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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –

TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), pp. 740-753 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.html Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET

© I A E M E

by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E EFFECT OF WATER DEPTH AND STILL

EFFECT OF WATER DEPTH AND STILL ORIENTATION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF PASSIVE SOLAR STILL

Ajeet Kumar RAI*, Ashish KUMAR, Vinod Kumar VERMA Department of Mechanical Engineering & Applied Mechanics, SHIATS-DU, Allahabad 211007, India *Email: raiajeet@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT In this communication, an attempt has been made to study the effect of parametric variations on the performance of a passive solar distillation system. A double slope solar still was fabricated and investigations were carried out under the open environment of Allahabad, India. Experiments were conducted by varying water depth in the basin as 1.5 cm, 2.5 cm and 3.5 cm and for two different still orientations. The heat transfer coefficients are evaluated and their variation is studied. Results show a gain of 60 to 65% in distillate output when the still was oriented towards North-South direction. A maximum loss of 43% has been observed when the basin water depth was increased from 2.5 cm to 3.5 cm. Key words: Solar distillation, Double slope solar still, Heat transfer coefficients

.

1. INTRODUCTION

Water is the fundamental source for the survival of mankind but it’s not available in the ready to use form. According to the study made by the World Health Organization, polluted water and sanitation deficiency are the cause of 80% of all the diseases which make a person unfit, temporarily or even permanent. It has been estimated that around 500 million people in the developing countries suffer from diseases produced by water [1]. Thus an effective harnessing system is required to produce the water in consumable form. It is the Salinity of water which makes desalination an important phenomenon. One can opt for any process available for the same purpose. Out of those various processes here passive solar distillation method, being cost effective and eco friendly, has been exercised on.

In open environment solar still has to work under some parameters which tremendously affect its performance and productivity. These parameters can be divided in two categories, metrological parameters and non-metrological parameters. The former one, which cannot be controlled by human efforts, constitutes with solar intensity, wind velocity and ambient temperature whereas the later one, also known as controllable parameters, counts for water-glass temperature difference, free surface area of water, absorber plate area, temperature of inlet water, glass angle, still orientation and depth of water. In

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

the present work, still orientation and depth of water has been selected as the variables for productivity analysis.

The performance prediction of a solar distillation unit mainly depends on accurate estimation of the basic internal heat and mass transfer relations. The oldest semi-empirical heat and mass transfer relation was given by Dunkle[2]. To predict the hourly and daily distillate output from different designs of solar distillation, numerous empirical relations were developed later on. Most of these relations are based on simulation studies. Malik et al.[3] has considered the values of C=0.075 & n=0.33 for Gr > 3.2x10 5 ,as proposed by Dunkle. However, the relation developed by Dunkle has the following limitations:

a) It is valid for a low operating temperature range (45-50 0 C).

b) It is independent of the cavity volume, i.e. the average spacing between the condensing and

evaporative surfaces.

c) It is valid for cavities that have parallel condensing and evaporative surfaces.

Lof et. al[4] have analyzed heat and mass transfer of a solar still in detail and studied the effect of various design parameter and climatic variables on the performance of solar still. Numerical solution of the heat balance equations were obtained with the aid of a digital computer. Morse et a[5]l included the thermal capacity of the system and accordingly carried out a transient analysis. They have expressed various heat fluxes as the functions of the glass cover temperature. Thus the glass temperature has been obtained by a graphical solution. Kumar et al[6] has done thermal and computer modeling for determining heat and mass transfer coefficient namely C and n for different type of solar still. Sharma et al[7] developed a method for estimation of heat transfer coefficients upward heat flow and evaporation in still. Calculation of hourly output was done with a new approach. It was observed that the performance of solar still has an agreement with the result of an analysis based on Dunkle’s relation with a factor of 0.65 to account for instauration.

Shukla et al[8] has recently developed a model, based on regression analysis, to determine the values of C and n using the experimental data obtained from the stills. This method uses both inner and outer glass cover temperatures to determine the expressions for internal heat transfer coefficient and does not impose any limitations.

Singh and Tiwari[9] found that the annual yield of the solar still was maximum when the condensing glass cover inclination was equal to the latitude of the place. The effect of varying water depths of water in the solar still is verified by Khalifa and Hamood[10]. Rubio-Cerda et al studied performance of the condensing covers under two still orientation, east-west and north-south[*****].Their results showed larger difference in the condenser’s temperature and higher productivity when the still covers were facing east-west.

