You are on page 1of 13

   

[CAT]  

   

CAT CRITICAL REASONING: 1999—2006
TYPE 1: Logical Completion of a Paragraph (CAT: 2005 & 2006) Directions for Questions 1 to 9: Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which the last sentence has been deleted. Some of the questions have four options and some have five options. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way. 1.. Federer’s fifth grand slam win prompted a reporter to ask whether he was the best ever. Federer is certainly not lacking in confidence, but he wasn’t about to proclaim himself the best ever. “The best player of this generation, yes”, he said, “But nowhere close to ever. Just look at the records that some guys have. I’m a minnow.” ________________________________ 1. 2. 3. 4. His win against Agassi, a genius from the previous generation, contradicts that. Sampras, the king of an earlier generation, was as humble. He is more than a minnow to his contemporaries. The difference between ‘the best of this generation’ and ‘the best ever’ is a matter of perception.

2. Thus the end of knowledge and the closing of the frontier that it symbolizes is not a looming crisis at all, but merely one of the many embarrassing fits of hubris in civilization’s long industry. In the end , it will pass away and be forgotten. Ours is not the first generation to struggle to understand the organizational laws of the frontier, deceive itself that it has succeeded, and go to its grave having failed. _________________________________ 1. 2. 3. 4. One would be wise to be humble. But we might be the first generation to actually reach the frontier. But we might be the first generation to deal with the crisis. However, this time the success is not illusory.

3. Most firms consider expert individuals to be too elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. Force such people to collaborate on a high-stakes project and they might come to fisticuffs. Even the very notion of managing such a group seems unimaginable. So most organizations fall into default mode, setting up project teams of people who get along nicely. ____________________________ 1. 2. 3. 4. The result, however, is disastrous. The result is mediocrity. The result is creation of experts who then become elitists. Naturally, they drive innovations.

4. The audiences for crosswords and sudoku, understandably, overlap greatly, but there are differences, too. A crossword attracts a more literary person, while sudoku appeals to a keenly logical mind. Some crossword enthusiasts turn up their noses at sudoku because they feel it lacks depth. A good crossword requires vocabulary, knowledge, mental flexibility and sometimes even a sense of humor to complete. It touches numerous areas of life and provides an “Aha!” or two along the way. ______________________ 1. 2. 3. 4. Sudoku, on the other hand, is just a logical exercise, each one similar to the last. Sudoku, incidentally, is growing faster in popularity than crosswords, even among the literati. Sudoku, on the other hand, can be attempted and enjoyed even by children. Sudoku, however, is not exciting in any sense of the term.

5. Relations between the factory and the dealer are distant and usually strained as the factory tries to force cars on the dealers to smooth out production. Relations between the dealer and the customer are equally strained because dealers continuously adjust prices—make deals—to adjust demand with supply while maximizing profits. This becomes a system marked by a lack of longterm commitment on either side, which maximizes feelings of mistrust. In order to maximize their bargaining positions,

