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# ELECTRICITY& MAGNETISM Coulombs Law law that describes the force of attraction or repulsion between two charges is directly

y proportional to their strengths and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The basic law for interaction of charged bodies at rest. Coulombs first law of electrostatics law that describes the force of attraction or repulsion between two magnetic poles is directly proportional to their strengths. Coulombs second law of electrostatics law that describes the force of attraction or repulsion between poles is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Gausss Law The summation of the normal component of the electric field displacement E over any closed surface is directly proportional to the electric charge within the surface. Faradays Law States that the magnitude of the emf induced in a circuit is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux that cuts across it. Faradays first Law Electromotiveforce (emf) is induced whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux. Faradays second Law The magnitude of electromotiveforce (emf) s induced when a conductor cuts magnetic flux is directly proportional to its rate. Faradays Law In Electromagnetism, the law that determines the amount of induced voltage. Lenz Law In Electromagnetism, the law that determines the polarity of an induced voltage Lenz Law In all cases of electromagnetic induction, the current setup by an induced voltage tends to create flux whose direction opposes any change in the existing flux. Lenzs Law In electronics, an induced current will be in such a direction that its own magnetic field will oppose the magnetic fields that produce the same. Curies Law States that the magnetic susceptibilities of most paramagnetic substance are inversely proportional to their absolute temperature. Curie-Weiss Law relating between the magnetic and electric susceptibilities and the absolute temperatures which is followed by ferromagnets, antiferromagnets, non-polar ferroelectrics, paramagnts. Childs Law States that the current in a thermionic diode varies directly with the three-halves power of anode voltage and inversely with the square of the distance between the electrodes. Wiedemann-Franz Law - States that the ratio of the thermal conductivity to the electric conductivity is proportional to the absolute temperature for metal Amperes circuital Law A law establishing the fact that the algebraic sum of rises and drops of the mmf around a closed loop of a magnetic circuit is 0. Law of conservation of energy The net electric charge in an isolated system remains constant Wiegand effect The effect that describes the ability of a mechanically stressed ferromagnetic wire to recognize rapid switching of magnetization when subjected to a DC magnetic field. Hall effect small voltage is generated by a conductor with current in an external magnetic field. Used in the gaussmeter to measure flux density. Edison effect The emission of electrons from hot bodies Wall effect ionization by electrons liberated from the walls Bridgman effect phenomenon that when an electric current passes through an arisotropic crystal, there is an absorption or liberation of heat. Webers Theory of Magnetism Assumes that all magnetic substance is composed of tiny molecular magnets. Domain Theory theory based on the electron spin theory; If an atom has an equal number of electrons spinning in opposite directions, the magnetic field surrounding the electron cancel one another, the atom is unmagnetized. Ewings Theory of ferromagnetism assumes each atom is a permanent magnet which can turn freely about its center under the influence of applied fields and other magnets Exclusion Principle States that each electron in an atom must have a different set of quantum numbers. Pauli exclusion principle states that only two electrons with different spins are allowed to exist in a given orbit Hans Christian Oersted relationship between magnetism and electricity Michael Faraday theory of electromagnetic induction, 1891 James Clerk Maxwell electromagnetic theory of light, 1862 Andre Ampere current carrying conductor can attract & repel like magnet Kamerlingh Onnes Superconductivity, 1911 Self induced emf due to the change of its own flux linked with it Mutually induced emf to the changing current of another neighboring coil Statically induced emf conductor is stationary, magnetic field is moving Unit pole pole which when placed in air from a similar and equal pole repels it with force of 1/4piu newtons Magnetic pole the intensity of magnetic lines of force is maximum. North pole pole where magnetic lines of force are originating Diamagnetic permeability slightly less than that of free space Paramagnetic permeability slightly greater than that of free space Ferromagnetic have very high permeabilities Conductor valence electron less than 4 Semiconductor valence electron equal to 4 Insulator valence electron greater than 4 Metallic bond bonding of atoms that is due to the force of attraction between positive ions and a group of negative ions. Ionic bond formed when one or more electrons in the outermost energy orbit of an atom are transferred to another. Covalent bond formed when electrons in the outermost energy orbits of the atoms are shared between two or more electrons Van der Waals bond formed when there exist distant electronic interactions between charges present in the neighboring atoms Permalloy iron 22%, nickel 78% Hipernik iron 40%, nickel 60% Alnico aluminum, nickel, iron, cobalt, copper, titanium at 12 grades Manganin 84% copper, 12% manganese and 4% nickel Vector quantity Magnetic field intensity, field, magnetic intensity, electric flux density, electric field intensity Scalar quantity Electric potential, electric flux Insulator widest gap between valence band and the conduction band Conductor smallest gap between valence band and the conduction band Band gap difference in energy between the valence and conduction band Crystalline solids in which the position of atoms are predetermined Amorphous/Non-crystalline has no defined crystal structure Mica used as the insulating material or dielectric in an electric ion Glass has the highest dielectric strength Porcelain used as the dielectric material in high voltage transformers Quantum definite discrete amount of energy required to move an electron from a lower shell to a higher shell.

Amber means elektron in Greek Valence band series of energy levels containing the valence electron Plasma gases with charged particle Electric dipole a combination of two charges, with equal charge magnitude but opposite signs Keeper used to maintain strength of magnetic field Toroid an electromagnet with its core in the form of a close magnetic ring domain - A group of magnetically aligned atoms thermonic emission - Evaporation of electron from a heated surface Back emf - refers to the voltage opposing the applied emf Madelung constant factor used to correct for the electrostatic forces Magnetic material loss its ferromagnetic properties at a point called Curie temperature The dielectric constant of most materials lies between 1 and 10 1.15 to 1.25 is the usual value of leakage coefficient for electrical machines Current carriers in conductors are valence electrons Dielectric is another name for insulator RF current flow along the surface. Because of skin effect resistance is different for RF current then DC Steel is hard to magnetize because of its low permeability One of the common application of an air-cored choked is at Radio frequency Ohms law can be used only to a linear circuit or component Magnetic field around the conductor is determined by the amount of current In electro-mechanical conversion device, the reason why a small air gap is left between the rotor and stator is to permit mechanical clearance. Permanent magnets can be found in earphones Temporary magnets are commonly employed in motors Hardened steel is used by permanent magnets as the magnetic material Soft iron is used by temporary magnets as the magnetic material Silicon steel materials has the least hysteresis loop area Magnetomotive force (mmf) Magnetic Field Strength Magnetic Flux Ampere-Turn AT Ampere per meter A/m Weber Wb Gilbert Gb Oersted Oe (Gb/cm) Maxwell Mx 1 AT = 1.257 Gb 1 A/m = 0.01257 Oe 1 Wb = 10^8 Mx 1T = 10^4 G

Tesla T (Wb/m^2)

I R

## Magnetic flux Reluctance Magnetization Flux density Reluctivity Permeance Permeability

A/m Ohm-m

Siemens S/m

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Kirchhoffs first law The sum of all currents entering a junction is equal to the sum of currents leaving away from that junction. Kirchhoffs second law In a mesh, the algebraic sum of all voltages and voltages drops is equal to zero. CR Law a law which states that when a constant electromotive force is applied to a circuit consisting of a resistor and capacitor connected in series, the time taken for the potential on the plates of the capacitor to rise to any given fraction of its final value depends only on the product of capacitance and resistance. Thevenins theorem Used to simplify complex circuits wherein, the simplified circuit contains an equivalent open circuit resistance and open circuit voltage. Nortons theorem reverse of Thevenins theorem In Nortons theorem, the short circuit current is obtained by shortening the load terminals Superposition theorem Used in solving electrical circuits with several voltage sources. Superposition theorem Used in simplifying circuit analysis by considering the effect of supply voltages one at a time. The superposition theorem is used when the circuit contains a number of voltage sources. Compensation theorem Any resistance R in a branch of a network in which a current I is flowing can be replaced by a voltage equal to IR. Reciprocity theorem If an emf in circuit A produces a current in circuit B, then the same emf in circuit B produces the same current in circuit A. Edge effect refers to the outward-curving distortion of the lines of force near the edges of two parallel metal plates that form a capacitor. Mesh A chosen closed path of current flow in a network. Loop A set of circuit elements that forms a closed path in a network over which signal can circulate Node a reference point chosen such that more branches in a circuit met Junction A common connection between circuit elements or conductors from different branches. Ground return point in a circuit, where all voltage measured are referred. KVL Mesh analysis KCL Nodal analysis True power the power dissipated across the resistance in an AC circuit. A series circuit at resonance would mean, the circuit is resistive A parallel circuit at resonance would mean, the circuit is resistive In ac-circuit, if the voltage and current are in phase, the circuit is resistive. If the current and voltage has a phase difference, the circuit is reactive. If the current in ac-circuit leads the voltage by 90, the circuit is capacitive. If the current in ac-circuit lags the voltage by 90, the circuit is inductive. In a series ac-circuit, if the line frequency is more than the resonant frequency, the circuit behaves as inductive. If the line frequency of a parallel ac-circuit is less than the resonant frequency, the circuit behaves as reactive. If an ac-series circuit is supplied with a source whose frequency is less than that of fr, the circuit becomes capacitive. Smaller resistors usually have high resistance value. When the temperature of a copper wire is increased, its resistance is increased. The resistance of an insulator decreases when its temperature is increased. Skin effect increases the resistance of wire at high frequencies The result of rust in electrical wire connection is resistance Wattage rating of a resistor determines its ability to absorb heat. Resistors with high value usually have lower wattage rating because of lower current High resistance values are a consequence of the thinness of the film. A disadvantage of a wire-wound resistor is that it has reactance in radio-frequency circuits. Bifilar resistor a resistor wound with a wire doubled back on itself to reduce the inductance. A rheostat is a form of variable resistor. Air dielectric is generally employed by a variable capacitor. Barium-strontium titanite dielectric material is also called ceramic Paper has the lowest dielectric strength Barium-strontium titanite dielectric makes the highest-capacitance capacitor. Electrolytic capacitors are used only in dc circuits. Electrolytic capacitor has the highest cost per microfarad. Electrolytic capacitor is suitable for dc filter circuits. A capacitor consists of conductors separated by a dielectric The capacitance of a capacitor is directly proportional to relative permittivity. In a multiplate capacitor, the plate area is increased. For mutli-plate capacitor, capacitance is proportional to number of plates less one (n-1). A capacitor is used to block dc current The charging of a capacitor through a resistance obeys exponential law. It is impossible to change the voltage across a capacitor instantly, as this would produce infinite current. Leakage resistance in a capacitor results into internal heating A capacitor opposes change in voltage. Capacitance increases with larger plate area and less distance between plates Increasing capacitance is considered the effect of a dielectric material. A gang capacitor is a variable capacitor in which capacitance is varied by changing the plate area A trimmer is a variable capacitor in which capacitance is varied by changing the distance between plates Stray capacitance exist not through design but simply because two conducting surface are relatively close to each other. The ratio between the active power and the apparent power of the load in an ac circuit is called power factor. An inductive load always has a lagging power factor. The power factor of a series LC circuit is 0. The rms value of a triangular or sawtooth waveform is 0.577 times its peak value. The average value of triangular or sawtooth wave is 0.500 times its peak value. 1.73 is the peak factor of a triangular wave Peak factor for alternating current or voltage varying sinusoidally, 1.4142 The factor 0.707 for converting peak to rms applies only to sine waves. For a linear, rms voltage or current is used to calculate average power. The current is 0.707 times the maximum current at half-power points of a resonance curve.

