algorithms


NodeB transmit power (noise) Icons for different load levels

Cell load OLC starts: to reduce the TFs of BE subscribers, and release some UEs forcibly CAC or IAC: to prevent new calls into cells with heavy load DRD starts: to enable rejected UEs to retry neighboring cells or GSM cells PUC starts: to enable UEs in idle mode to camp on cells with light load LDR starts: to check and release initial congestion in cells

No Load control

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Load Measurement
The objectives of LDM (LoaD Measurement)
Measure the system load Filter the measured data according to the requirement of different load control algorithms

Major Measurement Quantities


Uplink Received Total Wideband Power (RTWP) Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power (TCP) TCP of all codes not used for HSDPA transmission Power Requirement for Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) on HS-DSCH Provided Bit Rate (PBR) on HS-DSCH
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

LDM procedure

Smooth Window Filtering on the RNC Side


P ( n) =

Pni
i =0

N 1

N : the size of the smooth window

Pn : the reported measurement value

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDM (1)


CHOICERPRTUNITFORULBASICMEAS /CHOICERPRTUNITFORDLBASICMEAS (Time unit for UL/DL basic meas rprt cycle)
Value Range: TEN_MSEC, MIN Recommended value: TEN_MSEC, means the time unit is 10ms

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDM (2)


TENMSECFORULBASICMEAS/TENMSECFORDLBASICMEAS (UL/DL basic meas rprt cycle, Unit:10ms)
Value Range: 1~6000 Recommended value: 20, namely 200ms

MINFORULBASICMEAS/MINFORDLBASICMEAS (UL/DL basic meas rprt cycle, Unit: min)


Value Range: 1~60 Recommended value: none

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDM (3)


ULBASICCOMMMEASFILTERCOEFF / DLBASICCOMMMEASFILTERCOEFF (UL/DL basic common measure filter coeff)
Value Range: D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D11, D13, D15, D17, D19 Recommended value: D6

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDM (4)


The parameters for smoothing filter window
Parameter Name PUC moving average filter length UL LDR moving average filter length DL LDR moving average filter length UL CAC moving average filter length DL CAC moving average filter length UL OLC moving average filter length DL OLC moving average filter length Parameter ID PucAvgFilterLen UlLdrAvgFilterLen DlLdrAvgFilterLen UlCACAvgFilterLen DlCACAvgFilterLen UlOLCAvgFilterLen DlOLCAvgFilterLen Value Range 132 132 132 132 132 132 132 Recommend Value 32 25 25 3 3 25 25

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for HSDPA LDM (1)


CHOICERPRTUNITFORHSDPAPWRMEAS (Time unit of HSDPA need pwr meas cycle)
Value Range: TEN_MSEC, MIN Recommended value: TEN_MSEC, means the time unit is 10ms

CHOICERPRTUNITFORHSDPARATEMEAS (Time unit of HSDPA bit rate meas cycle)


Value Range: TEN_MSEC, MIN Recommended value: TEN_MSEC, means the time unit is 10ms

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for HSDPA LDM (2)


TENMSECFORHSDPAPWRMEAS (HSDPA need pwr meas cycle,Unit:10ms)
Value Range: 1~6000 Recommended value: 10, namely 100ms

TENMSECFORHSDPAPRVIDRATEMEAS (HSDPA bit rate meas cycle,Unit:10ms)


Value Range: 1~6000 Recommended value: 10, namely 100ms

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for HSDPA LDM (3)


MINFORHSDPAPWRMEAS (HSDPA need pwr meas cycle, Unit: min)
Value Range: 1~60 Recommended value: none

MINFORHSDPAPRVIDRATEMEAS (HSDPA bit rate meas cycle, Unit: min)


Value Range: 1~60 Recommended value: none

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for HSDPA LDM (4)


HSDPANEEDPWRFILTERLEN (HSDPA need power filter len)
Value Range: 1~32 Recommended value: 1

HSDPAPRVIDBITRATEFILTERLEN (HSDPA bit rate filter len) Value Range: 1~32


Recommended value: 1

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Priority
The service of user with low priority will be affected by the load control algorithms first

Three kinds of priority


User Priority User Integrate Priority RAB Integrate Priority

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User Priority
There are three levels of user priority (1, 2, and 3)
gold (high), silver (middle) and copper (low) user