1

 
Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619  

Good maps pull out the most important features and throw away a huge amount of much less valuable information. just like good maps. rather than as an ally. such nations reveal a penchant for the use of force. I hate rules. 9. will never represent unfamiliar concepts in detail. However. the comparative advantage of the United States lies in its military force. inefficiencies creep into the supply chain. for it would be an exact replica. All I do is report on how consumers react to different stimuli. but scarcely a rule. and they become less receptive to new information. But good theories. In the same way. 6. Thus. As a result. are useful in the hands of a user who knows their limitations. we commonly see that diplomacy is understood as a disguise for the rule of force. people depend on credibility rather than on novelty as they reach an advanced age. As a result. Are you sure you want to use a celebrity?” Call that a rule? Or I may say to an art director. people transmit more information rather than experiment with new ideas as they reach an advanced age. fundamental innovations are becoming scarce in the automobile industry. As a result. are invaluable. The most accurate map that it is possible to construct would be of no practical use whatsoever. Such principles are unavoidable if one wants to be systematic about consumer behaviour. Of course. a bad theory. just like good maps. But good theories. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) But good theories. Every active player in world affairs professes to seek only peace and to prefer negotiation to violence and coercion.” (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Guidance based on applied research can hardly qualify as ‘rules’. when the veil is lifted. 2   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. diplomacy has often been used as a mask by nations which intended to use force. Nothing could be further from the truth. just like good maps. However. which help us navigate unfamiliar territory. people are reluctant to experiment with new ideas as they reach an advanced age. “Research shows that commercials with celebrities are below average in persuading people to buy products. As a result. need to balance detail and feasibility of representation. history tells us that peace is professed by those who intend to use violence. But good theories. even if they are simplified. does little or nothing to help us understand a problem. history has shown that many of these nations do not practise what they profess.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . are accurate only at a certain level of abstraction. as people become older. just like good maps. everyone loses in the long run. Diplomacy and international law have always been regarded as annoying encumbrances. But good theories. no matter how impressive it may seem in principle. However. As a result. maps can be bad as well as good—witness the attempts by medieval Europe to produce a map of the world. their opportunity costs rise. Fundamentally it is about consumer behaviour—not about celebrities or type settings. age will increase the likelihood that a person will exploit an entrepreneurial opportunity because people gather much of the knowledge necessary to exploit opportunities over the course of their lives. However. on exactly the same scale. without concern for customer satisfaction. “Research suggests that if you set the copy in black type on a white background. more people will read it than if you set it in white type on a black background. and because age provides credibility in transmitting that information to others. A suggestion perhaps. people become reluctant to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities when they reach an advanced age. In the evolving world order. everyone treats the other as an adversary. just like good maps. their willingness to bear risks declines. As a result. Initially. We can usefully think of theoretical models as maps. 8. unless they can be used to advantage against an enemy.     [CAT]       everyone holds back information—the dealer about the product and the consumer about his true desires. I may say to a copywriter. only people with lower opportunity costs exploit opportunity when they reach an advanced age. However. all my so called ‘rules’ are rooted in applied research. As a result. when unmasked. 7. Age has a curvilinear relationship with the exploitation of opportunity. ‘deal making’ becomes rampant. I am sometimes attacked for imposing ‘rules’. of the place where we were. As a result. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) However. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) As a result. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) As a result.

4. In hot countries people eat mainly grains while in the Arctic. You should learn to not make enemies because of your prejudices unless they behave badly with you. Thus. they eat meat and fish because they cannot grow grains. Avoid prejudice and negative thoughts till you encounter bad behaviour from others. 3.     [CAT]       TYPE 2: Summary of a Passage (CAT Feb 04 & Nov 04) Directions for Questions 1 to 9: Four alternative summaries are given below each text. Others think that shifts occur on opposing schedules in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. which you would have felt as a hardship. 2. and varies from meat and fish in the Arctic to predominantly grains in the tropics. You encountered hardship amongst your school fellows because you did not know them well. A more definitive answer to this debate will allow scientists to better predict when and how quickly the next climate shift will happen. research will help find a definitive answer and better predict climate shifts in future. milk. or sometimes fish and meat.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . 1. In hot climates. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text. In Europe. Although almost all climate scientists agree that the Earth is gradually warming. The people of whom it is made up eat different kinds of food. It is bad reasoning. finding a definitive answer will help them better predict climate shifts in future. This will disarm their hostility sooner than pique or resentment or complaint. 2. partly according to the climate in which they live. Learn never to conceive a prejudice against others because you know nothing of them. 1. 3. eggs. 1. You encountered hardship amongst your school fellows because you did not know them well. they have long been of two minds about the process of rapid climate shifts within larger periods of change. 4. You should learn to not make enemies because of your prejudices irrespective of their behaviour towards you. this would have been the reason for their keeping aloof from you as well. 2. You should not complain unless you find others prejudiced against you and have attempted to carefully analyze the faults you have observed in them. 1. they have to change what they eat depending on the local climate and the local produce. in India. More research rather than debates on warming or 3 cooling of the Earth and exaggerated seasons in its   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. Food eaten by people in different regions of the world depends on the climate and the produce of the region. Scientists have been unsure whether rapid shifts in the Earth’s climate happen all at once or on opposing schedules in different hemispheres. people live chiefly on different kinds of grains. They knew as little of you as you did of them. Do not think ill of them till they behave ill to you. The human race is spread all over the world. 4. 3. Research in Germany will help scientists find a definitive answer about warming and cooling of the Earth and predict climate shifts in the future in a better manner. Some have speculated that the process works like a giant oven or freezer. 2. In the Arctic regions. The discomfort you felt with your school fellows was because both sides knew little of each other. where no grains and fruits are produced. like exaggerated seasons. While people in Arctic regions like meat and fish and those in hot regions like India prefer mainly grains. and then win them over by shunning the faults you have observed. but in the Arctic regions they seem to be very necessary for keeping up the heat of the body. and then strive to avoid the faults which you see in them. Scientists have been unsure whether rapid shifts in the Earth’s climate happen all at once or on opposing schedules in different hemispheres. and makes enemies of half the world. Recent research in Germany examining climate patterns in the Southern Hemisphere at the end of the last Ice Age strengthens the idea that warming and cooling occurs at alternate times in the hemispheres. warming or cooling the whole planet at the same time. and partly according to the kind of food which their country produces. meat and fat are not much needed. You seemed at first to take no notice of your school-fellows. people eat more meat and less grain. or rather to set yourself against them because they were strangers to you. from the polar regions to the tropics. Hot climates require people to eat grains while cold regions require people to eat meat and fish. 3. the Eskimo and other races live almost entirely on meat and fish. The discomfort you felt with your school fellows was because both sides knew little of each other.

