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International Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- March 2012

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY (IJBT)


(Print) (Online)

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IJBT
IAEME

Volume 1, Issue 1, January- March (2012), pp. 08-14 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijbt.html

A STUDY ON THE PRESENCE OF HEAVY METAL IN PERNA VIRIDIS (GREEN MUSSEL) AND WATER OF ENNORE ESTUARY, SOUTH EAST COAST OF INDIA
V Gayathri1, Research scholar, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 K Revathi2, Ethiraj College for Women, Egmore, Chennai

ABSTRACT
A study has been undertaken to find the influence of industrial effluents on the water and green mussels in ennore estuary. Ennore coast receives untreated/ treated effluents from Manali Industrial belt, which houses many chemical Industries. Green mussels have been effectively used as an indicator of marine pollution with reference to heavy metals . In this study heavy metals such as Cadmium, Copper, Zinc and Lead were analysed. Analysis of samples were done by ICP-AES. The highest concentration of heavy metals were recorded during post monsoon and summer . During premonsoon all the dissolved heavy metals exhibited minimum values. The observed order of abundance of metals during the present investigation in water is Cu<Zn<Pd<Cd and in Perna viridis the order is Zn<Cu<Pd<Cd. Key words: Green mussel, Heavy metal, Ennore estuary

INTRODUCTION
Heavy metals from natural and anthropogenic sources continuously enter the Ecosystems mainly through aquatic ecosystem. This indirectly affects the aquatic biota due to their toxicity. Many of the metals (Co ,Cu, Mn , Fe and Zn) are essential trace elements for aquatic organisms and are involved in biochemical processes such as enzyme activation (Leland and Kuwabara . ,1985 ). But mostly if these elements exceed the limit can cause toxic effects. The most basic property of heavy metal is that they are bioavailable and are indestructible having toxic effects on living organisms when they exceed a certain concentration limit (Ridgway and Shimmield ., 2002). Aquatic animal accumulate large quantities of xenobiotics and the accumulation depends upon the intake and elimination from their body ( Karadede H, oymsak S A and
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Department of Micro Biology, Ethiraj College for Women, Egmore, Chennai Department of Zoology, Ethiraj College for Women, Egmore, Chennai

International Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- March 2012

Unlu E 2004). Usually among aquatic animals the bivalves which are filter feeders have very good ability in accumulating large quantities of heavy metals and microbes mainly pathogens. The dumping of enormous of quantities of sewage and industrial effluents in to estuaries has resulted in a drastic reduction of shallow water fish populations, increased pollution and ecological imbalance resulting in the large scale is appearance of numerous flora and fauna ( Rajendran et al .,2004).Aquatic pollution started long back ,but intensified during the last few decades and now the situation has become alarming especially in India ( Girija et al ,2007) .The distribution of heavy metals in solution has widely been recognised as a major factor in the geochemical behaviour, transport and biological effects of these elements in natural waters ( Ananthan et al.,1992: Karthikeyan et al.,2004,2007). Ennore creek is situated in northeast coast of Chennai city, Tamilnadu India. Ennore comprises of lagoons, with salt marshes and backwaters, which are submerged under water during high tide and form an arm of the sea opening in to the Bay of Bengal. The total area of the creek is 2.25 sq km and is nearly 400 meter wide. Its channels connect it to the Pulicat lake to the north and to the Kortalaiyar river in the south ( Kannan et al., 2007).Ennore receives sewage from in and around Ennore area, Royapuram and industrial effluents from Manali. The dredging activities in Ennore area result in changes in the landscape, Sediment transport, and dust pollution to the coast by quarrying process .Bioaccumulation of heavy metals affect the organisms by accumulating in their tissues and are transferred to the next trophic level. The accumulated heavy metal becomes toxic when it crosses the permissible limit. Accumulation of heavy metal depends on various factors like concentration of metals in water and exposure period; although some other environmental factors such as salinity ,pH , hardness and temperature play significant roles in metal accumulation. (Blackmore and Wang ,2003).Mussels have been considered as potential biomonitor for metallic contamination in marine ecosystem (Jung and Zauke,2008 ). Exposure to heavy metals can also affect reproduction efficiency of aquatic biota and can lead to gradual extinction of their generations in polluted waters (Sridhara et al., 2008). Hence an study has been conducted to evaluate the heavy metals like Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in the tissues of Perna viridis and in the water.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Sample preparation for metal analysis The mussel tissue was weighed , dried at 60c in an oven until they reached a constant weight. The analysis of trace metals was carried out using the standard method ( Alam et al .,2002). All the reagents used are of analytical grade. The sample was digested with concentrated nitric acid. The samples were transferred to a clean beaker. Then 10ml of concentrated nitric acid was added and the sample was heated using a hot plate , continuing until every sample was completely digested. After cooling a further 10 ml of 1N nitric acid was added. The solution was then diluted and filtered through whatman filter paper or 0.45m nitrocellulose membrane filter. Determination of the elements in all samples was carried out by ICP-AES (optima 2100 DV, Perkin Elmer, USA).

International Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- March 2012

Analysis of water sample Water samples were filtered through 0.45m whatmann no.1 filter paper and then water sample was adjusted to pH 3.5 with HCl. The solution was transferred to a separatory funnel. 10ml of a freshly prepared 2% solution of amino-pyrolidine dithiocarbanate (APDC) was added and the mixture was shaken by a mechanical shaker, 20ml of methyl isobutyl ketone was added and the mixture was again shaken for 2 minutes. The phase was separated and analysed using ICP-AES (Optima 2100 DV, Perklin- Elmer ,USA). A blank determination was done using the same procedure but without water samples.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Table 1: Bioaccumalation of heavy metals (Cadmium, Zinc ,Lead, Copper and (ppm) in perna viridis from Ennore creek during pre monsoon, monsoon, post monsoon and summer S.No 1 2 3 4 Heavy metal Cd Zn Pb Cu Post Monsoon 0.0087 2.132 0.097 0.376 Summer 0.0065 0.054 Pre monsoon 0.0078 0.087 0.353 0.324 Monsoon 0.0056 0.084 0.347 0.364

Table 2: Bioaccumalation of heavy metal (Cadmium, Zinc ,Lead, Copper and (g/ml ) in water from Ennore creek during pre monsoon, monsoon, post monsoon and summer S.No 1 2 3 4 Heavy metal Cd Zn Pb Cu Post Monsoon 4.370 35.93 8.342 153.073 Summer 3.532 28.43 7.365 176.732 Pre monsoon 2.457 19.12 7.023 132.33 Monsoon 3.789 26.73 7.872 151.22

The result on heavy metals observed during present study in Ennore estuary (June 2009 to June 2010) is given in Table 1 and Table 2. The overall heavy metal accumulation can be presented in descending order as follows. In mussel sample Zn<Cu<Pd<Cd , In water sample Cu<Zn<Pd<Cd In the present study higher pollution of Copper and Zinc was found in Ennore area. Heavy metals were maximum during post monsoon and summer seasons followed by monsoon and minimum during pre monsoon season. In the Ennore seacoast the concentrations of metals were observed to be higher during summer than the monsoon. These seasonal low values may be attributed to fresh water input following rain as well as due to the
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International Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- March 2012

release of surplus water from the Poondi reservoir in to the sea, while the higher values in summer are due to the evaporation of water, raising metal concentrations. In an earlier study, lower metal concentrations were observed during winter and higher during the summer season. (Caccia and Millero,2003).Our study reveals high levels of Zinc and Lead compared to Copper and Cadmium. Concentrations of heavy metals were not uniform in water. Copper was high during summer season. Zinc, Cadmium and Lead were more in post monsoon season.Perna viridis accumulated heavy metal Zinc at maximum and heavy metal cadmium at minimum. The data obtained in the present study in green mussels shows that metal Zinc is accumulated in higher concentration than cadmium, Zinc, lead and Copper. And in water Copper is higher . There is no correlation between the metals from the present data.Some authors have sought to establish correlations between various metals but the scientific views and interpretations continue to be at variance (Bruland and Franks, 1983). Kang, Choi oh, Wright and Koh (1999) who worked on Asian periwinkle ( Littorina brevicula) noticed that certain toxic metals, Cadmium and Lead in the tissue reflected environmental levels ,Whereas Copper and Zinc were regulated by marine gastropods. This phenomenon was also seen in other species of the periwinkle by Young (1975) Bryan et al., 1983, Langston and Zhole (1986), Marigomiz and Ireland (1989,1990).Zinc is well regulated in crustaceans (Bryan,1967) with excess metals stored in the hepatopancreas or excreted. ( Colvocoresses and Lynch 1975).The total metabolic requirement for zinc in marine decapods crustaceans is 71 g/g dry weight (White and Rainbow,1985).Cadmium is a non essential element and is not well regulated in decapods crustaceans (Bryan ,1979; Rainbow,1985, Wong and Rainbow,1986).Metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn are essential metals as they play an important role in biological systems ,Hg, Cd and Pb are non- essential and are toxic too. Lead in water comes from industrial ,mines and smelter discharges before being deposited in the sediment sinks. Lead is also used in the production of lead acid batteries, solder, alloys ,cable sheathi ng, pigments, rust inhibitors, ammunition, glazes and plastic stabilizers. Prabhahar et al., (2010). Lead toxicity leads to anaemia both by impairment of haemo biosynthesis and acceleration of red blood cell destruction. The high metal concentration may be originated from anthropogenic sources such as waste incineration, vehicle operations, combustible consumptioned fertilizer use, Which likely come from the upper basin of the lotic system that flow in to the wetland .The great difference in metal concentration between low and high water period should be taken in to account when analysing contamination in waters .It is clear that water quality has seasonal variation, fact that should be considered where seafood plays an important role. Heavy metal in to coastal waters need to be examined for its impact on the ability of marine organisms to survive and reproduce. Evaluation of important and valuable mussels is necessary prior to the future development of industries or power plants near the marine environment. A realistic assessment of metals as toxicants in mans environment is essential to establish meaningful pollution guidelines.

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International Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- March 2012

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International Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- March 2012

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International Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- March 2012

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