User priority Uplink Downlink

Gold

Silver

Copper

gold user

128kbps 64kbps 32kbps 128kbps 64kbps 32kbps

Pay $100 for 3G services

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User Priority
The relationship between user priority and ARP is configurable
The typical relationship as follow:

ARP User Priority

1 1

2 1

3 1

4 1

5 1

6 2

7 2

8 2

9 2

10 11 12 13 14 2 3 3 3 3

The relationship can be configured through SET USERPRIORITY,


and queried through LST USERPRIORITY

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

RAB Integrate Priority


The values of RAB Integrate Priority are set according to the following parameters
PRIORITYREFERENCE (Integrated Priority Configured Reference)
Value range: ARP, TrafficClass Recommended value: ARP

CARRIERTYPEPRIORIND (Indicator of Carrier Type Priority)


Value range: DCH, HSDPA Recommended value: DCH

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Example for RAB Integrate Priority


Based on ARP, HSDPA priority is higher Service ARP ID Services attribution in the cell Service ARP ID A B C D 1 1 2 2 Traffic Class Interactive Interactive Conversational Background Bear type DCH HSDPA DCH DCH B A C D 1 1 2 2 Traffic Class Interactive Interactive Conversational Background Bear type HSDPA DCH DCH DCH

Based on Traffic Class, HSDPA priority is higher Service ID C B A D Traffic Class Conversational Interactive Interactive Background ARP 2 1 1 2 Bear type DCH HSDPA DCH DCH

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

User Integrate Priority


For multiple-RAB users, the integrate priority of the user is based on the service of the highest priority. User integrate priority is mainly used to select different users during LDR/OLC.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. Load Control Overview 2. Basic Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control) 2.2 CAC (Call Admission Control) 2.3 IAC (Intelligent Admission Control) 2.4 LDR (Load Reshuffling) 2.5 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. Load Control Overview 2. Basic Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control) 2.2 CAC (Call Admission Control) 2.3 IAC (Intelligent Admission Control) 2.4 LDR (Load Reshuffling) 2.5 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

PUC Principles
Light load Freq1 Modify System Info SIB3,11,12

1.Hard to trigger reselection 2.Easy to camp on the cell Increase the POTENTIAL load

Normal load Stay System Info SIB3,11,12

Freq2 1.Easy to trigger reselection

Heavy load Modify System Info SIB3,11,12

2.Easy to select light load Inter-freq neighbor Cell Decrease the POTENTIAL load
Idle state

CCH state

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

PUC Realization
PUC can modify inter-frequency cell reselection parameters to control the user distribution between cells.
Sintersearch: when the load of a cell is Heavy, PUC will increase this parameter; when the load of a cell is Light, PUC will decrease this parameter. QOffset1sn and QOffset2sn: when the load of a cell is Heavy, PUC will decrease these parameters; when the load of a cell is Light, PUC will increase these parameters.

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for PUC Algorithm Switch


NBMSWITCH (Cell algorithm switch)
Value Range:
PUC

Default status: OFF

PUCPERIODTIMERLEN (PUC period timer length)


Value Range:6s~86400s Default status: 1800, namely 1800 seconds, i.e. 30 minutes

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for PUC (1)


SPUCHEAVY (Load level division threshold 1)
Value Range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 70, namely 70%

SPUCLIGHT (Load level division threshold 2)


Value Range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 45, namely 45%

SPUCHYST (Load level division hysteresis)


Value Range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 5, namely 5%
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for PUC (2)


OFFSINTERLIGHT (Sintersearch offset 1)
Value Range: -10 to 10 Physical Value Range: -20 to 20dB, step 2dB Recommended value: -2, namely -4dB

OFFSINTERHEAVY (Sintersearch offset 2)


Value Range: -10 to 10 Physical Value Range: -20 to 20dB, step 2dB Recommended value: 2, namely 4dB

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for PUC (3)


OFFQOFFSET1LIGHT (Qoffset1 offset 1)
Value Range: -20 to 20 Physical Value Range: -20 to 20dB, step 1dB Recommended value: -4, namely -4dB

OFFQOFFSET2LIGHT (Qoffset2 offset 1)


Value Range: -20 to 20 Physical Value Range: -20 to 20dB, step 1dB Recommended value: -4, namely -4dB

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for PUC (4)


OFFQOFFSET1HEAVY (Qoffset1 offset 2)
Value Range: -20 to 20 Physical Value Range: -20 to 20dB, step 1dB Recommended value: 4, namely 4dB

OFFQOFFSET2HEAVY (Qoffset2 offset 2)


Value Range: -20 to 20 Physical Value Range: -20 to 20dB, step 1dB Recommended value: 4, namely 4dB

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. Load Control Overview 2. Basic Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control) 2.2 CAC (Call Admission Control) 2.3 IAC (Intelligent Admission Control) 2.4 LDR (Load Reshuffling) 2.5 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Why we need CAC?