Local communities have no option but to protest against agents of resource-intensification and create a new type of class conflict when they are given raw material at subsidized prices for an expanding commercial-industrial economy. if your mind is sluggish. readily accept a relative’s offer of free holiday accommodation. 2. 1. through the grant of generous long leases over mineral or fish stocks. for example. The grant of long leases to agents of resource-intensification for an expanding commercial-industrial economy leads to direct protests from the local community. Nietzsche blames excessive intellectualization for the decline of modern society and suggests nurturing creative instincts instead. Smother the will with excessive intellectualizing and you destroy the spontaneity that sparks cultural creativity and ignites a zest for living. Even if you try to be sensitive. 4. The critical and theoretical outlook destroys the creative instincts. With the injustice so compounded. Nietzsche criticizes the intellectuals for enfeebling the modern bourgeois society by not nurturing man’s creative instincts. Or step in for your boss when she is away. Nietzsche urged recognition of the dark mysterious world of instinctual desires—the true forces of life. Your bank account is low. but you have a two-week vacation coming up and you want to get away to some place warm to relax with your family. Nietzsche urges the decadent and enfeebled modern society to forego intellect and give importance to creative instincts. inertia is a feeling that you just can’t move. 6. Preferential treatment given by the state to agents of resource-intensification for an expanding commercial-industrial economy exacerbates injustice to local communities and leads to direct protests from them. Physically. 3. said Nietzsche. You need not think when making them. resulting in a new type of class conflict. Some decisions are obvious under certain circumstances. 4. Examples such as accepting free holiday accommodation abound in our lives. You like your employer and feel ready to move forward in your career. 3. Will you step in for your boss for three weeks while she attends a professional development course? Of course. Nietzsche urges the decadent and enfeebled modern society to smother the will with excessive intellectualizing and ignite a zest for living. for example. 4You may even see a tragedy enacted in front of your eyes and   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. For man’s manifold potential to be realized. Will you accept your in-laws’ offer of free use of their Florida beachfront condo? Sure. which sees it as unfair. or the provision of raw material at an enormously subsidized price.     [CAT]       hemispheres will help scientists in Germany predict climate changes better in future. at a faster pace. You may. 3. 2. Some decisions are no-brainers. 1. Another no-brainer is taking the boss’s job when she is away. 5. Some decisions will be fairly obvious—“no-brainers”. it is a sluggish mind. A new kind of class conflict arises from preferential treatment given to agents of resource-intensification by the state which the local community sees as unfair. 4. Local communities have often come in conflict with agents trying to exploit resources. 2. was decadent and enfeebled—a victim of the excessive development of the rational faculties at the expense of will and instinct. you just don’t feel anything intensely. for an expanding commercial-industrial economy. Examples are condo offers from in-laws and job offers from bosses when your bank account is low or boss is away. 1. Accepting an offer from in-laws when you are short on funds and want a holiday is a no-brainer. 4. Easy decisions are called “no-brainers” because they do not require any cerebral activity. such agents of resource-intensification are given preferential treatment by the state. resisting both the state and outside exploiters through a variety of protest techniques. he must forego relying on the intellect and nurture again the instinctual roots of human existence. More often than not. These struggles might perhaps be seen as a manifestation of a new kind of class conflict. mentally. local communities at the receiving end of this process have no recourse except direct action. Against the liberal-rationalist stress on the intellect. Modern bourgeois society.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . 7.