Zero reading on an ohmmeter for a shorted capacitor An open resistor when checked with an ohmmeter reads infinite. Surge voltage is the maximum voltage that can be applied across the capacitor for very short period of time. Breakdown voltage refers to the lowest voltage across any insulator that can cause current flow. The ratio of the flux density to the electric field intensity in the dielectric is called permittivity. The ratio of maximum value to the effective value of an alternating quantity is called peak factor. The graph between an alternating quantity and time is called waveform. Reactance chart can be used to estimate resonant frequency and to find reactance at any frequency for any value of capacitor or inductor. Temperature coefficient of resistance A factor that states how much the resistance changes for a change in temperature. The ohmic value of a resistor with negative temperature coefficient increases with decreasing temperature. Carbon has a negative temperature coefficient. Manganin has a positive temperature coefficient Tungsten filament of bulbs has a hot resistance higher than its cold resistance due to its temperature coefficient which is positive. The temperature coefficient of resistance of electrolytes is negative. In a pure capacitance, current lead voltage by 90 In an RL series circuit, current lags voltage by less than 90 In a rectangular wave, form factor is 1.0 In a triangular wave, form factor is 1.16 For a series AC circuit, voltage is not used as a reference phasor. For a parallel AC circuit, voltage is used as a reference phasor. The Q-factor of a series resonant circuit is also known as voltage magnification factor. The Q-factor of a parallel resonant circuit is also known as current magnification factor. Parallel resonant circuit is sometimes called rejector circuit. Series resonant circuit is sometimes known as acceptor circuit. In dividing or multiplying phasor quantities, polar form is used. In adding or subtracting phasor quantities, rectangular form is used. Conventional flow assumes charges flow from positive to negative. Electron flow assumes charges flow from negative to positive. The symbol Q refers to quality factor. The reciprocal of quality factor is dissipation factor. Nortons theorem usually used in the analysis of transistor circuit Thevenins theorem generally used in the analysis of vacuum tubes Nortons theorem is a form of current equivalent circuit Thevenins theorem is a form of voltage equivalent circuit Parallel resonant circuit is also known as anti-resonant circuit The curve between current and frequency is termed as resonance curve. At parallel resonance, the current flowing through L and C are equal. Voltage resonance means series resonance The resonance curve is a plot of frequency versus current for a series RLC circuit. Series resonant circuit is inductive if it operates at a frequency higher than the resonant frequency. When two complex conjugates are subtracted, the result is a quadrature component only. If two complex conjugates are added, in-phase component results Alloy is a fusion of elements, without chemical action between them. Anticapacitance switch a switch designed to have low capacitance between its terminal when open. Phasor is a rotating vector whose projection can represent either current or voltage in an ac circuit Cryogenic conductor another term for superconductor Faradic current An intermittent and non-symmetrical alternating current like that obtained from the secondary winding of an induction coil. Joules the term used to express the amount of electrical energy stored in electrostatic field. Phasor quantity refers specifically to steady state values of quantities in ac circuits which are complex numbers. Non-linear circuit a circuit whose parameters change with voltage or current Liquids that are good conductors because of ionization are called electrolytes. Manganin is a common material used in wire-wound resistors. Elastance is the reciprocal of capacitance. Permeability is otherwise known as magnetic conductivity. Effective value is considered as the most important value of a sine wave. Tank circuit is a parallel LC circuit. When current and voltage are in phase in an ac circuit, the reactance is equal to zero. The voltage cannot be exactly in phase with the current in a circuit that contains only capacitance. An open inductor has infinite resistance and zero inductance. The reciprocal of a complex number is a complex number Metal tin becomes superconductor at approximately 3.7 K. A real current source has a large internal resistance. The reason why alternating current can induce voltage is it has a varying magnetic field. In an ac-circuit, the power dissipated as heat depends on resistance. The maximum power transfer theorem is used in electronic circuits According to Gauss theorem, flux can be equated to charge. The phase of an alternating quantity is defined as the fractional part of a period or cycle through which the quantity has advanced from selected origin. The admittance of a parallel RLC circuit is found to be the phasor sum of conductance and susceptance. In an inductive coil, the rate of rise of current is maximum near the final maximum value of current. For a series circuit, the higher the quantity factor the narrower the passband. The impedance in the study of electronics is represented by resistance and reactance. An ideal current source has an internal conductance of zero siemen/s. Nortons theorem is the converse of Thevenins theorem

ELECTRONIC DEVICES Intrinsic the name of the semiconductor material that has an equal number of electrons and holes Element that has four valence electrons are classified as elemental semiconductor Germanium (Ge) example of elemental semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), Gallium Phosphide (GaP), Aluminum Arsenide (AlAs) example of a compound semiconductor Covelent bond the chemical bond that is present in a crystal lattice of silicon atoms Forbidden gap the area that separates the valence band and the conduction band. At absolute zero temperature, semiconductor acts as an insulator The electron flow in a semiconductor material is opposite in direction of hole flow 10 - 10^4 ohm-cm typical range of the resistivity of a semiconductor Metallic bonding chemical bond that is significant in metals Intrinsic semiconductor a semiconductor that is free from impurities Doping the process of adding impurities in a semiconductor Pentavalent impurities with five valence electrons Trivalent impurities Example of acceptor impurities If the substance used in doping has less than four valence electrons, it is known as acceptor Antimony(Sb), Arsenic(As), Phosphorus(P) commonly used as donor impurities Boron(B), Gallium(Ga), Indium(In) Example of trivalent impurities Donor-doped semiconductor becomes an N-type semiconductor Compensated semiconductor a semiconductor that is doped with both donor and acceptor impurities The resistance of a semiconductor is known as bulk resistance Silicon the most extensively used semiconductor Intrinsic semiconductor semiconductor whose electron and hole concentrations are equal Silicon is widely used over germanium due to its low leakage current Drift current current flow in a semiconductor that is due to the applied electric field Diffusion current the movement of charge carriers in a semiconductor even without the application of electric potential Typically, 0.05 eV energy is required for a valence electron to move to the conduction band for a doped semiconductor Conduction of electrons in a doped semiconductor happens at conduction band Valence band where the conduction of holes occur in a doped semiconductor In energy band diagram of a doped semiconductor, the donor level is near the conduction band The acceptor level in a doped semiconductor is near the valence band level In a semiconductor material, the number of free electrons increases when the temperature rises The electrical resistance of a semiconductor material will decrease as the temperature increases Ionization potential the potential required to remove a valence electron Silicon nonmetal Germanium a semiconductor that is classified as a metalloid or semimetal Germanium semiconductor that is very rare, it only occurs in minute quantities in many metal sulfides Compound semiconductors are also known as inter-metallic semiconductors Compound semiconductor semiconductor that is mostly used in devices requiring the emission or absorption of lights For high-speed integrated circuit, Gallium arsenide semiconductor material is best to be used One part per million impurity concentration is needed for a sample of silicon to change its electrical property from a poor conductor to a good conductor The restriction of certain discrete energy levels in a semiconductor material can be predicted generally by using Bohr model Electron Volt (eV) is defined as the energy acquired by an electron moving through a potential of one volt. EHP optical generation is the basis in operation of semiconductor photoconductors Selenium the semiconductor that is used in xerography Recombination - when an electron at the conduction band falls back to the valence band it will recombine with the hole. Germanium semiconductor is mostly used to detect near infrared. Silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor is good for high-temperature applications Indium antimonide semiconductor has the highest mobility A semiconducting glass is known as amorphous semiconductor For an electroluminescent of green and red lights, gallium phosphide semiconductor is best Less than 1 watt typical range of power dissipation for a semiconductor to be considered as low power or small signal Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) semiconductor material has the highest energy gap InSb semiconductor has the smallest energy gap Mobility defined as the average drift velocity of electrons and holes per unit electrostatic field. The ease with which a charge carrier moves in a semiconductor material InSb semiconductor material has the highest value of electron-mobility AIP semiconductor material has the slowest electron-mobility Pn junction is formed when n-type and p-type semiconductors are brought together PN junction acts as a one way valve for electrons because when electrons are pump from P to N, free electrons and holes are force apart leaving no way for electrons to cross the junction Junction diode the device that is formed when an n-type and p-type semiconductors are brought together Forward bias an external voltage applied to a junction reduces its barrier and aid current to flow through the junction Diode a device containing an anode and a cathode or a pn junction of a semiconductor as the principal elements and provides unidirectional conduction Unidirectional conduction in two-electrodes in any device other than a diode, such that rectification between the grid and cathode of a triode, or asymmetrical conduction between the collector and base of a transistor is called diode action The p-type material in a semiconductor junction diode is technically termed as anode Cathode in a semiconductor junction diode is referred to the n-type terminal Depletion region the area in the semiconductor diode where there are no charge carriers A junction diode is said to be forward-biased if a voltage greater than threshold is applied, with cathode less positive than anode

Transistor a three terminal, three layer semiconductor device that has the ability to multiply charge carriers. This device was first introduced at Bell Laboratories, by Brattain and Bardeen in 1947 and which opens a completely new direction of interest and development in the field of electronics Transistor an active semiconductor device, capable of amplification, oscillation, and switching action. It is an acronym for transfer reisistor and had replaced the tube in most applications. The base in the region/area in a transistor is the smallest in construction Emitter the region or area in a transistor that is heavily doped Alloy-diffused transistor a transistor in which the base is diffused and the emitter is alloyed. The collector is provided by the semiconductor substrate into which alloying and diffusion are affected. Alloy transistor a transistor whose junction are created by alloying Alloy junction In a semiconductor device, a p-n junction formed by alloying a suitable material such as indium with the semiconductor. Diffused transistor a transistor in which one or both electrodes are created by diffusion Bipolar transistor a two-junction transistor whose construction takes the form of a pnp or a npn. Such device uses both electron and hole conduction and is current-driven Point-contact transistor the predecessor of the junction transistor, and is characterized by a current amplification factor, alpha of greater than one. For a transistor, the outer layers are heavily doped semiconductors The ratio of the total width of the outer layer to that of the center layer is 150:1 The ratio of the doping level of the outer layers to that of the sandwiched material is 10:1 or less Limiting the number of free carriers will decrease the conductivity but increases the resistance The term bipolar reflects the fact that holes and electrons participate in the injection process into the oppositely polarized material. Unipolar device employs only electrons or hole At forward-biased junction of pnp transistor, majority carriers flow heavily from p- to the n-type material The minority-current component of a transistor is called leakage current Ico is temperature sensitive, and can severely affect the stability of the system, when not carefully examined during design For the transistor, the arrow in the graphic symbol defines the direction of emitter conventional current flow through the device In the dc mode, the levels of Ic and Ie due to the majority carriers are related by the quantity alpha () In the ac mode, alpha is formally called common-base, short-circuit, amplification factor Phrases not pointing in and pointing in simply mean npn and pnp In the dc mode, the levels of Ic and Ib are related by a quantity called For practical transistor devices, the level of typically ranges mostly in midrange of 50 to 400 The formal name of beta is common-emitter forward-current amplification factor

it is a particularly important parameter that provides a direct link between current levels of the input and output circuits for a common-emitter configuration The cutoff region is defined as the area below Ic = Iceo With an ohmmeter, a large or small resistance in either junction of an npn or pnp transistor indicates faulty device At base-emitter junction, using an ohmmeter, if the positive lead is connected to the base and the negative lead to the emitter, a low resistance reading would indicate npn transistor At base-emitter junction, if the positive lead is connected to the base and the negative lead to the emitter, a high resistance reading would indicate pnp transistor High-power devices transistors of heavy duty construction Saturation point on a voltage-current condition curve, the point belong to which a further increase in voltage produces no further increase in current. Saturation it is applied to any system where levels have reached their maximum values For an on transistor, the voltage Vbe should be in the neighborhood of 0.7 V Active region in a transistor amplifier is normally employed for linear amplifiers In the active region, the collector-base junction is reverse, while the base-emitter junction is forward-biased Dc biasing is necessary, in order to establish the proper region of operation for ac amplification At cutoff region, the collector-base and base-emitter junctions of a transistor are both reverse-biased In saturation region, the collector-base and base-emitter junctions of a transistor are both forward-biased If the base-emitter junction is reverse biased and the base-collector junction is forward biased, the transistor will be at cut-off region Transistor operate at cut-off region if both the base-emitter and base-collector junctions are reverse-biased The transistor should be operating at active region to have minimum distortion at the output signal Quiescent In dc biasing, it means quiet, still, inactive Emitter the transistor terminal that handles most current Stability factor indicates the degree of change in operating-point due to temperature variation in the dc biasing Cut-off current flows between the collector and emitter terminals when the base is open When the transistor is saturated, Vce is approximately 0 V Collector-emitter resistance of ideal transistor at cut-off is Infinite Icbo the leakage current that flows at the collector-base junction when the emitter is open Reverse saturation current the most correct technical term of the reverse leakage current that flows between the collector and base junctions when the emitter is open circuit Icbo of an ideal transistor is zero mA The maximum voltage that can be applied across the collector-emitter terminal for a given transistor is specified as Vceo When base is common to both the input and output sides of the configuration and is usually the terminal closest to, or at ground potential, it is called common-base terminology Common collector transistor configuration has the highest input resistance Lower input resistance characteristic refers to that of a common-base (C-B) as compared to common-emitter (C-E) and common-collector (C-C) amplifiers A transistor is said to be configured as common emitter if the emitter terminal is not used as an input nor output Most frequently used transistor configuration for pnp and npn is common-emitter Common-emitter configuration hybrid parameters is usually specified by the manufacturers Hr and ho hybrid parameter that is usually neglected in circuit analysis In most transistor input equivalent circuit it comprises of a resistor and a voltage source Common-collector configuration has the highest input resistance Common-base configuration has a high voltage gain and a current gain of approximately equal to one Common-emitter configuration has the highest power gain Common-collector configuration has the highest power gain Output characteristic curve is most useful