WCDMA is an interference limited system, after a new call is admitted, the system load will be increased If a cell is high loaded, a new call will cause ongoing user dropped We must keep the coverage planed by the Radio Network Planning

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Flow chart of CAC

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CAC Code Resource Admission


For handover services
The current remaining code resource should be enough for the service

For other R99 services


RNC shall ensure the remaining code does not exceed the configurable thresholds after admission of the new service

For HSDPA services


The code resource admission is not needed

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Code Resource Admission


DLHOCECODERESVSF (DL HandOver Credit and Code Reserved SF)
Value Range:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Physical value Range: SF4, SF8, SF16, SF32, SF128, SF256, SFOFF Recommended value: SF32 Configuration Rule and Restriction:
[Dl HandOver Credit and Code Reserved SF] >= max ([Dl LDR Credit SF reserved threshold], [Cell LDR SF reserved threshold])

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

CAC Power Resource Admission


Algorithm 1: based on UL/DL load measurement and load prediction (RTWP and TCP)
The algorithm is easy to implement, but it is affected by the result of RTWP and TCP measurement

Algorithm 2: based on Element Number of User (ENU)


The algorithm is no need to measure RTWP and TCP, but the calculation is more complex

Algorithm 3: loose call admission control algorithm


Similar to algorithm 1, but the prediction of needed power of a new call will be set to zero
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Uplink CAC Algorithm 1 - Load Prediction


Admission request Get current RTWP, and calculate the current load factor Get the traffic characteristic, and estimate the increment of load factor Calculate the predicted load factor

UL

PN = 1 RTWP

UL _ predicted = UL +
N

Smaller than the threshold?

admitted

rejected

End of UL CAC
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Downlink CAC Algorithm 1 - Load Prediction


Admission request Get current TCP Get the traffic characteristic, and estimate the increment of TCP Calculate the predicted TCP

P(N )
P

P( N ) + P
N

Smaller than the threshold?

admitted

rejected

End of DL CAC
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Uplink and Downlink CAC Algorithm 2 - ENU


Admission request Get current total ENU Get the traffic characteristic, and estimate the increment of ENU Calculate the predicted ENU

ENU

total

(N ) =

ENU
i =1

ENU new

ENU total ( N + 1) = ENU total ( N ) + ENU new


N

Smaller than the threshold?

ENULoad = ENU total ( N + 1) / ENU max

admitted

rejected

End of UL/DL CAC


Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Typical equivalent number of users


Service 3.4 kbit/s SIG 13.6 kbit/s SIG 3.4 + 12.2 kbit/s 3.4 + 8 kbit/s (PS) 3.4 + 16 kbit/s (PS) 3.4 + 32 kbit/s (PS) 3.4 + 64 kbit/s (PS) 3.4 + 128 kbit/s (PS) 3.4 + 144 kbit/s (PS) 3.4 + 256 kbit/s (PS) 3.4 + 384 kbit/s (PS) Equivalent Number of User (ENU) For Already Existing Users 0.2669 0.4531 0.7662 0.5106 0.9215 2.1319 3.2479 6.2219 6.9731 11.2941 17.0178 For New Incoming Call 0.4569 1.2131 1.3210 0.6325 1.0472 2.2680 3.4188 6.4143 7.1888 11.5245 17.1897

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Power Resource Admission Algorithm Switch


NBMULCACALGOSELSWITCH (Uplink CAC algorithm switch)
Value Range:
ALGORITHM_OFF, ALGORITHM_FIRST, ALGORITHM_SECOND, and ALGORITHM_THIRD

NBMDLCACALGOSELSWITCH (Downlink CAC algorithm switch)


Value Range:
ALGORITHM_OFF, ALGORITHM_FIRST, ALGORITHM_SECOND, and ALGORITHM_THIRD

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Load Prediction (1)


CELLENVTYPE (Cell environment type)
Value Range:
TU: typical urban district RA: rural area HT: hill terrain