but ignore greater invisible costs and impair service quality. Focus on cost minimization may reduce visible costs. you just don’t have the capacity. If you are planning to buy a van after being used to sedans. 3. We urge you to try products such as vans before buying them. on the other hand. 8. In addition.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . Shipping companies should focus on quality level improvement rather than cost cutting. one group persecuting another. If. You may see one person exploiting another. If they focus on cost minimization. you are likely to identify consequences you had not even thought of before. for example. in front of you. They become insensitive to tragedies. Shipping companies have to either minimize costs or maximize service quality. Try before you buy. 9. If you are considering buying a van after having always owned sedans. By experiencing the consequences first hand. 3. Cost cutting will lead to untold opportunity costs. You don’t get angry because you are incapable. You are not deliberately refusing to act. Physical inertia restricts bodily movements. borrow a van or rent it and try it before deciding to buy it. they will reduce quality. But your father may find vans more comfortable than cars. One of the consequences of going in for a van is that it is more difficult to park than sedans at the office car park. We use this memorable saying to urge you to experience the consequences of an alternative before you choose it. Therefore. 1. and stops your mind from responding meaningfully to events. exploitation. The problem really arises since cost minimization tends to focus on out of pocket costs which are visible. 5   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. and persecution because it freezes your energy and decapacitates it. When you have inertia you don’t act although you see one person exploiting or one group persecuting another. are lost sight of. they become more meaningful. May be you will discover that it is difficult to park the van in your small parking space at work. Mental inertia prevents mental response to events enacted in front of your eyes. You will discover aspects you may never have thought of. you want to change from sedans to a van. Always try before you buy anything. shipping companies must be clear about the primary focus of their maintenance and materials management before embarking on cost minimization. whenever this is feasible. mental inertia freezes your energy. Then you may realize that parking a van is difficult while it is easier for your elderly father to get in and out of it. Shipping companies should determine the primary focus of their maintenance and materials management. 3. 1. They should focus on service level improvement. Any cost minimization program in shipping is bound to lower the quality of service. Then you can experience consequences you have not thought of such as parking problems. Before choosing an alternative. but that. Often when certain systems are set in place. 4. try one before buying it. your elderly father has a much easier time getting in and out of it. the cost minimization objective and associated procedure become more important than the flexibility required for service level improvement. or else opportunity costs will be lost sight of. 2. Your energy is frozen. 2.     [CAT]       not be able to respond meaningfully. while the opportunity costs. experience its consequences if feasible. 2. Inertia makes your body and mind sluggish. and not be able to get angry. It is important for shipping companies to be clear about the objectives for maintenance and materials management—as to whether the primary focus is on service level improvement or cost minimization. rent one for a week or borrow a friend’s. You are bound to discover many consequences. 4. Physical inertia stops your body from moving. often greater in value. 4. even tragedies. Companies should have systems in place to make the service level flexible. 1. Inertia is of two types—physical and mental.

San Vittore in Milan. appealed for a ‘gesture of clemency’. Certain clubs took advantage of the situation by hiring above-average shares of black players. which has 1. During a recent visit to a large prison. If there is pay discrimination against some group of players—fewer teams bidding for black players thus lowering the salaries for blacks with the same ability as whites—that neat relation may no longer hold. and so has recommended to the government an amnesty policy. Clubs in one region. [Recognize Factors that Strengthen or Weaken a Statement/Claim/Argument/Conclusion] 1. The definition of gross enrolment ratio does not exclude. had significantly lower wage bills than their counterparts in another region which had predominantly white players. 4. clubs that spend more should finish higher. 3. 6   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. 3. The pressure on Italy’s 257 jails has been increasing rapidly. if players’ salaries were to be only based on their abilities. Demographic surveys show shifts in the population profile which indicate that the number of children in the age group 6 to 10 years is declining. would have most influenced the recommendation of the minister? 1. the gross enrolment ratios at the primary level. He concludes that certain clubs seem to have achieved much less than what they could have. The opposition may be persuaded to help since amnesties must be approved by a two-thirds majority in parliament. in its numerator. 2. 2. Their jails are old and overcrowded. Thus. if true. The minister in charge of prisons fears that tensions may snap. A school attendance study found that many children enrolled in the school records were not meeting a minimum attendance requirement of 80 percent. During the study period.     [CAT]       TYPE 3: Critical Reasoning (Miscellaneous) Directions for Questions 1 to 23: There are short passages given below. 3. Which one of the following. Shortly before the recommendation was made. in many cases they were way above 100 percent! These figures are not worth anything. 2. Which one of the following findings would best support Szymanski’s conclusion? 1. 58 prisons reported disturbances in a period of two weeks. since they are based on the official enrolment data compiled from school records. 3. 4. Read each of the passages and answer the question that follows it. 4. clubs in towns with a history of discrimination against blacks under-performed relative to their wage bills. A study estimated that close to 22 percent of children enrolled in the class one records were below 6 years of age and still to start going to school. the number of children enrolled in classes one to five as a proportion of all children aged 6 to 10. which had higher proportions of black players. the Pope.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . by not recruiting black players.000 people—9. Szymanski suggests that the problem of racism in football may be present even today. They are supposed to hold up to 43. Clubs hired white players at relatively high wages and did not show proportionately good performance. The number of foreigners inside jails has also been increasing. They might as well stand for ‘gross exaggeration ratios’.000 fewer than now. Which one of the following options best supports the claim that the ratios are exaggerated? 1.800 inmates is designed for 800. that is. Opinion polls have indicated that many Italians favour a general pardon. children below 6 years or above 10 years enrolled in classes one to five. 2. In a recent report. whose pronouncements are taken seriously. were shown to be very high for most states. He begins by verifying an earlier hypothesis that clubs’ wage bills explain 90% of their performance.