Maximum power curve the graph of the product of collector-emitter voltage Vce and collector current Ic in the transistor output characteristic curve The base of a transistor serves as a gate element of the FET BJT is current-controlled device; FET is voltage-controlled device Another difference between a BJT and a FET with regards to its normal biasing, is that the input circuit is forward-biased for BJT while reverse for FET Due to the reverse-biased input circuit of FETs, FET offer high input impedance then BJT The operation of BJT involves both the flow of electrons and holes and is therefore, considered as a bipolar device. Unlike BJT, FETs operation involves only either electrons of holes and is considered as a unipolar device Considered as the basic FET or the simplest form of FET is the JFET S-G-D JFET : E-B-C BJT One obvious advantage of a JFET over BJT is its high input resistance A BJT is a current-controlled current-source device while JFET is a voltage-controlled current source device Channel the area in a JFET where current passes as if flows from source to drain The channel of a JFET will skews as current flows to it. For a normal operation of an n-channel JFET, you bias the gate-source junction by negative-positive respectively Pinch-off voltage the voltage across the gate-source terminal of a FET that causes drain current Id equal to zero Drain-source saturation current the current that flows into the channel of a JFET when the gate-source voltage is zero Current-voltage characteristic curve the graph of the drain current Id versus drain-source voltage Vds with Vgs as the parameter Fieldistor an early version of the field effect transistor in which limited control of current carriers near the surface of a semiconductor bar or film was obtained by an external electric field applied transversely JFET A FET in which the gate electrode consists of a pn junction JFET has the lowest input resistance In order to increase further the input resistance of a FET, its gate is insulated. An example of this type is the MOS-FET SiO2 is the insulator used in most MOS-FET Substrate In MOSFET, it is the foundation upon which the device will be constructed and is formed from a silicon base Enhancement type a type of MOSFET wherein originally there is no channel between the drain and the source Depletion type of MOSFET whose channel is originally thick but narrows as the proper gate bias is applied Threshold voltage the amount of voltage needed at the gate-source terminal for an enhancement type MOSFET so that a channel can be formed for the current to flow To switch off the depletion type MOSFET, the channel should be depleted. Depletion of the channel is done by applying enough voltage across the gate-source terminal. This voltage is called pin-off voltage The substrate of a MOSFET is usually connected internally to source In an n-channel enhancement type MOSFET, the gate voltage should be positive with respect to the source in order to produce or enhance a channel To deplete a channel from a p-channel IGFET depletion type, the gate voltage should be positive with respect to the source. N type material - The substrate used in a p-channel IGFET enhancement type Substrate (SS) the base material of a MOSFET which extends as an additional terminal MOSFET enhancement type operates as close as BJT in terms of switching Generally, MOSFET has low power handling capability than BJT. To increase MOSFET power, the channel should be made wide and short V-MOSFET has a wide and short effective channel V-MOSFET a type of FET wherein the channel is formed in the vertical direction rather than horizontal In general, FETs is particularly more useful in integrated-circuit (IC) chips FET a monolithic semiconductor-amplifying device in which a high-impedance GATE electrode controls the flow of current carriers through a thin bar of semiconductor called the CHANNEL. Ohmic connections made to the ends of the channel constitute SOURCE and DRAIN electrodes Solid State Devices / Circuits Varactor diodes are commonly used as a voltage controlled capacitance The electrons in the largest orbit travel more slowly than the electrons in the smaller orbits Common base a transistor configuration with the lowest current gain A semiconductor in its purest form is called intrinsic semiconductor Valence orbit is the other term for outer orbit For either germanium or silicon diodes, the barrier potential decreases 2 mV for each Celsius degree rise Piecewise linear model a diode modeling circuit which considers, the threshold voltage, average resistance and switch as the diodes equivalent circuit Diffusion and drift two mechanisms by which holes and electrons move through a silicon crystal A semiconductor is an element with a valence of four Valence orbit controls the electrical properties of the atom Conductor is a substance that contains atom with several bands of electrons but with only one valence electron Pure silicon contains 8 valence electrons as a result of covalent bonding The peak inverse voltage of a full wave center tapped rectifier circuit is equal to twice the peak of the input signal Diffusion or storage capacitance is the term used to refer to the forward bias capacitance of a diode The number of electrons in the valence orbit is considered as the key to electrical conductivity Each atom in a silicon crystal has 8 electrons in its valence orbit Lifetime is the amount of time between the creation and disappearance of a/an free electron A silicon crystal is intrinsic semiconductor if every atom in the crystal is a silicon atom At room temperature, a silicon crystal acts approximately like an insulator An extrinsic semiconductor is a doped semiconductor Diffusion is associated with random motion due to thermal agitation in the movement of holes and electrons in a silicon crystal The peak inverse voltage of a half wave rectifier circuit is approximately equal to the peak amplitude of the input signal Silicon that has been doped with a trivalent impurity is called a p-type semiconductor Silicon that has been doped with a pentavalent impurity is called a n-type semiconductor Junction diode is another name for a pn crystal An acceptor atom is also called trivalent atom Pentavalent atom donor atom In an n-type semiconductor, free electrons are called majority carriers In an n-type semiconductor, holes are called minority carriers Each pair of positive and negative ions at the junction is called a dipole

When temperature increases, barrier potential decreases Avalanche effects occurs at higher reverse voltages The creation of free electrons through zener effect is also known as high-field emission Zener effect depends only on the intensity of the electric field Junction temperature is the temperature inside the diode, right at the junction of the p and n-type materials Gate voltage is the input parameter of a FET Forward current one of the important diode parameter which gives the magnitude of current the diode can handle without burning The maximum reverse voltage that can be applied before current surges is called reverse breakdown voltage Tunnel diode another name for Esaki diode The most important application of Schottky diode is in digital computers A diode is a nonlinear device because its current is not directly proportional to its voltage The sum of the resistances of the p-region and the n-region is called bulk resistance The typical bulk resistance of rectifier diode is less than 1 ohm The reverse bias diode capacitance is termed as transition region capacitance Reverse recovery time the time taken by the diode to operate in the reverse condition from forward conduction Approximately, the atomic weight of germanium is 72.6 Atomic weight of silicon at 300K is 28.09 An LED and a phototransistor is equivalent to an Optocoupler Optocoupler is otherwise known as Optoisolator When the emitter junction is forward biased while the collector junction is reverse biased, the transistor is at active region When both the emitter and collector junction are forward biased, the transistor is said to be at saturation region Second approximation An equivalent circuit of a diode in which it is represented as a switch in series with a barrier potential Third approximation an equivalent circuit of a diode in which it is represented as a switch with a battery in series with a resistance A silicon crystal is an intrinsic of semiconductor if every atom in the crystal is a silicon atom With npn voltage divider bias, you must use negative power supply A half-wave signal has a period of 16.7 ms A full-wave signal has a period of 8.3 ms When doping increases, bulk resistance of a semiconductor decreases FET has the least noise level MOSFET has the highest input impedance The frequency of a half-wave signal is equal to the line frequency For a full-wave rectifier, the output frequency equals two times the input frequency The average dc voltage of a half wave rectifier circuit is 31.8% of the value of the peak input voltage The average dc voltage of a full wave rectifier circuit is 63.6% of the value of the peak input voltage Typical leakage current in a pn junction is in the order of A The resistance of a forward biased pn junction is in the order of ohm The removal by electronic means of one extremity of an input waveform is called clipping Shockley diode a type of diode with no depletion layer Varistor are used for line filtering to eliminate spikes and dips and is also called transient suppressor Diffusion Defined as the random motion of holes and free electrons due to thermal agitation The temperature coefficient of resistance of a semiconductor is negative Class A a large signal amplifier which is biased so that collector current flow continuously during the complete electrical cycle of the signal as well as when no signal is present Class C a large signal amplifier which is biased so that current is non-zero for less than one-half cycle A class AB amplifier stage operates with a small forward bias on the transistor so that some collector current flow at all times Derating factor A factor shown on a data sheet that tells how much you have to reduce the power rating of a device The time it takes to turn off a forward-biased diode is called the reverse recovery time A heavily doped semiconductor has low resistance Gallium arsenide, aluminum arsenide and gallium phosphide are classified as compound semiconductor A lightly doped semiconductor has high resistance Conductance the property or ability of a material to support charge flow or electron flow Dember effect also known as photodiffusion effect Bulk effect an effect that occurs within the entire bulk of a semiconductor material rather than in a localized region or junction Dember effect the creation of a voltage in a conductor or semiconductor by illumination of one surface. Point-contact diode uses a metal catwhisker as its anode and is classified as a hot-carrier diode 10 mA is the typical operating current of an LED At absolute zero temperature, a semiconductor behaves as a/an insulator Avalance breakdown in a semiconductor take place when reverse bias exceeds a certain value Anotron a cold-cathode glow-discharge diode having a copper anode and a large cathode of sodium or other material BARITT diode A microwave diode in which the carriers that transverse the drift region are generated by minority carrier injection from a forward-biased junction instead of being extracted from the plasma of an avalanche region A voltage multiplier is an electric circuit that converts AC to DC but where the DC output peak value can be greater than the AC input peak value The charge of a hole is equal to that of a proton

it is the current gain for the common-emitter configuration An emitter resistor is used for biasing a bipolar junction transistor in most amplifier circuits Load line is a line drawn between the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current on a JFET characteristic curve Another name for a photoconductive cell is photoresistive device When both the emitter and collector junctions are reverse biased, the transistor is said to be at cut-off region Varactor diode a type of diode used for tuning receivers and is normally operated with reverse bias and derived its name from voltage variable capacitor Binistor A silicon npn tetrode that serves as a bistable negative-resistance device Spacistor a multiple-terminal solid-state device similar to a transistor that generates frequencies up to about 10,000 MHz by injecting electrons or holes into a space-charge layer which rapidly forces these carriers to a collecting electrode. Silicon is not a good conductor

1.5 V is the approximate voltage drop of LED Under standard condition, pure germanium has a resistitivity of 60 ohm-cm The holding of one extreme amplitude of the input waveform to a certain amount of potential is called clamping Clamper is also known as DC restorer Percentage ripple can be calculated by getting the ratio of the ac voltage to dc voltage and multiplying the result by 100% Silicon has the smallest leakage current Recombination refers to annihilation of a hole and electron Zener and avalanche effects are the two possible breakdown mechanism in pn junction diodes Zener breakdown occurs in pn diodes when the electric field in the depletion layer increases to the point where it can break covalent bonds and generate electron hole pairs The amount of additional energy required to emit an electron from the surface of a metal is called work function When the temperature of a pure semiconductor is increased, its resistances decrease. As a general rule, holes are found only in semiconductors Hole in a semiconductor is defined as the incomplete part of an electron pair bond When the number of free electrons is increased in doped semiconductor, it becomes a n type semiconductor Reducing the number of free electrons in a doped semiconductor forms a p type semiconductor Pure semiconductor atoms contain 4 valence electrons An acceptor atom contains 3 valence electrons The resistivity of an extrinsic semiconductor is 2 ohm-cm The forward resistance of a crystal diode is in the order of ohm 1 is the ideal value of stability factor 1.6726 x 10^-27 kg is the approximate mass of an atom at rest Approximate mass at rest of a proton is equal to that of a neutron Charge of an electron is approximately equal to -1.6022 x 10^-19 C Electrolytic capacitors are used in transistor amplifiers The reason why a common collector is used for impedance matching is because its input impedance is very high In power supplies, circuits that are employed in separating the ac and dc components and bypass the ac components around the load, or prevent their generation are called series capacitors Isotopes nuclei with common number of protons, but with different number of neutrons FET has a high input impedance because its input is reverse biased A MOSFET is sometimes called insulated gate FET An advantage of a MOSFET over a BJT in an RF amplifier circuit is low noise The voltage gain of an emitter follower circuit is low A transistor is considered a current controlled device A FET is considered a voltage controlled device The value of coupling capacitor, Cc n RC coupling is about 10 F FET has a pinch-off voltage of about 5 V Luminous efficacy a measure of the ability of an LED to produce the desired number of lumens generated per applied watt of electrical energy Photoconductive effect means the increased conductivity of an illuminated semiconductor junction When light strikes on a photoconductive material the conductivity of the material increases Varactor diode a type of diode used for tuning receivers; operate with reverse bias and derived its name from voltage-variable capacitor Gallium arsenide semiconductor material is used in the construction of LED Atomic mass is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons of an atom Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus or the number of electrons in an atom The charge of a proton has the same value to that of an electron but opposite in sign Mass of proton or neutron is 1,836 times that of an electron LAD a photodiode which conducts current only when forward biased and is exposed to light Red is the most commonly used color for an LED If the temperature of a semiconductor material increases, the number of free electrons increases Varactor diodes transition capacitance is directly proportional to the product of the permittivity of the semiconductor material and the PN junction area but inversely proportional to its depletion width A photodiode is a light-sensitive device whose number of free electrons generated is proportional to the intensity of the incident light. Scale current another name for saturation current in a diode, which arises from the fact that it is directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the diode In an amplifier, the emitter junction is forward biased The principal characteristic of a zener diode is the constant voltage under conditions of varying current Varactor diode a device whose internal capacitance varies with the applied voltage The common collector transistor configuration has the highest value of input resistance Coupling the method of connecting amplifier in cascade Collector is the largest region of a bipolar transistor Tunnel diode A diode that has a negative resistance region and widely used in the design of oscillators, switching networks and pulse generators. Diac refers to a three layer diode Zener diode diode that operates in the reverse breakdown voltage and is used as a voltage regulator IGFET Another name for a metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor In enhancement-type MOSFET, the saturation region is used if the FET is to operate as an amplifier In enhancement-type MOSFET, the triode and saturation regions are used for operation as a switch Unijunction transistor has three terminals, namely base 1, base 2 and emitter Silicon and germanium semiconductor devices exhibit both metallic and nonmetallic characteristics The voltage drop across the diode remains relatively constant when current flow increases rapidly in a forward-biased diode Free electrons are the majority current carriers in the N-type silicon A LED is a diode that gives off light when energized IR emitters are solid state gallium arsenide devices that emit a beam of radiant flux when forward biased Input characteristic curve a graphical representation in transistor wherein the emitter current is plotted against the variable emitter base voltage Veb for constant value of collector-base voltage Vcb