Default value: TU

BACKGROUNDNOISE (Background noise)


Value Range: 0 to 621 Physical Range: -112 to -50dBm, step: 0.1 Recommended value: 71, namely -105dBm
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Load Prediction (2)


ULINTERFACTOR (UL neighbor interference factor )
Value Range: 0 to 200 Physical Range: 0 to 2, step: 0.01 Recommended value: 60, namely 0.6

NONORTHOFACTOR (DL Nonorthogonality factor)


Value Range: 0 to 1000 Physical Range: 0 to 1, step: 0.001 Recommended value: 400, namely 0.4
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Power Resource Admission (1)


ULCCHLOADFACTOR (UL common channel load factor)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 0, namely 0%

DLCCHLOADRSRVCOEFF (DL common channel load reserved coefficient)


Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 0, namely 0%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Power Resource Admission (2)


ULCONVAMRTHD (UL threshold of Conv AMR service)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 75, namely 75%

ULCONVNONAMRTHD (UL threshold of Conv non_AMR service)


Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 75, namely 75%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Power Resource Admission (3)


ULOTHERTHD (UL threshold of other services)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 60, namely 60%

ULHOTHD (UL handover access threshold)


Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 80, namely 80%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Power Resource Admission (4)


DLCONVAMRTHD (DL threshold of Conv AMR service)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 80, namely 80%

DLCONVNONAMRTHD (DL threshold of Conv non_AMR service)


Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 80, namely 80%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Power Resource Admission (5)


DLOTHERTHD (DL threshold of other services)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 75, namely 75%

DLHOTHD (DL handover access threshold)


Value range: 0 to 10% Recommended value: 85, namely 85%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Power Resource Admission (6)


ULTOTALEQUSERNUM (UL total equivalent user number)
Value range: 1 to 200 Recommended value: 80, namely UL ENUmax = 80

DLTOTALEQUSERNUM (DL total nonhsdpa equivalent user number)


Value range: 1 to 200 Recommended value: 80, namely DL ENUmax = 80

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

CAC Credit Resource Admission


Credit resource admission is similar with code resource admission For handover services
The current remaining credit resource should be enough for the service

For other R99 services


RNC shall ensure the remaining code does not exceed the configurable thresholds after admission of the new service

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Credit Resource Admission (1)


DLHOCECODERESVSF (DL HandOver Credit and Code Reserved SF)
Value Range:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Physical value Range: SF4, SF8, SF16, SF32, SF128, SF256, SFOFF Recommended value: SF32 Configuration Rule and Restriction:
[Dl HandOver Credit and Code Reserved SF] >= max ([Dl LDR Credit SF reserved threshold], [Cell LDR SF reserved threshold])

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Credit Resource Admission (2)


ULHOCERESVSF (Ul HandOver Credit Reserved SF)
Value Range:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Physical value Range: SF4, SF8, SF16, SF32, SF128, SF256, SFOFF Recommended value: SF16 Configuration Rule and Restriction:
[Ul HandOver Credit Reserved SF] >= Ul LDR Credit SF reserved threshold

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. Load Control Overview 2. Basic Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control) 2.2 CAC (Call Admission Control) 2.3 IAC (Intelligent Admission Control) 2.4 LDR (Load Reshuffling) 2.5 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Why we need IAC?


The disadvantage of CAC:
For PS NRT (Non-Real Time) services, CAC is not flexible No consideration about the priority of different users No consideration about Directed Retry after CAC rejection

Intelligent means the algorithm can increase admission successful rate

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Flow chart of IAC

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IAC Rate negotiation


Iu QoS Negotiation: based on
Maximum allowed bit rate 384kbps 256kbps 128kbps Initial / Target data rate 64kbps 32kbps

the UE capability
Physical layer capability Transport channel capability RLC capability

RAB Downsizing: based on system load


Channelization codes Iub transmission resources Radio resources

Scenarios: RAB setupRAB modify, SRNSR request, reconfiguration


Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

IAC Direct Retry based on service


Data service can be retry to HSDPA cells for better QoS

Data service Frequency A CELL2 R99 CELL 1 R99

Frequency B CELL A HSDPA

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IAC Preemption
The user with high priority can preempt the resource of users with low priority Triggering resource for Preemption
Power (or ENU), SF (spreading factor), Iub transmission resource, NodeB CE
High priority Preempting resource Low priority
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IAC Queuing
After CAC rejection, UE can wait a moment and queue, then try to admit again Queuing priority: Pqueue = Tmax Telapsed
Tmax is the maximum time in the queue, default value is 5s Telapsed is the time has queued