A study that shows that air travellers in India are price-conscious. most weakens the author’s contention that it is doubtful whether the offer will be actually implemented? 1. Increase in profitability of the three airlines 2. Although in the limited sense of freedom regarding appointments and internal working. The investible income of the working population. Developed countries have made adequate provisions for social security for senior citizens. In India. 3. 7   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. A study that shows that as much as 80% of air travel in India is company-sponsored. academic and government circles alike. Many small-scale and joint-sector units have completed trials to use the three iodisation methods for regular production. The government proposes to save on costs by using the three methods it has already devised for iodisation. if true. would add credence to the general belief? 1. 2. To increase the number of seats sold. But it is doubtful whether the offer will actually be implemented. Which one of the following. there will be a revival of the joint family system. 4. The chain of fair-price distribution outlets now covers all the districts of the state. 5. 4. if true. Government has repeatedly restored to monetisation of the debt despite the reservations of the Central Bank. The insurance sector is underdeveloped and trends indicate that it will be extensively privatized in the future. So. especially since the government seems to be so concerned about the ill effects of non-iodised salt. 2.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . 7.     [CAT]       4. The role of the Central Bank has turned out to be subordinate and advisory in nature. weakens the conclusion drawn in the above passage the most? 1. 2. The offer of the government to make iodised salt available at a low price of one rupee per kilo is welcome. The government which initiated the earlier effort is in place even today and has more information on the effects of noniodised salt. 3. If the working population builds a stronger financial base. The general belief was that the volume of air travel between Delhi and Mumbai would increase as a result. 3. 3. Which one of the following best supports the conclusion drawn in the passage? 1. if it were to happen. Which one of the following. the government. JA and SA—operate on the Delhi-Mumbai route. Three airlines—IA. Way back in 1994. But these reports have remained just those—reports on paper. it is advisable that the working population gives serious thought to building a financial base for itself. as a proportion of its total income. India is on a path of development that will take it to a developed country status. with the collapse of the joint family system. the traditional shelter of the elderly has disappeared. State insurers (as well as private ones) offer medicare and pension benefits to people who can no longer earn. The inability to remove coin shortage was a major shortcoming of this government. had prepared reports outlining three new and simple but experimental methods for reducing the costs of iodisation to about five paise per kilo. with all its positive and negative implications. Which of the following. the same cannot be said of its right to pursue monetary policy without co-ordination with the central government. in an earlier effort. The Central Bank does not need the central government’s nod for replacing soiled currency notes. Extension of the discount scheme to other routes. 4. And a State faced with a financial crunch is not in a position to provide social security. will grow in the future. 6. SA reduced its fares and this was emulated by IA and JA immediately. A decision of the chairman of the Central Bank to increase the bank rate by two percentage points sent shock-waves in industry. the independence of the Central Bank is unequivocally ensured. 4.