In this paper an attempt has been made to find the most suitable water depth and still orientation for maximum yield from a double slope solar still. The convective and evaporative heat transfer relations are also determined for three different water depths of 0.015m, 0.025m and 0.035m and different orientations for a fixed inclination of 26 0 at Allahabad in summer climatic conditions. The values of C and n are determined by the model proposed by Shukla and Rai[11]. The modified Nusselt number has been obtained by regression analysis.

2. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP AND PROCEDURE

2.1 Set-up

Figure 2.1 shows the photograph and schematic diagram of a double slope solar still. The experimental setup consists of a passive solar distillation unit with a glazing glass cover inclined at 26 0 having an area

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

of

0.048m x 0.096 m. This tilted glass cover of 3 mm thickness, served as solar energy transmitter as well

as

a condensing surface for the vapor generated in the basin. Glass basin, made up of Galvanized Iron, has

an effective area of 0.72 m 2 . The basin of the distiller was blackened to increase the solar energy absorption. A distillate channel was provided at each end of the basin. For the collection of distillate output, a hole was drilled in each of the channels and plastic pipes were fixed through them with an adhesive (Araldite). An inlet pipe and outlet pipe was provided at the top of the side wall of the still and at the bottom of the basin tray for feeding saline water into the basin and draining water from still for cleaning purpose, respectively. Rubber gasket was fixed all along the edges of the still. All these arrangements are made to make the still air tight. Water gets evaporated and condensed on the inner surface of glass cover. It runs down the lower edge of the glass cover. The distillate was collected in a bottle and then measured by a graduated cylinder. The system has the capability to collect distillates from two sides of the still (i.e. East & West sides and North & South sides). Thermocouples were located in different places of the still. They record different temperature, such as inside glass cover & water temperature in the basin and ambient temperature. In order to study the effect of salinity of the water locally available, table salt was used at various salinities. All experimental data are used to obtain the internal heat and mass transfer coefficient for double slope solar still.

2.2

Procedure

The experiments were conducted on different days in the campus of Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture and Sciences Deemed University, Allahabad, India for three different water depths and two different orientations. All experiments were started at 09:00 hours by local time and lasted for 8 hours. Prior to start with the next depth, the still was left idle minimum for a period of one day and the same procedure was adopted for all three water depths. The following parameters were measured hourly for a period of 8 hours.

Inner glass temperature

Vapor temperature

Water temperature

Ambient temperature

Distillate output

Solar intensity

Water, glass and vapor temperatures were recorded with the help of calibrated copper constant thermocouples and a digital temperature indicator having a least count of 1 0 C. The ambient temperature is measured by a calibrated mercury (ZEAL) thermometer having a least count 1 0 C. The distillate output was recorded with the help of a measuring cylinder of least count 1 ml. The solar intensity was measured with the help of calibrated solarimeter of a least count of 2mW/cm 2 . The hourly variation of all above mentioned parameters were used to evaluate average values of each for further numerical computation.

A Turbo C++ program was used to calculate the values of h cw , h ew and the values as proposed by Dunkle.

The hourly difference in water and inner glass temperature, i.e. T is also shown in figs for all concerned water depth. It is explicit that the fluctuation in water temperature decreases with increase of water depths due to storage effect as expected. Further the maximum of this temperature shifted to later hours for higher depths.

3. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

Convective heat transfer is given by:

Q cw =h cw .A.(T w -T g )

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(3.1)

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Where h cw is convective heat transfer coefficient. Since the convection inside the solar still is only due to the difference in temperatures between the water surface and the condensing cover, so this falls under the category of free convection. So h cw can be determined by:

Nu=h cw *L v / λ= C(Gr.Pr) n

(3.2)

Or, h cw =k.C.(Gr.Pr) n /L v

(3.3)

Gr=βgρ 2 L v 3 T/µ 2

(3.4)

Pr=µC p /λ

(3.5)

The unknowns C and n constants, given in Eq.(3.2) can be determined by regression analysis using experimental data and following the Shukla and Rai model (2008).