When the collector current Ic is plotted against the collector base voltage at constant emitter current Ie, the curve obtained is called output characteristic curve Eg for silicon is 1.12 eV and for germanium is .072 eV. It can be concluded that less number of electron hole pairs will be generated in silicon than in germanium at room temperature Junction diodes are commonly rated by its maximum forward current and PIV A special type of diode which is often used in RF switches, attenuators, and various types of phase shifting device is called PIN diode Output characteristic A volt-ampere characteristics curve that describes the relationship of the output voltage of a transistor to its output current at a set input current The use of RC coupling is particularly desirable in low level, low noise audio amplifier stages to minimize hum pick up from stray magnetic fields The way in which the gain of an amplifier varies with the frequency is called frequency response The maximum rectification efficiency of a half wave rectifier is 40.6 % The maximum rectification efficiency of a full-wave rectifier is 81.2 % Transformer coupling a coupled amplifier which has the major advantage of permitting power to be transformed from the relatively high output impedance of the first stage to the relatively low input impedance of the second stage Electron mobility property of silicon at 300 K is approximately equal to 0.135 m^2/v-s In a push-pull power amplifier, an input transformer can be used as a phase-splitter providing equal amplitude input signals opposite in polarity If the line frequency is 60Hz, the output frequency of a bridge rectifier is 120 Hz FET is considered a unipolar device Harold Black invented the feedback amplifier in 1928 The arrow in semiconductor symbols always point toward the N region and away from the P region If the input power of a half wave rectifier has a frequency of 400 Hz, then the ripple frequency will be equal to 400 Hz If the input frequency of a full-wave rectifier is 400 Hz, the ripple frequency will be twice as great as the input frequency Common emitter circuit also called as the conventional amplifier Another name for a light activated diode (LAD) is photodiode The semiconductor device that radiate light or utilize light are called optoelectronic devices Structural category of a semiconductor diodes can be either junction and point contact Zener diodes can be primarily classified as voltage regulation and voltage reference The principal characteristic of a tunnel diode is a negative resistance region Varactor diode a special type of semiconductor diode which varies its internal capacitance as the voltage applied to its terminal varies The maximum forward current in a junction diode is limited by its junction temperature When a transistor is fully saturated the collector current is at its maximum value A FET without a channel and no current occurs with zero gate voltage is enhancement-mode FET FET and CMOS devices are susceptible to damage from static charges JFETs are often called square law devices Equivalent of transistor at saturation in JFETs is constant-current When a JFET is cut-off, the depletion layers are touching The voltage that turns on an enhancement-mode device is the threshold voltage Depletion-mode MOSFET acts mostly as a JFET JFETs input impedance approaches infinity The current gain of an emitter follower circuit is high The drift transistor has a high frequency cut off due to its low inherent internal capacitance and low electron transit time through the base The maximum operating frequency of a transistor should be 50 percent of the frequency cut-off of the transistor to ensure best performance When transistor applications call for a temperature operating condition which exceeds 185 F, Silicon element is most suitable Heat dissipation is the most important factor of a power transistor When the electron transmit time through the base region is very short, this provides higher cut-off frequency When the transistors are used in video amplifiers, its main limitation is poor frequency response Impedance matching in circuit is important for maximum transfer of energy A unijunction transistor is a three-terminal device consisting of two semiconductor layers Ionization the process by which atoms are constantly losing and regaining free electrons Parasitic oscillations termed as unwanted oscillation that may occur in almost any type of circuits, oscillator, amplifier, power supply, receiver and transmitters. Linear amplifier an RF amplifier which will amplify a weak signal voltage in relatively the same proportion as it will amplify a stronger signal voltage Peak inverse voltage it is the maximum amount of reverse voltage which can be applied on a diode before the breakdown point is reached Element it refers to any of the over 100 different substances which have never been separated into simpler substances by chemical means and which alone or in combination constitute all matter LED it is also known as a solid state lamp which utilizes the fall of electron from the conduction level to the valence level to develop an energy release in the form of heat or light Present atomic theories place the mass and positive charge of an atom in a central nucleus composed of protons and neutrons The photons as fundamental particle is considered as a bundle of radiant energy or light, the amount of energy being related to the frequency Electron emitted by the mechanical impact of an iron striking a surface is called secondary electrons The break up of nuclei into nuclear fragments that are themselves nuclei is called fission Neutrinos - Particles of zero charge and zero mass 9.1096 x 10^-31 kg approximate mass of an electron at rest Valence shell term used to describe the outermost shell of an atom Free electrons are the electrons at the outermost shell which are usually weakly attracted by the core such that an outside force can easily dislodge these electrons from the atom The reason why electrons are not pulled in the positive charged nucleus is because of the centrifugal force which usually became exactly equals the inward attraction of the nucleus Valence band the highest energy band of an atom which can be filled with electrons Conduction band an energy band in which electrons can move freely Gold is considered as the best conductor Crystal it is an arrangement of silicon atom combine to form a solid such that there are now 8 electrons in the valence shell Covalent bond the sharing of valence electrons to produce a chemically stable atom Bound electrons the eight electrons which are tightly held by the atom When an atom has bound electrons, it is described as filled or saturated since valence orbit can hold not more than 8 electrons

Ambient temperature refers to the temperature of the surrounding air Free electrons the term used to describe the released electrons dislodged form its original shell due to increase in temperature which joins into a larger orbit Hole the term used to refer to the vacancy left by the free electron when it departs from its original shell Recombination the merging of a free electron and a hole inside the silicon crystal Lifetime the amount of time between the creation and disappearance of a free electron The purpose of adding an impurity atom to an intrinsic crystal is to increase its electric conductivity An extrinsic semiconductor produced n-type when a pentavalent atom are added to the molten silicon Phosphorus, antimony and arsenic are pentavalent atom P-type an extrinsic semiconductor which is produced when a trivalent atom are added to the molten silicon Linear power derating factor the reduction of power handling capability of the diode due to the increase of ambient temperature form room temperature Maximum junction temperature the maximum temperature the diode can operate before burning Reverse recovery time of the diode is computed as the sum of the storage time and transition interval from the forward to reverse bias Thermal energy causes intrinsic semiconductor to have some holes When a diode is forward biased, the recombination of free electrons and hole may produce heat, light & radiation Phosphorous doping element has a valence of 5 Silicon doping element has a valence of 4 Boron doping element has a valence of 3 Proton it is a stable positive charge in the nucleus that is not free to move. Hole a positive charge outside the nucleus which is present only in semiconductor due to unfilled covalent bonds When charges are forced to move by the electric field of a potential difference, drift current is said to flow When a PN junction is connected to a battery in such a way that P-side is connected to positive terminal of the battery and negative terminal to N-side, this connection is known as forward bias When a PN junction is connected to a battery in such a way that P-side is connected to negative terminal of the battery and positive terminal to N-side, this connection is known as reverse bias An electron in the conduction band has higher energy then the electron in the valence band An ideal diode should have zero resistance in the forward bias and an infinitely large resistance in reverse bias Thermal voltage is approximately equal to 25 mV at room temperature Boltzmanns constant is equivalent to 8.62 x 10^-5 eV/K The preferred form of biasing a JFET amplifier is through the self bias The gate-to-source on voltage of an n-channel enhancement mode MOSFET is greater then Vgs Carrier drift a mechanism for carrier motion in semiconductors which occurs when an electric field is applied across a piece of silicon Avalanche breakdown occurs in pn diodes when the minority carriers that cross the depletion region under the influence of the electric field, gain sufficient kinetic energy to be able to break covalent bonds in atoms with which they collide

ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Class A amplifier has an output current flowing during the whole input current cycle. If a transistor amplifier provides a 360 output signal, it is classified as class A Class B an amplifier that delivers an output signal of 180 only Class AB a class of amplifiers wherein the output signal swings more than 180 but less than 360 The distinguishing feature of class C amplifier is that the output is present for less than 180 degrees of the input signal cycle Class C a full 360 sine-wave signal is applied as an input to an unknown class of amplifier, if the output delivers only a pulse of less than 180 Class D amplifiers are intended for pulse operation Class S amplifier are used to amplify either amplitude modulated (AM) or frequency modulated (PM) signal Class D amplifier has the highest efficiency 25% is the efficiency of a series-fed class A amplifier A class A amplifier has an efficiency of only 25%, but this can be increased if the output is coupled with a transformer. Up to 50% efficiency will be reached due to coupling Class B amplifiers deliver an output signal of 180 and have a maximum efficiency of 78.5% Transistorized class C power amplifier will usually have an efficiency of 33% For pulse-amplification, class D amplifier is mostly used. Class D amplifier efficiency reaches over 90% Efficiency of class AB is in between the efficiency of class A and B, that is from 25% - 78.5% Class A (transformer-coupled) is the most effient In order to have the best efficiency and stability, the loadline of a solid state power amplifier be operated just below the saturation point In most transistor class A amplifier, the quiescent point is set at the center For a class B amplifier, the operating point or Q-point is set at cutoff The Q-point for class A amplifier is at the active region, for class B it is at cutoff region, while for class AB is slightly above cutoff The Q-point of a class C amplifier is positioned below cutoff region Class C amplifiers are considered as non-linear Class A or B amplifiers can be used for linear amplification Class BC amplifier is biased to class C but modulates over the same portion of the curve as if it ware biased to class B Transformer-coupled push-pull amplifier two class B amplifiers connected such that one amplifies the positive cycle and the other amplifies the remaining negative cycle. Both output signals are then coupled by a transformer to the load Complementary-symmetry amplifier a push-pull amplifier that uses npn and pnp transistors to amplify the positive and negative cycles respectively Quasi-complementary push-pull amplifier a push pull amplifier that uses either npn or pnp as its final stage. The circuit configuration looks like the complementarysymmetry Class A amplifier has the least distortion Nonlinear distortion a type of distortion wherein the output signal does not have the desired linear relation to the input

Amplitude distortion Distortion that is due to the inability of an amplifier to amplify equally well all the frequencies present at the input signal Harmonic distortion a nonlinear distortion in which the output consists of undesired harmonic frequencies of the input signal The overall gain of an amplifier in cascade is the product Cascaded amplifier a multistage transistor amplifier arranged in a conventional series manner, the output of one stage is forward-coupled to the next stage Darlington configuration a direct-coupled two-stage transistor configuration wherein the output of the first transistor is directly coupled and amplified by the second transistor. This configuration gives a very high current gain Cascode configuration a two-stage transistor amplifier in which the output collector of the first stage provides input to the emitter of the second stage. The final output is then taken from the collector of the second stage Cascode amplifier famous transistor amplifier configuration designed to eliminate the so called Miller effect Common-emitter and common-base transistor configuration is used in a cascode amplifier Darlington transistor configuration known to have a super-beta 1.6 V is the approximate threshold voltage between the base-emitter junction of a silicon darlington transistor Feedback pair transistor arrangement that operates like a darlington but uses a combination of pnp and npn transistors instead of both npn Differential amplifier an amplifier basically constructed from two transistor and whose output is proportional to the difference between the voltages applied to its two inputs Operational amplifier (op-amp) an amplifier having high direct-current stability and high immunity to oscillation, this is initially used to perform analog-computer functions such as summing and integrating. Op-amp one of the most versatile and widely used electronic device in linear applications Op-amp it is a very high-gain differential amplifier with very high input impedance and very low output impedance An operational amplifier must have at least 5 usable terminals Differential amplifier the circuit at the input stage of operational amplifiers Differential amplifier an amplifier whose output is proportional to the difference between the voltages applied to its two inputs In op-amps functional block diagram, high gain amplifier follows the differential amplifier A good op-amp has a very high input resistance Ideally, op-amps have infinite input resistance and zero output resistance The input of an op-amp is made high by using super beta transistor at the input differential stage or by using FETs at the input differential stage Complementary amplifier is commonly used at the output stage of op-amps Common collector the transistor configuration used at the output complementary stage of most op-amps Most op-amps use a common collector at the output stage to have a very low output resistance Level shifter the stage followed by the output complementary in op amps functional block diagram The purpose of level shifter in op-amps is to set and/or adjust the output voltage to zero when the input signal is zero Primarily, op-amps are operated with bipolar power supply, however, we can also use single polarity power supply by generating a reference voltage above ground When the same signal is applied to both inverting and non-inverting input terminals of an ideal op-amp, the output voltage would be zero V