2. it may be surmised that. 9.   [CAT]     Various studies have shown that our forested and hilly regions and. 2. if true. 2. An increase in duties on non-cigarette tobacco may lead to a shift in favour of cigarette smoking.58%. 3. Human systems. at low levels of poverty. Cigarettes constitute a mere 20% of tobacco consumption in India. educational performance is seen to be good. 4. The increase over the previous year’s production of 5830 tonnes was 38. can be said to best provide supporting evidence for the surmise mentioned in the passage? 1. The sensitivity of the crop to climatic factors makes predictions about production uncertain. Human beings can colonize other planetary systems on a regular and on-going basis to accommodate a growing population. The capacity of the planet to feed a growing human population can be enhanced through biotechnological means. when poverty levels are high. The potential of productivity enhancing measures implemented up to now has been exhausted. It is now our endeavour to reach the target of 10000 tonnes in the year 2001-02. richness in biodiversity goes hand in hand with educational backwardness. The company’s coffee crop for 1998-99 totalled 8079 tonnes. thanks to the emphasis laid on the key areas of irrigation. even disregarding poverty status. 10. Therefore. Regions which show high biodiversity reveal high levels of poverty and poor educational performance. predicted that the planet would not be able to support the human population for long. replacement of unproductive coffee bushes. educational performance is seen to be as good as in regions with high variety in flora. 4. and reducing taxes will expand this base. the British clergyman turned economist. while the food supply grows only at an arithmetic rate.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . There is a likelihood that tobacco consumers will shift to cigarette smoking if cigarette prices were to reduce. Yet these 15% contribute nearly 90% of the tax revenues to the Exchequer from the tobacco sector. The punitive cigarette taxation regime has kept the tax base narrow. an all time record. 4. Which one of the following would contribute most to making the target of 10000 tonnes in 2001-02 unrealistic? 1. at all levels of poverty. and fewer than 15% of the 200 million tobacco users consume cigarettes. In regions where there is low biodiversity. and this has been achieved two years earlier. The previous highest crop was 6089 tonnes in 1970-71. and will remain unchanged. [Recognize Factors that Strengthen or Weaken the 8 Prospects of Success of a Plan/Course of Action]   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. The company had fixed a target of 8000 tonnes to be realized by the year 2000-01. The total company land under coffee has remained constant since 1969 when an estate in the Nilgiri Hills was acquired. 3. The target-setting procedures in the company have been proved to be sound by the achievement of the 8000 tonnes target. Regions which show high biodiversity also exhibit poor educational performance.     8. follow natural laws of growth which have remained constant. And these same areas are also the ones where educational performance seems to be poor. Thomas Malthus. His explanation was that human population grows at a geometric rate. intensive refilling and improved agricultural practices. The cigarette manufacturers’ association has decided to indulge in aggressive promotion. areas where biodiversity—as reflected in the variety of flora—is high. In regions where there is little variety in flora. if true. Which one of the following best bolsters the conclusion that reducing duties will expand the tax base? 1. 2. Which one of the following statements. are the places where poverty appears to be high. The cigarette manufacturers are lobbying for a reduction on duties. 3. would not undermine the thesis offered by Malthus? 1. and natural systems like food supply. Which one of the following. 4. 3. Population growth can be slowed down by the voluntary choices of individuals and not just by natural disasters. in general. 11.

After the victory. under which odd and even plates were banned in the city on alternate days.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . too. The problem of traffic congestion in Athens has been testing the ingenuity of politicians and town planners for years. however. Which one of the following options. rotund. Prices of imported beef have been increasing. the new mayor got busy introducing many schemes. 2. The Golmal party made only mild protests but refrained from tabling a serious no-confidence motion in the council which it could have won by obtaining the support of the independent members. The large wingspan enables deaf moths to better receive and sense the pulses of their bat predators. The inability to cross breed native cattle with improved varieties has not increased production to adequate levels. 15. In the mid-1990s. if true. Most local meat packers and processors are in financial trouble. The Kolahal party had to fight the Golmal party bitterly to win the mayoral elections. But the remaining 4% do not have ears and are deaf. both liked and not liked by the public. Deaf moths are faster than hearing moths. Deaf moths may try to avoid bats by frequent changes in their flight direction. and recent years have seen a string of plant closures. But the measures adopted to date have not succeeded in decreasing the number of cars on the road in the city centre. 4. plate-filling” steaks. healthy. Animal rights pressure groups have come up rapidly. many families seized the opportunity to sell their more than 15 year-old cars and buy ‘clean’ cars from the open market. 9   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. the only condition being that the buyer of such a ‘clean’ car offered for destruction a car at least 15 years old. would best support the claim that the measures adopted to date have not succeeded? 1. Which one of the following can be best inferred from the above passage? 1. emit. would contribute most to a failure of the campaign? 1. prices fell by over a third last year. an odds and evens number-plate legislation was introduced. A higher proportion of deaf moths than hearing moths fall prey to bats. and so are less prone to becoming a bat’s dinner than hearing moths. substantially reducing import taxes on cars with catalytic converters. their predators. Which one of the following. demanding better and humane treatment of farmyard animals like beef cattle. One of the main features of its campaign was that it would make public all the papers related to a scandal during the regime of the Golmal party. Argentina’s beef cattle herd has dropped to under 50 million from 57 million ten years ago in 1990. thus making locally grown beef more competitive in terms of pricing. if true. [Evaluate Inferences] 14. 2. All of the above. 4. 3. In 1980. The animals are worth less. However. 4. a regulation had just then been introduced. 3. There has been a change in consumer preference towards eating leaner meats like chicken and fish. before recovering slightly. and also have higher wingloadings—the ratio between a wing’s area and its weight—meaning higher manoeuvrability. even if it meant forgoing the import tax subsidy. About 96% of Scandinavian moths have ears tuned to the ultrasonic pulses that bats. many families found it feasible to become first-time car owners by buying a car more than 15 years old and turning it in for a new car with catalytic converters. The Beef Producers’ Association has now come up with a massive advertisement campaign calling upon Argentines to eat more beef—their “juicy. 13. Then in 1993 it was decreed that all cars in use in the city centre must be fitted with catalytic converters.     [CAT]       12. Post-1993. In the 1980s. 2. thereby expecting to halve the number of cars in the city centre. 3. they have a larger wingspan than the hearing moths. many families purchased second cars with the requisite odd or even number plate.