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IAC Directed Retry based on Load Balance


Service will be set up to the cell with lightest load The advantages
Keeping the load of the network balanced Supporting higher data rate for the user
Cell 1 Cell 2 RRC Connection Cell 1 Cell 2 RAB

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for IAC Algorithm Switch (1)


IU_QOS_NEG_SWITCH (Switcher for IU QoS Negotiation)
Value range: 0 (close), 1 (open) Default value: 0

RAB_DOWNSIZING_SWITCH (RAB Downsizing Switch)


Value range: 0 (close), 1 (open) Default value: 1

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for IAC Algorithm Switch (2)


PREEMPTALGOSWITCH (Preempt algorithm switch)
Value range: On, Off Default value: Off

QUEUEALGOSWITCH (Queue algorithm switch)


Value range: On, Off Default value: Off

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for RAB Downsizing


ULBETRAFFINITBITRATE (Uplink initial access rates) & DLBETRAFFINITBITRATE (Downlink initial access rates)
Value range: D8, D16, D32, D64, D128, D144, D256, D384, D768, D1024, D1536, D2048 Physical Value range: 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 144, 256, 384, 768, 1024, 1536, 2048, Unit: kbps Default value: D64, namely 64kbps

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Queuing (1)


QUEUELEN (Queue length)
Value range: 5 to 20 Recommended value: 10

POLLTIMERLEN (Poll timer length)


Value range: 1 to 6000 Physical value range: 10 to 60000 ms step: 10ms Recommended value: 50, namely 500 ms

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Queuing (2)


MAXQUEUETIMELENx (Max queuing time length 1~12)
Value range: 1 to 60s Recommended value: 5, namely 5 seconds

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Parameters for DRD (1)


DRMAXUMTSNUM (Max inter-frequency direct retry number)
Value range: 0 to 5 Recommended value: 2

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Parameters for DRD (2)


R99CSSEPIND (R99 CS separation indicator)
Value range: FALSE (no separation), TRUE (separation) Recommended value: FALSE

R99PSSEPIND (R99 PS separation indicator)


Value range: FALSE (no separation), TRUE (separation) Recommended value: FALSE

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1. Load Control Overview 2. Basic Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control) 2.2 CAC (Call Admission Control) 2.3 IAC (Intelligent Admission Control) 2.4 LDR (Load Reshuffling) 2.5 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

LCC (Load Congestion Control)


100%
section A

Load%

Overload state: OLC will be used

THOLC

1 section B

THLDR
section C

Basic congestion state: LDR will be used

Normal state: Permit entry

Times
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LDR (Load Reshuffling)


Reasons
When the cell is in basic congestion state, new coming calls could be easily rejected by system

Purpose
Optimizing cell resource distribution Decreasing load level, increasing admission successful rate

Triggering of LDR
Power resources, code resource, Iub resources or Iub bandwidth, NodeB Credit resource
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Turn on LDR algorithm switch

LDR Procedure
Congestion state indication

Mark "current LDR state = uncongested" Start LDM congestion indication report

Mark "current action = first LDR action" Clear "selected" mark of all UE LDR actions Wait for congestion indication

Current LDR state = congested?

Inter-freq load handover N Code reshuffling N BE rate reduction N Sequence of actions can be configured (current action is taken firstly)
Inter-system handover in CS domain Inter-system handover in CS domain

Succeed?

Succeed?

Succeed?

Succeed? N Succeed? N Succeed? N Succeed? N

Mark "current action = successful action"

Wait time for LDR action duration

AMR rate reduction


QoS renogiation on Iu interface MBMS power reduction

Succeed? N

No related action can be found

Mark "current action = first LDR action"

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

LDR Actions - Inter-frequency Load Handover


Target cells
Load difference between current load and the basic congestion trigger threshold of target cell is larger than UL/DL Inter-freq cell load handover load space threshold

Target users
Based on user priority and the current service rate

Result
The load of two cells is lower than the basic congestion trigger threshold The user with low priority hand over to the Light load cells
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

LDR Actions - BE Rate Reduction


Candidate RABs
The data rate of BE service is larger than GBR

Target RABs
Rank the candidate RABs by the integrate priority, the low priority RABs reduce BE rate first