Convective heat transfer coefficient can also be calculated by a relation as proposed by Dunkle:

h cw =.884[(T w -T g )+(P w -P g )(T w +273)/268.9x10 3 -P w ] 1/3

(3.6)

Evaporative heat transfer is given by:

Q ew =h ew .A.(T w -T g )

(3.7)

Where h ew is known as evaporative heat transfer coefficient. It can be evaluated as:

h ew =Q ew /(T w -T g )

(3.8)

Alternatively,

h ew =.01623.h cw .(P w -P g )/(T w -T g )

(3.9)

It is worth mentioning here that only evaporative heat transfer causes and contributes to water distillation. Thus mass of water distilled can be calculated by knowing the evaporative heat transfer rates:

m ew = Q ew .A.t/h v

from eq (3.3), (3.7) and (3.9);

m ew =.01623.λ.A.t.(P w -P g ).C(Gr.Pr) n /h v .L v

eq (3.11) can be rewritten as :

m ew =R.C(Gr.Pr)

or, m ew /R=C(Gr.Pr)

where,

n

n

R=.01623.λ.A.t.(P w -P g )/ h v .L v

(3.10)

(3.11)

(3.12)

(3.13)

(3.14)

Taking the logarithm to both sides of eq. (3.13) and comparing it with the straight line equation,

y=mx+c

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(3.15)

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

We get,

y= ln(m ew /R), C o =lnC, x=ln(Gr.Pr) and m=n

(3.16)

By using linear regression analysis, the coefficient in eq(3.15); m, and C o can be obtained by the following expression:

=

=

Where N is number of experimental observations for steady state condition and become N+1 in quasi steady condition as in the case of this experiment.

The constant m and C o can be evaluated with the help of eq. (3.17) and (3.18). Further, the value of m and C o is used evaluate constants C and n by using following eqs:

C= exp(C o )

(3.19)

n=m

(3.20)

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 4.1 shows the daily yield on different water depths and still orientations. It is evident from the graph that higher yield is obtained when still was placed in North-South direction. Again, graph depicts that the lowest yield is obtained at the maximum selected depth of 0.035m in both the orientations of still. The overall higher yield is obtained for 0.025m of water depth while still was oriented towards North- South direction. For water depth of 0.015 m a 65.05% rise in yield is recorded when the still is oriented in North-South direction to that of East-West direction. Again, for water depth 0.025m a rise in yield is recorded as 65.40% in North-South orientation of still as compared to the East-West orientation. This gain is reduced to 59.36% when the depth is increased to 0.035m. The effect of orientation is found to be minimal for higher water depth.

Variation of daily yield 1.4 Mew (E-W) Mew (N-S) 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
Variation of daily yield
1.4
Mew (E-W)
Mew (N-S)
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.015
0.025
0.035
Day Hours
Daily yield (Kg)

Fig: 4.1 Variation of daily yield with respect to all water depth and both orientations.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Heat transfer between the water and the glass cover also depends on their temperature difference. Figure 4.2 shows variation in glass surface temperature for different depth of the basin water and for different orientations of the still (East-West and North-South). It is evident from graphs that higher temperature is attained by the glass cover facing sunrays directly. East facing glass, when still was oriented towards North-South direction, attains maximum temperature where as the south facing glass of East-West oriented still has the maximum temperature throughout the day.

DPW=0.015m 60 50 40 30 Tg(s) Tg(N) 20 Tg(W) 10 Tg(E) 0 10 11 12
DPW=0.015m
60
50
40
30
Tg(s)
Tg(N)
20
Tg(W)
10
Tg(E)
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Glass Temp.(0C)
DPW=0.035M 60 50 40 30 Tg(S) 20 Tg(N) Tg(W) 10 Tg(E) 0 10 11 12
DPW=0.035M
60
50
40
30
Tg(S)
20
Tg(N)
Tg(W)
10
Tg(E)
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Glass Temp. (oC)
DPW=0.025m 70 60 50 40 Tg(S) 30 Tg(N) 20 Tg(W) 10 0 Tg(E) 10 11
DPW=0.025m
70
60
50
40
Tg(S)
30
Tg(N)
20
Tg(W)
10
0
Tg(E)
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Glass Temp. (0C)

Fig: 4.2 variations in glass temperature for various water depths.

Figure 4.3 depicts variation in the difference of water and glass temperature throughout the day for all water depths under consideration. This difference is the main driving potential to cause evaporation, so the higher the difference the better is productivity of still. From figure, it is clear that the west and north

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

facing glasses have maximum T, but since it is not the only factor responsible for heat transfer rate, the heat transfer coefficients are also important for the same basin area.