Cellular phone service providers have found that their profits are much less than they expected—in fact in most cases they are losing money. groups or coalitions in an organisation pursue their own interests. the entire on-line capacity was sold out. 3. The papers mentioned in the election campaign are prepared and ready. 16. implies that the Kolahal party is blackmailing the Golmal party? 1. At a movie theatre in Bangalore. making the rationality of the overall organisation no more than an elusive ideal. Beneath the collective irrationality. one can never have an organisation that behaves rationally. If that is so. 4. Since people are essentially irrational. groups and coalitions in the organisation may be rational. As individuals. Sophisticated software has been installed for continuous monitoring of stock prices. Organisations are often defined as groups of people who come together to pursue a common goal. Paging services have eaten into the revenue of the cellular services. 19. Cellular phone services are being provided by two companies in each telecom circle. last year.     [CAT]       Which of the following statements. If all employees of an organisation pursue their individual goals. however. 2. 2. if true. 2. These companies were awarded the contracts based on the licence fees they agreed to pay the government and were selected on a competitive basis. the proprietor decided to sell about one-third of his total balcony capacity on the internet. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage? 1. The operators can drive stock prices crazy irrespective of the kind of software installed. 10   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. there are at least 2 million educated and well-heeled consumers in India who are ordering everything from cinema tickets to paan and tennis racquets to shirts from the comfort of their offices or homes. 4. surveillance isn’t difficult any more. Cellular service providers have been unable to match performance to plan. groups and coalitions directly involved. 17. 4. All the cellular phone service providers have been operating inefficiently. People complained about collusion between the two parties. 3. the conceptual issues of rational behaviour get blurred. Having the infrastructure in place is one thing. 3. how could the unnatural spurt in prices of operatordriven stock go unnoticed? There does not seem to be regular checks or supervision. Nobody can ever predict how stock prices move in the market. Independent members were not keen on supporting the Golmal party. 4. But more often than not. organisations are often operating in a way that is eminently rational from the standpoint of the individuals.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . The government was wrong in allowing private provision of cellular services. Today. but proper utilisation is another. BSE officials point out that ever since on-line trading took off. Some members of the public disliked the reforms made by the new mayor. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage? 1. 18. 2. goals diverge as much as they converge. The software used at BSE is not as sophisticated as it is claimed to be. On every new release. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage? 1. There is a growing breed of computer-savvy consumers in Bangalore. Although conceptually an organisation may appear to be irrational—behaviours of individuals. The response was tremendous. 3. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage? 1. the ideal of building a rational organisation is elusive.

