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Deepak in a nutshell
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MS, Mechanical Engineering (Purdue University, USA)
B.E, Mechanical Engineering (Delhi College of Engg)
   Professional
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Founder, perfectbazaar.com
Application Engineer ( Robert Bosch, USA)
Controls Engineer (Cummins Engine Company, USA)
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HAPPY TO CHAT ANYTIME
What is Strength of
Materials?

Study of internal effects (stresses and strains) caused by external
loads (forces and moments) acting on a deformable body/
structure.

Also known as: Strength of Materials or Mechanics of Solids

Determines:

1. Strength (determine by stress at failure)

2. Deformation (determined by strain)

3. Stiffness (ability to resist deformation; load needed to cause
a specific deformation; determined by the stress- strain
relationship)

4. Stability (ability to avoid rapidly growing deformations
caused by an initial disturbance; e.g., buckling)
Strength of Material
   Why we need to study this course.
Strength of Material
   Why we need to study this course.
   10 marks class attendance.
   10 marks for teacher assessment.
   30 marks for internal sessional tests.
   100 marks external university exam.
Syllabus
   Unit -1
   Compound Stress and Strains
   3-D Stress, Theories of failure
   Unit -2
   Stresses in Beam
   Deflection of Beams
   Unit – 3
   Helical and Leaf Spring
   Column and Struts
Syllabus
   Unit – 4
   Thin Cylinders and Spheres
   Thick cylinders
   Unit – 5
   Curved beams
   Unsymmetrical Bending
Unit 1- Stress and Strain
Topics Covered
   Lecture -1 - Introduction, state of plane stress
   Lecture -2 - Principle Stresses and Strains
   Lecture -3 - Mohr's Stress Circle and Theory of
Failure
   Lecture -4- 3-D stress and strain, Equilibrium
   Lecture -5 - Generalized Hook's law and Castigliono's
What is Strength of
Materials?

Study of internal effects (stresses and strains) caused by external
loads (forces and moments) acting on a deformable body/
structure.

Also known as: Strength of Materials or Mechanics of Solids

Determines:

1. Strength (determine by stress at failure)

2. Deformation (determined by strain)

3. Stiffness (ability to resist deformation; load needed to cause
a specific deformation; determined by the stress- strain
relationship)

4. Stability (ability to avoid rapidly growing deformations
caused by an initial disturbance; e.g., buckling)
Stresses
   Stress

Force of resistance per unit area offered by a body against
deformation
σ = P
A
P = External force or load
A = Cross-sectional area
Strain
   Strain
   Change in dimension of an object under application of
external force is strain
ε = dL
L
dL = Change in length
L = Length
Types of Stresses and
Strains
Stress
Strain
Tensile stress
Tensile strain
Compressive
Compressive
stress
strain
Shear stress
Shear strain
Shear Stress
   Shear Stress
   Stress induced when body is subjected to equal and
opposite forces that are acting parallel to resisting
dl
P
surface.
D1
C
D
= dl
Strain
φ
= DD 1
h
dl = Transversal displacement
h
Stress
τ = P
φ
φ
L
A
B
l
Hooke’s Law
   Hooke’s law – Stress is proportional to strain within
elastic limit of the material.
The material will recover its shape if stretched
to point 2.
There will be permanent deformation in the
Material if the object is stretched to point 4.
Upto point 2 stress is proportional to strain.
E = Stress
Strain
E = Young’s Modulus or Modulus of
Elasticity
Elasticity
   Shear Modulus/Modulus of rigidity – ratio of shear
stress to shear strain.
C = Shear _ stress
Shear _ strain
= τ
φ
   Young’s modulus/Modulus of elasticity- ratio of
tensile or compressive stress to tensile or compressive
strain.
Tensile _ stress
Compressive _ stress
E =
Tensile _ strain = Compressive _ strain = σ e
Max _ stresses
   Factor of safety =
Working _ stresses
PROBLEM
PROBLEM – A rod 150cm long and diameter 2.0cm is
subjected to an axial pull of 20kN. If modulus of
elasticity of material of rod is 2x10 5 n/mm 2
determine:
1)  Stress
2)  Strain
3)  Elongation of the rod
Poisson ratio
   Ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain
υ
= Lateral _ strain
Longitudinal _ strain
3-Dimensional Stress System
σ 1
Stress
will produce strain in x-direction =
σ 2
σ 1
E
−υ σ 1
Stress y and z direction due to
σ 1
=
E
Negative sign is because the strain in y and z
direction will be compressive
σ 1
σ 2
σ 3
Stress
will produce strain in y-direction =
σ 2
E
−υ σ 2
Stress x and z direction due to
σ 2
=
E
Stress
σ 3
will produce strain in z-direction = σ 3
E
−υ σ 3
Stress x and y direction due to
σ 3
=
E
Poisson ratio
   Ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain
3-Dimensional Stress System
σ 2
Total Strain in x-direction due to σ 1 ,σ 2 ,σ 3
=
σ E 1 − υ σ 2 − υ σ 3
E
E
σ 1
Total Strain in y-direction due to σ 1 ,σ 2 ,σ 3
=
σ 2 − υ σ E 1 − υ σ 3
σ 3
E
E
Total Strain in z-direction due to
σ 1 ,σ 2 ,σ 3
=
σ 3 − υ σ E 1 − υ σ 2
E
E
Analysis of bars of
varying sections
Section 3
Section 2
Section 1
P
P
A
A
A
1
2
3
L 1
L 2
L 3
%
" L 1
dL = P
+ L 2
+ L 3
'
Total change in length of bar
\$
# E 1 A 1
E 2 A 2
E 3 A 3
&
Analysis of bars of
varying sections
Section 3
Section 2
Section 1
P=35000
P=35000N
D 3 =2cm
D
3 =3cm
D
3 =5cm
20cm
25cm
22cm
PROBLEM – An axial pull of 35000N is acting on a bar consisting of three lengths
as shown in fig above. if Young’s modulus =2.1x10 5 N/mm 2 determine:
1)  Stresses in each section
2)  Total extension in bar.
Principal of
superposition
   When number of loads are acting on a body the
resulting strain will be sum of strains caused by
Analysis of bars of
composite sections
   Bar made up of 2 or more bars of equal length but of
different materials rigidly fixed with each other.
P
= P 1 + P 2
P
= σ 1 A 1 + σ 2 A 2
1
2
ε 1 = ε 2
σ
σ 2
1
=
E
E 2
P
1
Analysis of bars of
composite sections
PROBLEM – A steel rod of 3cm diameter is enclosed
centrally in a hollow copper tube of external diameter
5cm and internal diameter of 4cm. The composite bar
3 cm
15 cm
1
2
is
then subjected to an axial pull of 45000N. If the
length of each bar is equal to 15cm. Determine
4 cm
1)  Stresses in the rod and the tube and
2)  Load carried by each bar
5 cm
Take E for steel =2.1x10 5 N/mm 2 and
E
for copper = 1.1x10 5 N/mm 2
P=45000N
Thermal Stresses
Stresses are induced when temperature of
the body changes.
B
A
B’
When rod is free to expand the extension
in the rod
L
dL
dL = α TL
α = Coefficient of linear expansion
stress = strain * E
T = Rise in temperature
stress = α × T × E
Stress and strain when supports yield = expansion due to rise in temp - yielding
=
α TL − δ
% α TL − δ ( * × E
Stress
=
'
Strain = α TL − δ
L
&
L
)