Still Axis: East-West South,DPW=.015m 12 North,DPW=.015m South, DPW=.025m 10 North DPW=.025m South,Dpw=.035m 8
Still Axis: East-West
South,DPW=.015m
12
North,DPW=.015m
South, DPW=.025m
10
North DPW=.025m
South,Dpw=.035m
8
North,DPW=.035m
6
4
2
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Tw-Tg (0C)
Still Axis: North-South West DPW=.015m 9 East DPW=.015m 8 West DPW=.025m East DPW=.025m 7 West
Still Axis: North-South
West DPW=.015m
9
East DPW=.015m
8
West DPW=.025m
East DPW=.025m
7
West DPW=.035m
6
East DPW=.035m
5
4
3
2
1
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Tw-Tg (0C)

Fig: 4.3 Variation in difference between water and glass temperature for different water depth and different still orientation.

Figure 4.4a to 4.4c show the variation of convective heat transfer coefficient obtained from present model and Dunkle model, these differences are because of assumptions made by Dunkle. Maximum values of the convective heat transfer coefficient were obtained for 0.015 m of basin water depth when the still is oriented towards North-South. Deviation of convective heat transfer coefficient obtained from present model to Dunkle model is found to be higher in case of the still oriented in North-South direction. The maximum variation of h cw obtained from present model and that of Dunkle’s for 0.015 m water depth and East-West orientation is 47.61 % where as for North-South orientation and same depth, maximum variation is 79.18%. For 0.025 m water depth and East-West orientation is 53.57% whereas for North- South orientation, it is 70.45%. For 0.035 m water depth and East-West orientation is -11.70% whereas for North-South orientation, it is 47.30%.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Still Axis:East-West 3 hcw[PM] hcw[DUNKL] 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 10 11 12 13
Still Axis:East-West
3
hcw[PM]
hcw[DUNKL]
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Conv.H.T. Coeff. W/m 2 k
Still Axis: North-South 7 hcw[PM] hcw[DUNKL] 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 10 11
Still Axis: North-South
7
hcw[PM]
hcw[DUNKL]
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Axis Title
Conv.H.T.Coeff. W/m 2 k

Fig 4.4(a) Variation of convective heat transfer coefficient h cw for .015 m of water depth and both orientations.

Still Axis: East west hcw[PM] hcw[DUNKL] 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 10 11
Still Axis: East west
hcw[PM]
hcw[DUNKL]
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Conv. H.T. Coeff. W/m 2 k
Still axis: North-South 6 hcw[PM] hcw[DUNKL] 5 4 3 2 1 0 10 11 12
Still axis: North-South
6
hcw[PM]
hcw[DUNKL]
5
4
3
2
1
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day hours
COnv. H.T.Coeff. W/m 2 k

Fig: 4.4(b) Variation of convective heat transfer coefficient h cw for 0.025 m of water depth and both orientations.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Still Axis: East-West 2 hcw[PM] hcw{DUNKL] 1.5 1 0.5 0 10 11 12 13 14
Still Axis: East-West
2
hcw[PM]
hcw{DUNKL]
1.5
1
0.5
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Conv.H.T. Coeff. W/m 2 K
Still Axis: North-South hcw[PM] hcw[DUNKL] 4 3 2 1 0 10 11 12 13 14
Still Axis: North-South
hcw[PM]
hcw[DUNKL]
4
3
2
1
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
COnv.H.T.Coeff. W/m 2 K

Fig: 4.4(c) Variation of convective heat transfer coefficient h cw for 0.035 m of water depth and both orientations.

Figure 4.5(a) to 4.5(c) shows variation in the evaporative heat transfer between the water mass and the glass cover with time for different water depths and for different still orientations. It increases with time of heating and then starts decreasing as solar flux declines after a certain period of time. Maximum values of evaporative heat transfer coefficient was obtained at 0.015 m of water depth when still was oriented towards North-South direction. The trend of graph showcases higher values for the North-South orientation as compared to the East-West orientation of the still. The maximum variation of evaporative heat transfer coefficient obtained from present model and that of Dunkle’s for 0.015 m water depth and East-West orientation is 47.61 % where as for North-South orientation and same depth, maximum variation is 79.18%, for 0.025 m water depth and East-West orientation is 53.57% whereas for North- South orientation, it is 70.51%, for 0.035 m water depth and East-West orientation is -11.70% whereas for North-South orientation, it is 46.87%.