Common mode the operating mode of an op-amp, when both inputs are tied together or when the input signal is common to both inputs Common gain the gain of an op-amp if operated in common mode input When one input of the op-amp is connected to ground and the other is to the signal source, its operation is called single-ended input If op-amps are operated in differential mode, its gain is technically termed as differential gain Open-loop gain is the highest Common-mode rejection ratio the ratio of the differential gain and common gain of an op-amp +VSAT to VSAT is the maximum output voltage swing of an op-amp Input bias current - the current needed at the input of an op-amp to operate it normally Ideal op-amp requires no input current, but real op-amp needs a very small input current called input bias current. At both inputs, the bias currents have a slight difference. Its difference is called input offset current Input offset current drift the change in input offset current due to temperature change The reason why a slight difference between the input bias current occurs in op-amp is due to the unsymmetrical circuit component parameters. This unsymmetrical condition also produces a difference in input voltage called input offset voltage In op-amps, input offset voltage drift is the change in input offset voltage due to the change in temperature Ideally, the output voltage of an op-amp is zero when there is no input signal, however, in practical circuit, a small output voltage appears, this voltage is known as output offset voltage The output offset voltage of an op-amp are due to input offset current and input offset voltage You minimize the output offset voltage due to the input offset current of an op-amp by installing a bias-current-compensating resistor The approximate value of the bias-current compensating resistor in op-amp circuit is equal to the parallel combination of the input and feedback resistors In op-amp analysis, the input offset voltage is represented by a battery The battery representing the input offset voltage in op-amp circuit analysis is connected between the non-inverting and ground terminal The effect of the input offset voltage to the output voltage if the op-amp has no feedback element is it causes the output to saturate either towards positive or negative By making the feedback resistance small we can minimize the effect of the input offset current and input offset voltage at the output offset voltage The most effective way of minimizing the output offset voltage of an op-mp is by properly using and adjusting the offset-null terminals Slew rate op-amp parameter(s) that is important in large signal dc amplification In large signal dc-amplifiers using op-amp, drift parameter has the least effect on its performance For ac-amplifiers using op-amps, slew rate and frequency response parameters can affect its performance If an op-amp is used to amplify small ac-signals, frequency response parameter should greatly consider to ensure better performance Internally compensated op-amps op-amps with internal frequency compensation capacitor to prevent oscillation Break frequency the frequency at which the open-loop gain of an op-amp is 0.707 times its value at very low frequency The voltage gain of op-amp will decrease when its operating frequency is increased Roll-off the reduction of op-amps gain due to increase operating frequency 20dB/decade roll-off a gain reduction by a factor of 10 per decade

6 dB/octave a reduction of op-amps voltage gain by a factor of two each time the frequency doubles Unity-gain bandwidth product frequency at which the voltage gain of op-amp reduces to unity. Rise time is defined as the time required for the output voltage to rise from 10% to 90% of its final value Slew rate the maximum output voltage rate of change of an op-amp Factors or parameters that determine the op-amps maximum operating temperature: slew rate and unity-gain bandwidth product When an op-amp is used as a comparator, the output voltage would be +VSAT if V+> VWindow comparator two comparators using op-amps, configured such that it can detect voltage levels within a certain range of values rather than simply comparing whether a voltage is above or below a certain reference Open-loop gain is significant when an op-amp is used as a voltage comparator An op-amp zero-crossing detector without hysteresis, has no feed back The feed back element of a differentiator constructed from op-amp is a resistor An active integrator uses an op-amp, capacitor is its feedback element Unity the voltage gain of an op-amp voltage follower The noise gain of op-amps is 1 + Rf/Ri Making both the feedback and input resistances as small as possible resistor combination provides lesser noise in op-amp circuits In most ac-amplifiers using op-amps, the feedback resistor is shunted with a very small capacitance to minimize high frequency noise Externally compensated op-amps are op-amps with frequency-compensation terminals or op-amps with provision to externally compensate for frequency stability In the external frequency-compensation capacitor, the lower its value, the wider is its bandwidth Typical value of the external frequency-compensating capacitor of op-amps is about 3.0 30 F General purpose op-amps are op-amps with limited unity-gain bandwidth up to approximately 1 MHz or op-amps with slew rate about 0.5V/sec High-frequency, high-slew rate op-amps Op-amps designed to operate at high slew rate, about 2000 V/micosec and at high frequencies, more than 50 MHz Generally, hybrid op-amps found its application for high-output voltage and for high-output current 0.2 mV the magnitude of the op-amps input offset voltage before it can be classified as a low-input offset voltage op-amp Op-amps whose internal transistor biasing can be controlled externally are categorize as programmable op-amps Metal can correspond to TO-99 Dual-in-line or DIL package is designed as TO-116 SMT for high density ICs involving many op-amps PLCCs, SOICs, LCCCs are examples of surface-mounted technology (SMT) device For a circuit to oscillate, it must have a positive feedback sufficient to overcome losses. Oscillator Circuits that produces alternating or pulsating current or voltage Hartley oscillator circuit uses a tapped coil in the tuned circuit

The size and thickness of the crystal material determines the resonant frequency of a crystal Relaxation oscillator type of oscillator whose frequency is dependent on the charge and discharge of RC network Klystron oscillator a microwave oscillator Colpitts oscillator a self-excited oscillator in which the tank is divided into input and feedback portions by a capacitive voltage divider Hartley oscillator A self-excited oscillator in which the tank is divided into input and feedback portions by an inductive voltage divider or a tapped coil Multivibrator a circuit usually containing two transistors or tubes in an RC-coulped amplifier, the two active devices switch each other alternately on and off Monostable a multivibrator that generates one output pulse for each input trigger pulse Monostable mutlivibrator is also known as one shot or single shot Resistor and capacitor combinations determines the pulse time in a monostable multivibrator Bistable a multivibrator having two stable state Bistable multivibrator is also known as Eccles/Jordan circuit Flip-flop is actually a bistable multivibrator Astable considered as a free-running multivibrator

Electronic (Audio/RF) Circuit / Analysis/ Design Class A and B are considered linear amplifier The voltage gain of a common collector configuration is unity A two-transistor class B power amplifier is commonly called push-pull amplifier If a transistor is operated in such a way that output current flows for 160 of the input signal, then it is Class C operation Direct coupling has the best frequency response A transistor amplifier has high output impedance because collector has reverse bias Gain-bandwidth product is considered an amplifier figure of merit Logic probe a piece of equipment in an oscilloscope use to indicate pulse condition in a digital logic circuit Comparator a linear circuit that compares two input signals and provides a digital level output depending on the relationship of the input signals Transformer coupling is generally used in power amplifiers Class A amplifiers output current flows for the entire cycle The coupling capacitor must be large enough to prevent attenuation of low frequency in an RC coupling scheme Operating point is the point of intersection of dc and ac load lines An oscillator produces undamped oscillations Quiescent point is the operating point in the characteristic curve Oscillators operate on the principle of positive feedback In a class A amplifier, the output signal is the same as the input Biasing condition will change if the input capacitor of a transistor amplifier is short-circuited Biasing is used to establish a fixed level of current or voltage in a transistor Class C power amplifier has the highest collector efficiency Class C is a non-linear type of amplifier An AF transformer is shielded to prevent induction due to stray magnetic fields Amplitude distortion is otherwise known as harmonic distortion Hie represents common-emitter small signal input resistance The ear is not sensitive to frequency distortion Class C is an amplifier whose output current flow for less than one-half the entire input cycle If gain without feedback and feedback factor are A and Beta respectively, then gain with negative feedback is given by A/(1+A ) The collector current in a common base configuration is equal to alpha times emitter current plus leakage current The value of collector load resistance in a transistor amplifier is less than the output impedance of the transistor The purpose of RC or transformer coupling is to separate bias of one stage from another

The bandwidth of a single stage amplifier is more than that of multistage amplifier Transit time is the time taken by the electrons or holes to pass from the emitter to the collector To obtain good gain stability in a negative feedback amplifier, A is very much greater than 1 The basic concept of the electric wave filter was originated by Campbell and Wagner Common-base configuration has the lowest current gain Common-base and Common-collector transistor configuration offers no phase reversal at the output The number of stages that can be directly coupled is limited because change in temperature can cause thermal instability The input capacitor in an amplifier is called coupling capacitor AC load line has a/an bigger slope compared to that of dc load line A multistage amplifier uses at least two transistors RC coupling is used for voltage amplification An ammeters ideal resistance should be zero Amplifier is the circuit that can increase the peak-to-peak voltage, current or power of a signal When the non-linear distortion in an amplifier is D without feedback, with negative voltage feedback it will be D/(1+A ) A tuned amplifier uses LC tank load The voltage gain over mid-frequency range in an RC coupled amplifier is constant The input impedance of an amplifier increases when negative voltage feedback is applied The input impedance of an amplifier decreases when negative current feedback is applied To obtain the frequency response curve of an amplifier generator output level is kept constant Relaxation oscillator a type of oscillator wherein the frequency is determined by the charge and discharge of resistor-capacitor networks used in conjunction with amplifiers or similar devices The driver transformer has center-tapped secondary to provide two signals 180 out of phase to transistors of push-pull circuit The advantage of RC coupling scheme is economy A type of filter which have a single continuous transmission band with neither the upper nor the lower cut-off frequencies being zero or infinite is called band pass filter GPS an instrument use to measure ones location in terms of coordinates Transformer coupling is used for power amplification The typical value of coupling capacitor in RC coupling is about 10 F An electronic transfer from one stage to the next is termed as coupling An amplifier configuration where the input signal is fed to the emitter terminal and the output from the collector terminal is called common base If the noise factor of an ideal amplifier expressed in dB, then it is 0

A feedback circuit is independent of frequency The basic purpose of applying negative feedback to an amplifier is to reduce distortion The capacitors are considered open in the dc equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier 10 kHz frequency produces the highest noise factor Power amplifier handle large signals The operating point is generally located at the middle of dc load line in class A operation Low voltage gain describes a common collector amplifier The general characteristics of a common base amplifier are high voltage gain, low current gain, high power gain and very low input resistance To amplify dc signal, multistage amplifier uses Direct coupling Klystron oscillator is used in order to produce frequencies in the microwave region Practically, the voltage gain of an amplifier is expressed in dB unit Transformer coupling provides maximum voltage gain The gain of an amplifier reduces when negative feedback is added Feedback factor is always less than 1 Class A operation is used for general amplification where no distortion can be tolerated Class B operation is used either where the signal needs to be cut in half, such as in pulse detector or noise detectors or where push-pull operation of two stages is required Class AB operation is used where a portion of a signal only is required, such as the synchronizing pulse separator of a television receiver Class C operation has little use in general purpose amplifier, but is used in high frequency oscillators Transformer coupling provides high frequency because its DC resistance is low Class C operation can have 100% efficiency The efficiency of class AB operation has a maximum of between 50% to 78.5% Transformer coupling is generally employed when load resistance is small The smaller the voltage regulation, the better the operation of the voltage supply circuit In transistor amplifiers, Step down transformer is used for impedance matching If an amplifier has a power gain of 100, then its dB gain is 20 In order to have more voltage gain from a transistor amplifier the transistor used should have thin base The final stage of an amplifier uses transformer coupling The largest theoretical voltage gain obtained with a common collector amplifier is unity Increasing the overall Beta is an advantage of darlington pair The frequency of oscillation is inversely proportional to square root of L and C in an LC oscillator

An oscillator employs positive feedback The reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low frequencies is that electrical size of coupling capacitor becomes very large A pair of filter common on high fidelity system which separate audio frequency band signals into two separate groups, where one is fed to the tweeter and the other to the woofer is called cross over network The frequency response of transformer coupling is poor The simplest variable-frequency sinusoidal oscillator is the Armstrong circuit Current gain is provided by a CB transistor amplifier In the initial stages of a multistage amplifier, RC coupling is used The gain of an amplifier with feedback is known as closed loop gain Negative feedback is employed in amplifiers The gain of an amplifier is expressed in db unit because human ear response is logarithmic About 50 F is the typical value of the emitter bypass capacitor in a multistage amplifier In a multistage amplifier, if the stages have R and C component only, class A operation is apparent Capacitance is normally varied in order to change frequency of oscillation Power gain is the main consideration in the output stage of an amplifier Transformer coupling provides high gain because of impedance matching can be achieved When negative voltage feedback is applied to an amplifier, its output impedance decreases An LC oscillator cannot be used to produce very low frequencies A transistor converts dc power into ac power Hartley oscillator is commonly used in Radio receivers An oscillator oscillates due to positive feedback Generally, tuned amplifiers are operated in class C A tuned amplifier is used in Radio frequency The ratio of output to input impedance of a CE amplifier is moderate For a constant output frequency, the simplest sinusoidal oscillator circuit to construct is the crystal circuit The frequency stability of the oscillator output is maximum in Wein bridge oscillator Transformer coupling introduces frequency distortion A pulsating dc applied to power amplifiers causes hum in the circuit The disadvantage of impedance matching is that it gives distorted output In a phase-shift oscillator, three RC sections are generally used In phase-shift oscillator, R and C are the frequency determining element