and it languishes and soon dies. not necessarily a white one. According to McNeill. Elephants and beavers are smarter than bees and ants in the presence of human beings. in general. 11   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. Reciting the Vedas was a Brahmin’s obligation. It must have helped in the dissemination of the work. It is more comfortable to purchase movie tickets through the internet. It becomes the most stupid insect imaginable. and a single bee or ant seems destitute of every degree of industry. was a symbol of sovereign political authority. are unable to function effectively outside their normal social environment. over the head of Lord Ram. 20. the Mohammedan sultans and Chatrapati Shivaji. 2. despite their lack of industry upon separation. The white umbrella symbol is of great antiquity and its varied use illustrates the ultimate common basis of non-theocratic nature of states in the Indian tradition. 3. 3. Vedic hymns had not been scripted. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage? 1. decide to sell all the balcony tickets through the internet. although not necessarily a white one. 4. 3. 2. 21. The Vedic priest was like a recorded audio cassette. It must have had a selective effect. Among insects. 4. Elephants and beavers show the greatest signs of this sagacity when they are together in large numbers. The umbrella. The ruler so inaugurated was regarded not as a temporal autocrat but as the instrument of protective and sheltering firmament of supreme law. 3. Animals in general are shrewd in proportion as they cultivate society. McNeill studied the behaviour of Brahmin priests. since a memorized passage can be duplicated many times. the umbrella is found. The Shveta-chattra or the “White Umbrella” was a symbol of sovereign political authority placed over the monarch’s head at the time of coronation. Humankind is responsible for the destruction of the natural habitat of animals and insects. The proprietor of the theatre can profitably. 4. the labours of the bee and the ant have attracted the attention and admiration of naturalists. since priests would have been recruited from those able or willing to memorize long passages. The white umbrella represented the instrument of firmament of the supreme law and the non-theocratic nature of Indian states. Animals.     [CAT]       2. but all their sagacity seems to be lost upon separation. Naturalists have great admiration for bees and ants. a Brahmin priest was expected to be able to recite at least one of the Vedas. 2. Which one of the following best summarises the above passage? 1. [Summary of a Passage] 22. As such. The practice was essential for several centuries when the Vedas had not yet been written down. but when man invades their communities they lose all their spirit of industry. A retailing revolution is underway in India with the advent of the internet. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage? 1. 4. The varied use of the umbrella symbolised the common basis of the non-theocratic nature of states in the Indian tradition.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . The placing of an umbrella over the ruler’s head was a common practice in the Indian subcontinent.

sleep late and rise early. Second. entertain women. 25. in a parlour game played for money. Friedman illustrates two distinct features of these games. In a game of chess. 4. 3. He tends to 1. A national level essay writing competition. He is eager to offer services which are not wanted but which cannot be politely refused. bring a higher bidder to a salesman who has just closed a deal. Unseasonableness is a tendency to do socially permissible things at the wrong time. He asks a man who has just lost money by paying a bill for a friend to pay a bill for him. 4. __________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. The unseasonable man tends to 1. sing the praises of the bride when he goes to a wedding. ‘patience’ or ‘solitaire’ is played only against chance.     [CAT]       [Application-based Questions] 23. be a successful arbitrator when dissenting parties are anxious to agree. who were really anxious to agree. 24. Everest for the first time in human history. these games are games involving a strategy. 2. If he is present at an arbitration. indicate which of the statements given with that particular question is consistent with the description of the unseasonable man in the passage below. Oil Exporters’ Union deciding on world oil prices. 3. 2. if one wins the other (others) loses (lose). First. The team of Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary climbing Mt. he stirs up dissension between the two parties. 3. He serenades his beloved when she is ill. a player tries to guess how his/her opponent will react to the various actions he or she might take. A decisive war between the armed forces of India and Pakistan over Kashmir.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . 4. DIRECTIONS for Questions 24 and 25: For each of the two questions. The theory of games is suggested to some extent by parlour games such as chess and bridge. disclose confidential information to others. completely disregarding the countries which have at most minimal oil production. He invites a friend to go for a ride just after the friend has finished a long car trip. Such is the unseasonable man. The unseasonable man is the sort of person who comes to confide in you when you are busy. 2. the card-pastime. In contrast. Which one of the following can best be described as a “game?” 1. while choosing what action is to be taken. tell a long story to people who have heard it many times before. be helpful when solicited.

(3) (1) 2. (3) TYPE 3: Critical Reasoning (Miscellaneous) 1. 7. (4) (2) 5. (4) (4) (4) (4) (3) 4.     [CAT]       ANSWER KEY TYPE 1: Logical Completion of a Paragraph 1. (1) (2) 3. (2) (2) 4. 25. 22. (1) (4) 5. (3) (3) (1) (3) (2) 2. (5) TYPE 2: Summary of a Passage 1. 8. 24. 18. 13. 8. (1) (4) 3. 9. 21. 17. 11. 23. 19. (2) (3) (1) (2) (1) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13   Byju’s  Classes|  India’s  Most  Liked  Education  Company  with  2. 8. 20. 14. 7. 9. (2) (3) (1) (2) (4) 3. (2) (1) 2.75  lakh+  likes  on      |  98800  31619   . 10. 6. 12. 15. 6. 6. 9. 7. (3) (2) (2) (3) (4) 5. (2) (3) 4. 16.