Still Axis: East-West 30 hew[PM] hew[DUNKL] 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 11 12
Still Axis: East-West
30
hew[PM]
hew[DUNKL]
25
20
15
10
5
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Evap.H.T.Coeff. W/m 2 K
Still Axis: North-South 90 hew[PM] hew[DUNKL] 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Still Axis: North-South
90
hew[PM]
hew[DUNKL]
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Evap.H.T.Coeff. W/m 2 K

Fig: 4.5(a) Variation of evaporative heat transfer coefficient h ew for 0.015 m of water depth and both orientations.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Still Axis: East-West 35 hew[PM] hew[DUNKL] 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 11
Still Axis: East-West
35
hew[PM]
hew[DUNKL]
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Evap.H.T.Coeff. W/m 2 K
Still Axis: North-South hew[PM] hew[DUNKL] 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Still Axis: North-South
hew[PM]
hew[DUNKL]
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Evap.H.T.COeff. W/m 2 K

Fig: 4.5(b) Variation of evaporative heat transfer coefficient h ew for 0.025m of water depth and for both orientations

Still Axis: East-West hew[PM] hew[DUNKL] 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 10
Still Axis: East-West
hew[PM]
hew[DUNKL]
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
10
11
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17
Day Hours
Evap.H.T.Coeff.W/m 2 K
Still Axis: North-South hew[PM] hew[DUNKL] 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 11
Still Axis: North-South
hew[PM]
hew[DUNKL]
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Evap.H.T.Coeff. W/m 2 K

Fig: 4.5(c) Variation of evaporative heat transfer coefficient h ew for 0.035m of water depth and for both orientations

The actual distillate collected during the experiment through the drainage channels at bottom of the two inclined glass covers of the solar still for various conditions have been plotted and shown in figure 4.6. From the graphs, it is clear that the output for the maximum depth is the lowest. The maximum distillate collected were .070 kg, .076 kg and .050 kg for the water depths of .015m, 0.025m and 0.035m, respectively at the East-West orientation of the still. However, it was .234 kg, .232 kg and 0.140 kg for water depths of 0.015m, 0.025m and 0.035m, respectively at the North-South orientation of still.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Still Axis: East-West DPW=.015m DPW=.025m DPW=.035m 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 10 11 12 13
Still Axis: East-West
DPW=.015m
DPW=.025m
DPW=.035m
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Measured distillate (Kg)
Still Axis: North-South DPW=.015m DPW=.025m DPW=.035m 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 10 11 12
Still Axis: North-South
DPW=.015m
DPW=.025m
DPW=.035m
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Measured distillate (Kg)

Fig 4.6 variation in the measured distillate output for different water depths and still orientation.

Still Axis: East-West DPW=.015m C 0.1 DPW=.015m M 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 10 11
Still Axis: East-West
DPW=.015m C
0.1
DPW=.015m M
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Distillate output (Kg)
Still Axis: North-South DPW=.015m c 0.25 DPW=.015m M 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 10 11
Still Axis: North-South
DPW=.015m c
0.25
DPW=.015m M
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Distillate output(Kg)

Fig: 4.7(a) Comparison of calculated and measured distillate output at 0.015m water depth.

Still Axis: East-West DPW=.025m C 0.1 DPW=.025m M 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 10 11
Still Axis: East-West
DPW=.025m C
0.1
DPW=.025m M
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Distillate output (Kg)
Still Axis: North-South DPW=.025m C 0.3 DPW=.025m M 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 10
Still Axis: North-South
DPW=.025m C
0.3
DPW=.025m M
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Distillate output(Kg)

Fig: 4.7(b) Comparison of calculated and measured distillate output at 0.025m water depth.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Still Axis: East-West DPW=.035m C 0.06 DPW=.035m M 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 10
Still Axis: East-West
DPW=.035m C
0.06
DPW=.035m M
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Distillate output (Kg)
Still Axis: North-South DPW=.035m C 0.15 DPW=.035m M 0.1 0.05 0 10 11 12 13
Still Axis: North-South
DPW=.035m C
0.15
DPW=.035m M
0.1
0.05
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Day Hours
Distillate output(Kg)

Fig: 4.7(c) Comparison of calculated and measured distillate output at 0.035 m water depth.