The input impedance of CC amplifier depends strongly on load resistance Electrolytic capacitors are used in transistor amplifiers An important limitation of crystal oscillator is its low output Both positive and negative type of feedback is used in Wien bridge oscillator Transformer coupling is the most costly coupling Piezoelectric effect in a crystal voltage is developed because of mechanical stress The input resistance of a common emitter amplifier is affected by Re, re and More than 10,000 is the typical Q of a crystal X is the axis that connects the corners of a crystal Push-pull amplifier is usually employed at the output stage of an amplifier The size of a power transistor is made considerably large to dissipate more heat When crystal frequency increases with temperature, it has positive temperature co-efficient The purpose of the bypass capacitor in a common-emitter amplifier is it increases voltage gain An emitter follower is equivalent to common collector amplifier The crystal oscillator frequency is very stable due to high Q of the crystal The bandwidth of an amplifier increases when negative feedback is applied The term 1+A in the expression for gain with negative feedback is known as sacrifice factor Emitter follower employs 100 % negative feedback Radio transmitter application would most likely find a crystal oscillator Collector efficiency is the most important consideration in power amplifiers When the gain versus frequency curve of a transistor amplifier is not flat, frequency distortion is present In a Colpitts oscillator, feedback is obtained from the center of split capacitors When the collector resistor in a common emitter amplifier is increased in value the voltage gain increases Output signal of a CE amplifier is always out of phase with the input signal The purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier is to couple or bypass ac component When CE configuration is used for an oscillator, the voltage fed back must be inverted by 180 Class B operation has a maximum possible efficiency of 78.5 % Crystal oscillator the most stable sine-wave oscillator which uses piezo-electric quartz crystal To sustain oscillations, the power gain of the amplifier may be equal to or greater than 1 In a phase-shift oscillator, 180 phase-shift is obtained by three RC sections Feedback circuit usually employs resistive network

Emitter follower is used for impedance matching Increased over gain is a characteristic of cascaded amplifiers Logic analyzer is used to sample and display system signal Quartz crystal is most commonly used in crystal oscillators because it has superior electrical properties The operating frequency of a Wien-bridge oscillator is given by 1/(2RC) Class C gives the maximum distortion Low efficiency of a power amplifier results in more battery consumption In an LC oscillator, the frequency of oscillations is given by 1/(2sqr(LC)) Class A operation has a maximum possible efficiency of 50% Common emitter amplifier is a choice when higher power gain is a requirement The signal generator generally used in laboratories is Wien-bridge oscillator A buffer amplifier is used for minimum loading and minimum mismatch Parasitic oscillations are caused by transistor interelectrode capacitance Crystal oscillator is a fixed-frequency oscillator The approximate operating frequency of a phase-shift oscillator is given by 1/(2RC sqr(6)) The frequency of the ripple voltage at the output of a full-wave rectifier at 60 cycles is 120 cyles Cascaded amplifiers total decibel gain is equal to the product of the individual gains In an LC oscillator, if the value of L is increased for times, then frequency of oscillation is decreased 2 times A class A power amplifier is otherwise known as single ended amplifier The power input to a power amplifier is dc quantity When shock-excited, a crystal will produce alternating emf longer than an LC circuit because crystal has fewer losses The stability of a regulated power supply is equivalent to change of output voltage over the change in supply voltage Oscillator circuit that uses a tapped coil in the tuned circuit is called Hartley If you move towards an oscillating circuit, its frequency changes because of hand capacitance The number of transistor in a single stage amplifier is one Series current negative feedback occurs when the feedback voltage is proportional to the output current An amplifier with efficiency 85% is likely to be Class C 180 is the phase difference between the output and input voltage of a CE amplifier Class C operation is preferred in oscillators because it is more efficient Sinewave oscillator a type of oscillator which are composed of one or more amplifying devices with some frequency-determining networks introducing positive feedback at a particular frequency so that oscillation is sustained at the frequency High input impedance of a transistor is desired

78.5% is the maximum collector efficiency of class B when a transistor is cut off maximum voltage appears across transistor In an LC circuit, when the capacitor energy is maximum, the inductor energy is minimum The reciprocal of feedback factor is the approximate gain of an amplifier with negative feedback The operating point in a transistor amplifier moves along ac load line when an ac signal is applied An oscillator converts dc power into ac power Transistor is the active device in a transistor oscillator When the collector supply is 5 V, then collector cut off voltage under dc conditions is 5 V The common base amplifier has a lower input resistance compared to CE and CC amplifier The voltage gain decreases when a FET with a lower transconductance is substituted into a FET amplifier circuit In the zero signal conditions, a transistor sees dc load The current gain of an emitter follower is less than 1 The current in any branch of a transistor amplifier that is operating is the sum of ac and dc An ideal differential amplifiers common mode rejection ratio is infinite An open fuse circuit has a resistance equal to infinity The purpose of dc conditions in a transistor is to set up operating point The ac variation at the output side of power supply circuits are called ripples The purpose of emitter capacitor is to avoid voltage drop in gain A common emitter circuit is also called grounded emitter circuit The output signal of a common-collector amplifier is always in phase with the input signal Unity is the ideal maximum voltage gain of a common collector amplifier The output power of a transistor amplifier is more than the input power due to additional power supplied by collector supply When a transistor amplifier feeds a load of low resistance, its voltage gain will be low The capacitance are considered short in the ac equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier For highest power gain, CE configuration is used The most important characteristic of a common collector amplifier is that it has high input resistance CC configuration is used for impedance matching because its input impedance is very high Power stage is the other name of the output stage in an amplifier When amplifiers are cascaded the overall gain is increased In a common emitter amplifier, the capacitor from emitter to ground is called bypass capacitor A class A power amplifier uses one transistor/s

25% is the maximum collector efficiency of a resistance loaded class A power amplifier 50% is the maximum collector efficiency of a transformer coupled class A power amplifier Class C amplifier are used as RF amplifiers If the capacitor from emitter to ground in a common emitter amplifier is removed, the voltage gain decreases Comparatively, power amplifier has small beta The driver stage usually employs class A power amplifier The push-pull circuit must use class B operation A complementary-symmetry amplifier has one PNP and one NPN transistor Power amplifiers generally use transformer coupling because transformer coupling provides impedance matching The output transformer used in a power amplifier is a/an step-down transformer Transformer coupling can be used in either power or voltage amplifiers When negative current feedback is applied to an amplifier, its output impedance increases The quiescent current of a FET amplifier is Id The frequency response of the combined amplifier can be compared with an AND gate Minimum interference with frequency response can be given by direct coupling The impedance of a load must match the impedance of the amplifier so that maximum power is transferred to the load The ratio of output rms power in watts to the input dc power in watts in the different amplifier class is called efficiency The voltage gain of a common collector configuration is unity. Transmit time is the time taken by the electrons on holes to pass form emitter to collector

ENERGY CONVERSION Cell a device that transforms chemical energy into electrical energy Cell a device that is capable of converting chemical energy into electrical energy Edison cell a secondary cell whose active positive plate consists of nickel hydroxide, and active negative-plate material is powdered iron oxide mixed with cadmium. Its typical output when fully charged is Vo = 1.2V If a cell can be charged after it is depleted, it is considered as a secondary cell, a storage cell, and an accumulator Primary cell cell that cannot be recharged which cannot restore chemical reaction Primary cell a cell whose chemical reaction is not reversible Battery a voltage source in a single container made from one or more cells combines in series, parallel, or series-parallel A battery is used to supply a steady dc voltage In a dry cell, the internal resistance increases as it aged Flash current the maximum current a cell can deliver through a 0.01 ohm load during testing In batteries, the material used to insulate the positive plates from negative plates are technically called separator Leclanche cell a primary cell with carbon and zinc as its positive and negative electrodes respectively, and an electrolyte of either a gel or paste. This is commonly known as dry cell Silver-cadmium cell has a nominal open-circuit voltage of 1.05 V Photovoltaic material substance, which generates a voltage when exposed to light Photovoltaic cell a cell whose voltage is generated as a function of light Silicon, Selenium, Germanium substance used in photovoltaic cells Thermoelectric junction a junction between two conductors that exhibits electrical characteristic under condition of changing temperature Thermoelectricity Electricity that is generated due to heat, as in thermocouple Prime mover the source of mechanical power to turn the rotors of alternators, large and small, A.C and D.C Generators electrical machines that convert mechanical energy to electrical energy Rotary converter electrical machine that converts ac voltage to dc voltage, or vice versa Frequency converter electrical machine that changes ac voltage at one frequency to another ac voltage at another frequency Elementary generator it consist of a single coil rotated in a magnetic field and produces an A.C. voltage Generation of voltage in a generator can only happen when there is a relative motion between conducting wires and magnetic line of force Electro/permanent magnets and armature winding two essential parts in rotating generators In electrical machines, armature winding is the set of conductors wound on laminated cores of good magnetic permeability In dc generator, commutator converts the alternating emf to DC Generally, in dc generators, the armature winding is rotated with respect to a stationary magnetic field produced by electromagnets or permanent magnets In electrical machines, ac voltage is generated at the armature winding

Generally in ac generators, the electromagnets or permanent magnets are rotated with respect to the stationary armature winding Self-excited shunt generator a dc generator whose excitation is produced by a winding connected to its own positive and negative terminals Field poles in electric machines are always an even number of them In a compound generator, series field winding usually has a lower resistance In dc-compound generator shunt field winding is relatively made of fine wires Voltage vs. load characteristic is important that you should consider in choosing a dc-generator The purpose of laminating the field poles and armature of a dc machine is to reduce eddy current An alternator with a lagging power factor of 0.8 will have a greater than voltage regulation at unity power factor With alternators connected in parallel, the frequency of the system can be changed by changing the rpm of the prime movers With alternators connected in parallel, the voltage of the system can be changed by changing the field excitation If an ac generator is to be driven from prime mover having variable speed, such as aircraft engine, a constant speed drive (CSD) must be used. 0% is the voltage regulation when the full load voltage is the same as no-load voltage assuming a perfect voltage source Hydraulic turbines are usually used to drive low-speed alternators Steam turbines are usually used to drive high-speed alternators High-speed alternators are smaller then low-speed Carbon brushes are widely used in dc machines because it lubricates and polishes the contacts Alternators have less chance to hunt if driven by steam turbines In alternators, the purpose of damper windings is it prevents hunting Parallel operation is the term that applies to the use of two or more generators to supply a common load In paralleling ac generators, phase angle is very important Jogging description used for generators trying to self-adjust its parameters before paralleling with on line generators In changing power from one generator to another, No Break Power Transfer (NBPT) is called when the operational sequence wherein the incoming generator is connected first before removing the existing generator Break power transfer the present on-line generator will be disconnected first before connecting the incoming generator Alternators are rated in kVA In electrical power distribution, main transmission lines is the first distribution line from the main generating station The lines which carry the energy from the transformer to a customers service are called secondary distribution lines In electrical power generating/distribution company, distribution of power to the customers is their highest expenses In electrical power distributions, porcelain insulator is generally used Motors electrical machines that convert electrical energy to mechanical energy Synchronous type of ac-motor, uses a dc-generator to supply dc-excitation to the rotating field