Result
Cell load is decreased under basic congestion trigger threshold The BE service rate of low priority RABs is limited in GBR

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

LDR Actions - Uncontrolled Real-time QoS Renegotiation


Target RABs
Rank the candidate RABs by the integrate priority, the service with lowest priority and current data rate higher than GBR will be selected

Result
Cell load is decreased under basic congestion trigger threshold The data rate of low priority service is reduced to GBR

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

LDR Actions - Inter-system Handover In the CS/PS Domain


Target user
Based on the integrate priority, sorting the UEs in descending order. The top CS/PS services are selected GSM cell WCDMA cell

Result
Cell load is decreased under basic congestion trigger threshold

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

LDR Actions - AMR Rate Reduction


Target user (downlink e.g.)
Candidate RABs: users accessing the AMR services (conversational) and with the bit rate higher than the GBR Rank the candidate RABs by the integrate priority, the AMR service with lowest priority will be selected

Result
Cell load is decreased under basic congestion trigger threshold The AMR user with low priority is reduced to low voice rate mode

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

LDR Actions - Code Reshuffling


Purpose
Cell load is decreased under basic congestion trigger threshold Sufficient code resources can be reserved for subsequent service

SF=4 SF=8

SF=16

SF=32 SF=64 SF=128

3 1 2 4 A

C 6 B

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

LDR Actions - MBMS Power Reduction


Purpose
The downlink power load can be reduced by lowering power on MBMS traffic channels

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDR Algorithm Switch


NBMLdcAlgoSwitch (Cell algorithm switch)
Value Range:
ULLDR, DLLDR, CELL_CODE_LDR, CELL_CREDIT_LDR

Default status: OFF


Most of the LDR actions (except inter-frequency load handover) affect QoS

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDR Algorithm Priority


Priority for load reshuffling
Value Range:
IUBLDR(Iub load reshuffling), CREDITLDR(Credit load reshuffling), CODELDR (Code load reshuffling), UULDR (Uu load reshuffling)

Default status:
LdrFirstPri = IUBLDR LdrSecondPri = CREDITLDR LdrThirdPri = CODELDR LdrFourthPri = UULDR

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Triggering of Power Resource (1)


ULLDRTRIGTHD (UL LDR trigger threshold)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 55, namely 55%

ULLDRRELTHD (UL LDR release threshold)


Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 45, namely 45%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Triggering of Power Resource (2)


DLLDRTRIGTHD (DL LDR trigger threshold)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 70, namely 70%

DLLDRRELTHD (DL LDR release threshold)


Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 60, namely 60%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Triggering of Code Resource and Credit Resource


CELLLDRSFRESTHD (Cell LDR SF reserved threshold)
Value Range:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Physical value Range: SF4, SF8, SF16, SF32, SF128, SF256 Recommended value: SF8

UL (DL) LDRCREDITSFRESTHD (UL/DL LDR Credit SF reserved threshold )


Value Range:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Physical value Range: SF4, SF8, SF16, SF32, SF128, SF256 Recommended value: SF8
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDR Period


LDRPERIODTIMERLEN (LDR period timer length)
Value range: 1 to 86400 unit: second Recommended value: 10, namely 10s
Not less than 8s

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDR Action Sequence


UL (DL) LDRFIRSTACTION (UL/DL LDR First action) ~ UL (DL) LDRSIXTHACTION (UL/DL LDR Sixth action)
Value range: NOACT, INTERFREQLDHO, BERATERED, QOSRENEGO, CSINTERRATLDHO, PSINTERRATLDHO, AMRRATERED, MBMSDECPOWER, CODEADJ Default value: UlLdrFirstAction or DlLdrFirstAction is CODEADJ, UlLdrSecondAction or DlLdrSecondAction is INTERFREQLDHO UlLdrThirdAction or DlLdrThirdAction is BERATEREDthe other is NOACT

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDR Code Reshuffling


MAXUSERNUMCODEADJ (Max user number of code adjust)
Value range: 1 to 3 Recommended value: 1

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDR Inter-Frequency Load Handover (1)


ULINTERFREQHOCELLLOADSPACETHD (UL Inter-freq cell load handover load space threshold)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 20, namely 20%

DLINTERFREQHOCELLLOADSPACETHD (DL Inter-freq cell load handover load space threshold)


Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 20, namely 20%
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDR Inter-Frequency Load Handover (2)


ULINTERFREQHOBWTHD (UL Inter-freq cell load handover maximum bandwidth)
Value range: 0 to 400000bps Recommended value: 200000, namely 200kbps

DLINTERFREQHOBWTHD (DL Inter-freq cell load handover maximum bandwidth)


Value range: 0 to 400000bps Recommended value: 200000, namely 200kbps
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for LDR Other Actions


UL (DL) LDRBERATEREDUCTIONRABNUM, UL (DL) LDRPSRTQOSRENEGRABNUM, UL (DL) LDRCSINTERRATHOUSERNUM, UL (DL) LDRPSINTERRATHOUSERNUM, ULLDRAMRRATEREDUCTIONRABNUM
Value range: 1 to 10 Default value
UL (DL) LDRBERATEREDUCTIONRABNUM: UL (DL) LDRPSRTQOSRENEGRABNUM: UL (DL) LDRCSINTERRATHOUSERNUM: UL (DL) LDRPSINTERRATHOUSERNUM: UL (DL) LDRAMRRATEREDUCTIONRABNUM:
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

1 1 3 1 3

Contents
1. Load Control Overview 2. Basic Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control) 2.2 CAC (Call Admission Control) 2.3 IAC (Intelligent Admission Control) 2.4 LDR (Load Reshuffling) 2.5 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

OLC (Over Load Control)


Reasons
In overload state, system is not stable

Purpose
Ensuring the system stability and making the system back to the normal state as soon as possible

Triggering of OLC
Power resources only

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

OLC Procedure

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

OLC Actions - TF Control


Target user
Rank the candidate users by the integrate priority, the low priority user will be selected

Execution
Send the control message to UE (downlink: TF control indication, uplink: Transport format combination control) to restricts the TFC selection After the congestion is released, the BE service rate will be recovered

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

OLC Actions - Release of Some UEs


Target user (downlink e.g.)
Rank the candidate users by the integrate priority, the low priority user will be selected

Execution
Releasing the service of the selected user

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for OLC Algorithm Switch


NBMSWITCH (Cell algorithm switch)
Value Range:
ULOLC, DLOLC

Default status: OFF


OLC actions affect QoS heavily

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Triggering of Overload (1)


ULOLCTRIGTHD (UL OLC trigger threshold)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 95, namely 95%

ULOLCRELTHD (UL OLC release threshold)


Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 85, namely 85%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for Triggering of Overload (2)


DLOLCTRIGTHD (DL OLC trigger threshold)
Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 95, namely 95%

DLOLCRELTHD (DL OLC release threshold)


Value range: 0 to 100% Recommended value: 85, namely 85%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for OLC (1)


OLCPERIODTIMERLEN (OLC period timer length)
Value range: 100 to 86400000, unit: ms Recommended value: 3000, namely 3s

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for OLC (2)


ULOLCFTFRSTRCTTIMES (UL OLC fast TF restrict times)
Value range: 0 to 100 Recommended value: 3

DLOLCFTFRSTRCTTIMES (DL OLC fast TF restrict times)


Value range: 0 to 100 Recommended value: 3

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for OLC (3)


ULOLCFTFRSTRCTRABNUM (UL OLC fast TF restrict RAB number)
Value range: 1 to 100 Recommended value: 3

DLOLCFTFRSTRCTRABNUM (DL OLC fast TF restrict RAB number)


Value range: 1 to 100 Recommended value: 3

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for OLC (4)


RATERSTRCTCOEF (DL OLC fast TF restrict data rate restrict coefficient)
Value range: 1 to 99% Recommended value: 68, namely 68%

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for OLC (5)


RATERSTRCTTIMERLEN (DL OLC fast TF restrict data rate restrict timer length)
Value range: 1 to 65535, unit: ms Recommended value: 3000, namely 3s

RATERECOVERTIMERLEN (DL OLC fast TF restrict data rate recover timer length)
Value range: 1 to 65535, unit: ms Recommended value: 5000, namely 5s
Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Parameters for OLC (6)


ULOLCTRAFFRELRABNUM (UL OLC traff release RAB number)
Value range: 0 to 10 Default value: 0

DLOLCTRAFFRELRABNUM (DL OLC traff release RAB number)


Value range: 0 to 10 Default value: 0

Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Thank You
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Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.