5. CONCLUSION

An experimental work has been conducted to find the effect of water depth and the axis orientation on the performance of double slope solar still. From the present study, it is concluded that the convective and

evaporative heat transfer coefficients are important for designing solar distillation systems and the effect of temperature difference between the evaporative and condensing surfaces is also important to optimize the operating temperature range. It is observed that the highest output is obtained at lower depth. Heat transfer coefficients obtained through the present model are approximately 80% higher than that of Dunkle’s while the still was oriented towards North-South whereas this reduces to a maximum value of

53% when the still was oriented towards East-West direction. The effect of orientation is found to be

reduced at higher depth.

Nomenclature

A

A w

C

C p

g

Gr

h

cw

h

L v

ew

m ew

Surface area (m 2 ) Evaporative surface area (m 2 )

Unknown constant in Nusselt number expression Specific heat (J/kg 0 C)

Acceleration due to gravity (m/s 2 ) Grashof number Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m 2 0 C) Evaporative heat transfer coefficient (W/m 2 0 C) Characteristic dimension of condensing cover (m) Distillate output (kg)

N Number of experimental observations for steady state condition

n

P g

Pr

P w

Q Rate of heat transfer by convection (W)

Unknown constant in Nusselt number expression Partial saturated vapor pressure at glass temperature (N/m 2 ) Prandtl Number Partial saturated vapor pressure at water temperature (N/m 2 )

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

q ew

t

T

T

T

g

v

w

Rate of evaporative heat transfer (W/m 2 )

Time (s) Glass temperature ( 0 C) Vapor temperature ( 0 C) Water temperature ( 0 C)

h v Enthalpy of evaporation of water (J/kg)

Greek Symbols

λ Thermal conductivity of the humid air (W/m 0 C)

µ Dynamic viscosity of humid air (N.S/m 2 )

ρ Density of humid air (kg/m 3 )

β Coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion (1/K)

REFERENCES

[1] Tiwari, G.N., Tiwari, A.(2007), Solar Distillation Practice for Water Desalination Systems, Anamaya,

New Delhi,.

[2] Dunkle, R.V.(1961), Solar water distillation: The roof type still and multiple effect diffusion still,

International Development in Heat Transfer, ASME, Proceedings of International Heat Transfer, Part v, University of Colorado, , pp.895. [3] Malik, M.A.S., et al. (1982), Solar Distillation, Pergamon Press Ltd, UK,.

[4] Lof,G.O.G., Eibling, J.A., Blomer, J.W. (1961), Energy Balances in Solar Distillation, J. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. 7, 4, pp.641. [5] Morse R.N. and Read W.R.W. (1968), A rational basis for the engineering development of the solar

still, Solar Energy 12: 5.

[6] Kumar, Sanjay and Tiwari, G.N.(1996), Estimation of Convective Mass Transfer in Solar Distillation System, Solar Energy, 57,459. [7] Sharma V.B. and Mullick S.C.(1991), Estimation of heat transfer coefficients, the upward heat flow and evaporation in a solar still, Transaction of the ASME 113,pp. 36-43. [8] Shukla S.K. and Sorayan V.P.S. (2005), Thermal modeling of solar stills: An experimental validation, Renewable Energy , 30, , pp 683-699. [9] Singh, H.N., Tiwari, G.N. (2004), Monthly Performance of Passive and Active Solar Stills for Different Indian Climatic Conditions, Desalination, 168, pp. 145-50. [10] Khalifa, A.J.N., Hamood, A.M. (2009), Verification of the Effect of Water Depth on the Performance of Basin Type Solar Still, Solar Energy, 83, pp. 1312-21. [11] Shukla, S.K., Rai, A.K. (2008), Analytical Thermal Modeling of Double Slope Solar Still by using Inner Glass Cover Temperature, Thermal Science, 12, pp. 139-52.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

AUTHORS ADDRESSES:

Ajeet Kumar Rai Department of Mechanical Engineering SHIATS-DU Post office - AAI (formerly AAI-DU), Allahabad PIN 211007 (UP) INDIA

Ashish Kumar Department of Mechanical Engineering SHIATS-DU Post office- AAI (formerly AAI-DU), Allahabad PIN 211007 (UP) INDIA

Vinod Kumar Verma Department of Mechanical Engineering SHIATS-DU Post office-AAI (formerly AAI-DU), Allahabad PIN 211007 (UP) INDIA

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