Dc series motor produces the highest increase in torque considering the same increase in current When an armature opens in dc motor, it may cause intermittent sparking Motors take large current during starting because theres still a low back emf In dc motors, the speed will decrease with an increase in field strength When armature current is increased in a dc motor, its armature reaction will also increase To reduce sparking in dc motor, brushes are positioned such that they will be with the direction of the rotation Polyphase motors are best suited for heavy-load application Dc shunt motor speed can be controlled electronically by using a thyristor in series with the armature winding SCR thyristor is commonly used in motor speed control In controlling motor speed, the SCR control the firing angle In motor speed control, trigger circuit is responsible for SCR firing Rectifier a circuit that converts ac-voltage to dc-voltage Dc-converter conversion from dc-voltage to another dc-voltage Ac-converter a converter that changes ac-voltage to another ac-voltage level Inverter must be used if one wished to change dc voltage into ac voltage cycloconverter a converter that changes ac-voltage frequency from one to another. In electronic converters, square-wave signal is mostly used to trigger the active device A transformer consist of two coils wound on a common core Transformer is considered by many as an efficient device due to the fact that it is a static device With transformer, copper loss is measured when performing open-circuit test Open-circuit test with transformers is always done on low-voltage winding Short-circuit test with transformers is always done on low-voltage winding When the transformer secondary winding is short-circuited, its primary inductance will increase Natural air cooling cooling system for transformers with ratings less than 5kVA For transformers, zero efficiency happens when it has no-load For transformers, maximum efficiency happens when copper loss is equal to constant loss In constructing transformers, the primary and secondary winding should have tight magnetic coupling Voltage per turn and ampere-turns are the two parameters in transformer that are the same in both primary and secondary In transformer, the amount of copper used in the primary is almost equal as that of secondary At very low frequencies, transformers work poorly because its magnetizing current will be very high If a power transformer is to be operated at very high frequency, it will have a very high core loss

Primary and secondary are coupled electrically and magnetically in autotransfomers In a single-phase transformer, the core flux is alternating The transformer might burn out when its primary is connected to at DC supply Generally, you consider the use of core-type transformer at high voltage and low current applications In current transformers, when its primary is energized the secondary should never be open-circuited An ideal transformer is the one with no losses and leakage reactance The effect of air gaps at the transformer core is it increases magnetizing current Eddy currents are wasteful current which flow in cores of transformers and produces heat Nothing will happen to the eddy current loss in transformers when the load is increased Leakage flux in transformers will cause voltage drop in the windings The increase in temperature in a transformer is mainly due to apparent power In transformers, the voltage per turn at the primary is the same as the secondary In transformer windings, the more number of turns the higher is the voltage Core-type transformers has a shorter magnetic path Practically 85% is copper loss to the total loss in transformers The purpose of laminating the core of a transformer is to decrease eddy current loss Large transformers have approximately an efficiency of 95% The loss in a transformer due to the changing field is called hysteresis loss Coefficient of coupling the ratio of the amount of magnetic flux linking a secondary coil compared to the flux generated by the primary coil Mutual inductance between two coils can be decreased by moving the coils apart An advantage of full-wave rectifier over half-wave rectifier: the tube will conduct during both halves of the input cycle The circuit that converts ac-voltage to a dc-voltage is called a rectifier Half-wave a rectifier that uses either the positive or negative portion only of the main supply For a half-wave rectifier, the average output voltage is 31.8% of the maximum ac-voltage 121% - percent ripple of a half-wave rectifier To double the capacity of the half-wave rectifier, a full-wave rectifier, dual supply must be used 0.90 Vmax the dc-voltage of a full-wave bridge rectifier Vdc = 0.90 Vrms 0.48 ripple factor of a full-wave rectifier To improve the dc output voltage of a power supply, a filter capacitor may be installed Making the filter capacitor large in a power supply results to an increase of the dc-voltage

In capacitor-filtered power supply, the ripple voltage drops to zero if the load is disconnected Multi-section LC-filter power supply filter gives the smallest ripple voltage Regulation is a better alternative to reduce further the ripples Shunt regulator a voltage regulator connected in parallel with the load Shunt regulator is the most inefficient Zener diode voltage reference element in most voltage regulators In voltage regulators, the control element controls the amount of current, voltage and power Op-amp the element/device used as a comparator in most voltage regulators Voltage divider network sampling circuit used in most voltage regulators Most voltage regulators use BJT as their control element Switching regulators the most efficient voltage regulator and is therefore used in high-current high-voltage applications 78XX three-terminal fixed positive voltage regulators commonly used in industry The regulated output voltage of a 7924 regulator is -24 V 317 a three-terminal variable positive voltage regulator 337 three-terminal IC regulator has a variable negative voltage output In a three-terminal adjustable positive voltage regulator (317), 1.25 V is the band-gap voltage between the output terminal and adjustment terminal Typical ripple rejection of most three-terminal voltage regulators is 0.1% The simplest way of protecting power supplies from reverse-polarity / reverse-current flow is by a reverse-biased diode A crowbar circuit is used as an over-voltage protection in power supplies Switching regulators dissipate less power and therefore generate less heat Active device used in switching regulators may experience large over-currents during conduction (turn-on-state) and large over-voltages during turn-off. These excessive currents and voltages may cause distraction or damage of the active devices. We protect them by installing a snubber circuit Power conditioners clean-up or shape-up the utility-supply voltage form disturbances such as, overvolt, undervolt, voltage spikes, and harmonic distortions Uninterruptible power supply a power supply that continuously provides protection against undervoltage, overvoltage and even power outages

Power Generator / Sources / Principles / Applications A battery is a group of cells that generate electric energy form their internal chemical reaction The main function of a batter is to provide a source of steady dc voltage of fixed polarity The volt is a unit of electromotive force A transformer will work on ac only In a chemical cell, current is the movement of positive and negative ions The speed of a dc motor is inversely proportional to flux per pole Low-speed alternators are driven by hydraulic turbines High-speed alternators are driven by steam turbines The common 9-V flat battery for transistor radio has six cells connected in series For the same rating, the size of low-speed alternator is more than that of high speed alternator Silver-zinc, nickel-iron, lead-acid are examples of secondary cell Carbon-zinc, zinc chloride, mercuric oxide are examples of primary cell 12 V is the nominal output of an automotive battery having six lead-acid cells in series The brush voltage drop in a dc machine is about 2 V Carbon brushes are used in a dc machine because carbon lubricates and polishes the commutator Carbon-zinc dry cell and lead-sulfuric wet cell are considered as the main type of battery The main function of a dc motor is to change electrical energy to mechanical energy Shunt motor has the best speed regulation Voltaic cell a method of converting chemical energy into electric energy by dissolving two different conducting materials in an electrolyte A commulatively compounded motor does not run at dangerous speed at light loads because of the presence of shunt winding DC shunt motors are used in those applications where practically constant speed is required Galvanic cell is the other name of voltaic cell For the same rating series motor has the highest starting torque The voltage regulation of an alternator with a power factor of 0.8 lagging is greater than at unity power factor Commulatively compounded motor is the most suitable for punch presses In a vacuum cleaner, series motor is generally used. Sealed rechargeable cell a type of secondary cell that can be recharged but with an electrolyte that cannot be refilled Silver-cadmium is a secondary cell with a nominal open-circuit voltage of 1.1 V Series is a variable speed motor The most commonly used method of speed control of a dc motor is by varying field strength

Electrochemical series and electromotive series give the relative activity in forming ion charges for some of the chemical elements The ac armature winding of an alternator is always star-connected The air-gap in an alternator is much longer than in an induction machine Nickel-iron cell is a secondary cell with a nominal open-circuit voltage output of 1.2 and is otherwise known as Edison cell A dc series motor is most suitable for cranes Commulatively compounded motors are suitable for elevators The voltage output of a cell depends on its elements The alternators driven by steam turbines do not have a tendency to hunt Damper windings are used in alternators to prevent hunting Leclanche cell is the other name of carbon-zinc cell The primary leakage flux link primary winding only Overheating of a dc motor is often due to overloads A small 9-V battery might be used to provide power to and electronic calculator The frequency of the system with which several alternators are parallel can be increased by simultaneously increasing the speed of prime movers of all generators A transformer is an efficient device because it is a static device The amount of back emf of a shunt motor will increase when the field is strengthened Three cells connected in series form a battery Turns ratio can be found in a transformer with open-circuit test Transformers having ratings less then 5kVA are generally natural air cooled An example of a rechargeable dc source is a lead-acid battery The voltage of the bus-bar to which several alternators are paralleled may be raised by simultaneously increasing field excitation of all alternators The rating of an alternator is expressed in kVA Commulatively compounded motors are used in applications where sudden heavy loads for short duration is required Series motor never uses belt-connected load A stand-alone solar power system uses solar panels and batteries A transformer will have zero efficiency at no-load The efficiency of a transformer will be maximum when copper loss is equal to constant loss The armature winding of a dc machine is a closed-circuit winding The speed at which a 6-pole alternator should be driven to generate 50 cycles per second is 1000 rpm Connecting batteries of equal voltage in parallel multiplies the current available

The flux in the core of a single-phase transformer is purely alternating one The primary of a transformer may burn out when connected to a dc supply A constant-voltage source has low internal resistance If the excitation of an alternator operating in parallel with other alternators is increased above the normal value of excitation, its power factor becomes more lagging The synchronous reactance of an alternator is generally 10 to 100 times greater than armature resistance DC series motors are used in those applications where high starting torque is required A dc motor is still used in industrial applications because it provides fine speed control The stator of an alternator is wound for the same number of poles as on the rotor Carbon brushes are preferred compared to copper brushes they reduce sparking The synchronous reactance of an alternator decreases as the iron is saturated A 4-pole dc machine has 4 magnetic circuits The current in armature conductors of a dc machine is ac The ac armature winding of an alternator operates at much higher voltage than the field winding The field poles and armature of a dc machine are laminated to reduce eddy current The back emf or counter emf in dc motor opposes the applied voltage The synchronous reactance of an alternator is due to armature reaction Back emf in a dc motor is maximum at no load The mechanical power developed in a dc motor is maximum when back emf is equal to one-half the applied voltage The core-type transformer is generally suitable for high voltage and small output The transformer that should never have the secondary open-circuited when primary is energized is current transformer The field winding of an alternator is dc excited The salient-pole construction for field structure of an alternator is generally used for 8-pole machine When the speed of a dc motor increases, its armature current decreases The frequency of emf generated in an 8-pole alternator running at 900 rpm is 60 Hz In case of a 4-pole machine, 1 mechanical degree corresponds to 2 electrical degrees The torque developed by a dc motor is directly proportional to flux per pole times armature current Induction motor ac machine in which the torque is produced by the interaction of currents in the stator and currents induced in the motor by transformer action Synchronous motor machine in which torque is produced by the interaction of ac currents in the stator and dc currents in the rotor turning in synchronism The main drawback of a dc shunt generator is that terminal voltage drops considerably with load DC machines which are subjected to abrupt changes of load are provided with compensating windings The shaft torque in a dc motor is less than total armature torque because of iron and friction losses in the motor Armature reaction in a dc motor is increased when the armature current increases

The iron losses in a dc motor depend upon both flux and speed The greatest percentage of power loss in dc motor is due to copper loss Excessive sparking at the brushes may be caused due to dirt on the commutator The temperature rise of a transformer is directly proportional to apparent power Magnetization curve a graphical relation between the generated emf and field current of a machine Majority of alternators in use have revolving field type construction The stator of an alternator is identical to that of a 3-phase induction motor Excessive motor vibration is caused by worn bearings Hot bearings of a dc motor may be caused by lack of or dirty lubricant Intermittent sparking at the brushes of dc motor may be caused due to an open armature coil When load on a transformer is increased, the eddy current loss remains the same The yoke of a dc machine is made of cast steel The armature of a dc machine is made of silicon steel The voltage per turn of the primary of a transformer is the same as the voltage per turn of the secondary The winding of the transformer with greater number of turns will be high-voltage winding The coupling field between electrical and mechanical systems of a dc machine is magnetic field The real working part of a dc machine is the armature winding 4-pole dc machines are most common The core-type transformer provides shorter magnetic path Compound machine a machine with field excitation by both shunt and series windings The armature winding of a dc machine is placed on the rotor to facilitate commutation The yoke of a dc machine carries one-half of pole flux The greatest eddy current loss occurs in the armature of a dc machine The commentator pitch for a simplex lap winding is equal to 1 In a simplex wave winding, the number of parallel path is equal to 2 In a practical transformer, copper losses account to 85% of the total losses By laminating the core of a transformer, eddy current loss decreases The number of parallel paths in a simplex lap winding is equal to number of poles In a dc machine, the number of commutator segments is equal to number of coils A dc compound generator having full-load terminal voltage equal to the no-load voltage is called flat-compounded generator The terminal voltage of a series generator varies widely with changes in load current

The nature of armature winding of a dc machine is decided by commutator pitch The voltage regulation of an alternator is larger than that of a dc generator because of complex effects of armature reaction High-voltage dc machine use wave winding In a lap winding, the number of the brushes required is equal to number of poles The approximate efficiency of a large transformer is 95% In a wave winding, the commutator pitch is approximately equal to twice the pole pitch A triplex wave winding will have 6 parallel paths For a given dc generator, the generated voltage depends upon both speed and flux For the same rating, a dc machine has more weight than an ac machine Slip difference between the speeds of rotating magnetic field and the associated rotor The field winding of a dc shunt motor usually carries 2% to 5% of ht rated current of the machine A separately excited dc generator is not used because a separate dc source is required for field circuit The effect of armature reaction is to decrease the total flux In a dc generator, armature reaction weakens the flux at the leading pole tip The greatest percentage of heat loss in a dc machine is due to copper loss The size of a dc generator can be reduced by using magnetic material of high permeability

ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTATIONS Accuracy the degree of exactness of measurement when compared to the expected value of the variable being measured Measurement the art, or process of determining the existence of knowing the magnitude of something, directly or indirectly in terms of a recognized standard Test a procedure, or sequence of operations for determining whether a component or equipment is functioning or working normally In measurement, accuracy is the degree of exactness compared to the expected value of the variable being measured A measure of consistency or repeatability of measurements is called precision Precision is also known as reproducibility In measurements, the sum of a set of numbers divided by the total number of pieces of data in the given set is called arithmetic mean Error the deviation of a reading form the expected value Instrument errors errors due to frictions of the meter movement, incorrect spring tension, improper calibration or faulty instruments When an instrument is subjected to harsh environments such as high temperature, strong magnetic, electrostatic, or electromagnetic field, it may have a detrimental effects and cause errors known as environmental errors Observation errors errors introduced by the observer or user Parallax error errors in analog meter reading due to your physical position with respect to the meter scale Deviation the difference between any number within the set of numbers and the arithmetic mean of that set of numbers Standard instrument/device an instrument or device having recognized permanent or stable value that is used as a reference Resolution the smallest change in a measured variable to which an instrument will respond Instrument a device or mechanism used to determine the value of a quantity under observation Amepe is the basic unit for measuring current flow An instrument used to detect and measure the presence of electrical current is generally called galvanometer D Arsonoval is the common type of meter moving D Arsonoval meter movement a permanent-magnet moving-coil instrument Moving-iron instrument an instrument which depends on current in one or more fixed-coils acting on one of more pieces of soft iron, at least one of which is movable Moving-magnet instrument depends on the action of a movable permanent magnet, in aligning itself in the resultant field, produced either by a fixed permanent magnet and an adjacent coil or coils carrying current, or by two or more current-carrying coils whose axes are displaced by a fixed angle Thermocouple ammeter is mostly used in measuring high-frequency currents Measurement of high dc-voltages is usually done by using electrostatic Electrostatic measuring instrument that can be used only to measure voltages Pyrometer this instrument measures temperatures by electric means, especially temperatures beyond the range of mercury thermometers Pyranometer this instrument refers to that one, which measures the intensity of the radiation, received from any portion of the sky Infinity is the normal indication on a megger (megaohmmeter) when checking insulation

Megaohmmeter, megger Resistance measuring instrument particularly used in determining the insulation resistance Wattmeter an electrodynamic meter used to measure power Dynamometer a device used to mechanically measure the output power of a motor Electrodynamometer an indicating instrument whose movable coils rotate between two stationary coils, usually used as wattmeter Dynamometers are mostly used as wattmeter Air friction damping method is generally used in dynamometers Wattmeter dynamometer instrument has a uniform scale For a dynamometer to be able to measure high current, a current transformer should be used Error in voltmeter reading is due to loading Error in ammeter reading is due to insertion An ohmmeter type of meter requires its own power source Error in ohmmeter reading is due to battery aging Decreasing the value of the shunt resistor of an ammeter, its current measuring capability increases Increasing the value of the series resistor of a voltmeter, its voltage measuring capability increases Clamp probe a device that is used to measure current without opening the circuit Clamp-meter ammeter has no insertion error To prevent damage of the multirange ammeter during selection, an Ayrton shunt should be used For the greatest accuracy, the input impedance of a VOM should be as large as possible Voltage measurement in a high impedance circuit requires a voltmeter with high input impedance In order to make an accurate measurement as possible, the internal resistance of a voltmeter must be as high as possible The purpose of the rheostat in ohmmeter is to compensate the aging battery of the meter The zero-adjust control in an analog type ohmmeter is used to compensate for the differing internal battery voltage The scale of a hot wire instrument is a squared function Moving iron instruments have a scale function that is squared To increase the measuring capability of a moving-iron ac ammeter, a different number of turns of operating coil should be used PMMC electrical instrument is the most sensitive Basically, a PMMC instrument can be used only in dc measurement Spring action controlling torque in PMMC Eddy current damping method is used in induction type ammeter Induction type instruments are mostly used as watt-hour meter In indicating instruments, the controlling torque increases if the deflection becomes greater

Controlling torque and deflecting torque are forces that are acting on the pointer of an indicating instrument as it rest on its final deflected position Controlling, damping, and deflecting torques are the forces acting on the pointer of an indicating instrument when it is in motion Aluminum material that is mostly used as a pointer in indicating instrument A Kelvin electrostatic voltmeter uses fluid friction method of damping Shunts in meters should have a very small temperature coefficient of resistance In a moving coil ammeter, a swamping resistor is connected in series with the coil to compensate for temperature variations We use the dynamometer in dc and ac Electrostatic instrument meter that depends for its operation on the forces of attraction and repulsion between electrically charged bodies Induction instrument instrument that depends for its operation on the reaction between magnetic flux set up by currents in fixed windings and other currents set up by electromagnetic induction in movable conduction parts Permanent-magnet moving-coil instrument a meter that for its operation, it depends on a movable iron vane which aligns itself in the resultant field of a permanent magnet and an adjacent current carrying coil Vane-type instrument uses the force of repulsion between fixed and movable magnetized iron vanes, or the force between a coil and a pivoted vane-shaped piece of soft iron to move the indicating pointer Kelvin voltmeter its an electrostatic voltmeter in which an assembly of figure 8 shaped metal plates rotates between the plates of a stationary assembly when a voltage is applied between the assemblies. The length of the arc of rotation is proportional to the electrostatic attraction and thus, to the applied voltage Magnetometer is an instrument used for measuring the strength and direction of magnetic field Varmeter and reactive volt-ampere meter are the instrument used for measuring reactive power in vars Bridge is a circuit that has four or more arms, by means of which one or more of the electrical constants of an unknown component may be measured Resistance bridge, wheatstone bridge a four-arm bridge. All arms of which are predominantly resistive; used for measuring resistance Varley loop this is a method of using a Wheatstone bridge to determine the distance from the test point to a fault in a telephone or telegraph line or cable Maxwell bridge this refers to a four-arm ac bridge used for measuring inductance against a standard capacitance Hay bridge refers to an ac bridge for measuring the inductance and Q of an inductor in terms of resistance, frequency and a standard capacitance Kelvin double bridge this is a special bridge for measuring very low resistance (0.1 or less). The arrangement of the bridge reduces the effects of contact resistance, which causes significant error when such low resistance are connected to conventional resistance bridges Schering bridge a type of four-arm capacitance bridge in which the unknown capacitance is compared with a standard capacitance. This bridge is frequently employed in testing electrolytic capacitors, to which a dc polarizing voltage is applied during the measurement Wein bridge a frequency-sensitive bridge in which two adjacent arms are resistances and the other two arm are RC combinations When the capacitors of a Wien bridge are replaced by inductors, the bridge becomes Wein inductance bridge Slide-wire bridge a simplified version of the Wheatstone bridge wherein, two of the ratio arms are replaced by a 100 cm long Manganin of uniform cross-sections and provided with a slider Radio-frequency bridge bridge used to measure both inductive and capacitive impedances at higher frequencies Balance bridge a bridge wherein all legs are electrically identical Spectrum analyzer is an electronic instrument capable of showing on screen and maybe on print, relative spacing of transmitter carriers, their sidebands and harmonics

Spectrum analyzer an instrument capable of displaying simultaneously the amplitude of signals having different frequencies A spectrum analyzer is a real-time analyzer Indications of spectrum analyzer is presented by means of a CRT Oscilloscope an electronic measuring device that provide instantaneous visual indication of voltage excursions Oscilloscope an instrument that is capable of displaying waveforms by means of a fluorescence in a CRT Storage oscilloscope types of oscilloscopes that are able to retain the display for a longer period for analysis. The display is retained by the use of flood gun Sampling oscilloscope uses sampling technique in processing signals having frequencies beyond its normal capabilities Generally, oscilloscope uses electrostatic deflection Signal generators a device or instrument, which delivers signals of precise frequency and amplitude, usually over a wide range The two most common audio oscillators are Wein bridge and phase-shift The two most popular RF oscillators are Colpitts and Hartley Noise generator a device or instrument able to generate noise with accurate voltage for test purposes You need a noise generator when evaluating noise characteristics of an amplifier In RF or microwave system, reflectometer is used to measure the incidental and reflected signals Reflectometer a type of photometer used to measure reflection Dip meter a tunable RF instrument, which, by means of a sharp dip of an indicating meter, indicates resonance with an external circuit under test Grid-dip meter a type of dip meter employing a vacuum tube oscillator, whose indicating dc microammeter is in the grid circuit In meter movement, you prevent the meter from oscillation and overswing by damping When the meter is insufficiently damped, it is considered as underdamped A meter when overdamped will become insensitive to small signals

When the vertical input is 0V, the electron beam may be positioned at the vertical center of the screen The reason why the scale of a permanent-magnet moving coli instrument is uniform is because it is spring controlled Thermal converters a sensing element that provides a dc voltage less than 10mV with typical power range of 0.1 to 100 mW Tank circuit frequency can be measured by Grid-dip meter Shunts are generally made of Manganin material 1 A meter is the most sensitive A dynamometer instrument is mainly used as a wattmeter Dynamometer movement is the most expensive Attraction and repulsion instrument are considered as moving-iron instruments In wheatstone bridge, bridge balance is a condition where there is no current that flows through the load The temperature coefficient of resistance of the shunt material is negligible In VTVMS, zero adjust is used to balance both halves of the difference amplifier or cathode-coupled amplifier In an oscilloscope, intensity control adjusts the brightness of the spot by changing the voltage on the control grid Damping force a force in analog instrument which quickly brings the moving system to rest in its final position A small swamping resistance is connected in series with operating coil of a moving coil ammeter in order to compensate for the effects of temperature variation The typical power range of diode sensor is 0.1 nW to 10 mW A milliameter operates on the magnetic attraction-repulsion principles Wheatstone bridge a dc bridge widely used for the accurate measurement of resistance Potentiometer bridge is a dc bridge that is very useful for making extremely accurate voltage measurements Majority of the analog measuring instrument utilizes magnetic effect Multimeter typically provides measurement of rms values (for a sinusoidal waveform) Dynamometer type instrument can be used for both dc and ac works Permanent-magnet moving coil is an instrument in which springs provide the controlling torque as well as serve to lead current into and out of the operating coil In VTVMS, sensitivity refers to the smallest signal that can be reliably measured The frequency of rotation in some rotating machinery can be measured by a Spectral meter An instrument used for observing voltage and current waveforms is the oscilloscope An electrostatic force does not act on the moving systems of analog instrument When current through the operating coil of a moving-iron instrument is tripled the operating force becomes nine times 50 mA is the typical full-scale deflection current of a moving coil instrument Ammeter an instrument used for measuring the amount of current flowing in a circuit

DMM a type of meter that gives a precise reading of voltage, current or resistance where there is the generation of samples at the input and then feeds it to a digital read-out 50 mV is the typical full-scale voltage across a moving coil voltmeter The period of a repetitive signal is one cycle of the waveform Cathode an element of a CRT that releases electrons when heated indirectly by a filament Moving-iron instrument has a squared scale A pattern displayed by oscilloscope which has a steady characteristic is called Lissajous Changing the number of turns of operating coil extends the range of a moving-iron ac ammter Sawtooth generator is not a basic part of a CRT For amplitude measurements, vertical scale is calibrated in either volts per centimeter (V/cm), or millivolts per centimeter (mV/cm) Thermocouple ammter is used to measure high-frequency currents Electrostatic is used for measuring high direct voltage A common technique for measuring power at high frequency is to employ a sensing element that converts the RF power to a measurable dc or low-frequency signal The CRT provides the visual displaying showing the form of the signal applied as a waveform on the front screen of a cathode ray oscilloscope. Electrostatic instruments are exclusively used as voltmeters 0.1 W to100 W is the typical power range of thermocouple sensors An electric pyrometer is an instrument used to measure high temperature Permanent-magnet moving coil is the most sensitive Induction watt-hour meter is the most commonly used induction type instrument An integrating type of instrument is the watt-hour meter Indicating instrument is assumed to be most accurate at half of full part of the scale On a simple ohmmeter, the 0 ohm mark is located at far right of the scale One of the basic functions of electronic circuit is the generation and manipulation of electronic waveshapes Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) provides a visual presentation of any waveform applied to the input terminals The interval of a pulse from start to end is the period of the pulse Cathode ray tube (CRT) is considered as the heart of the cathode ray oscilloscope Phosphor a material that glows when struck by the energetic electrons in a CRT Thermiston sensor provides a change of resistance with typical power range of 1 W to 10 mW and with maximum frequency greater than 100 GHz Most AC voltmeters have an rms scale which is valid only if the input signal being measured is a sinusoidal signal Wheatstone bridge measures dc resistance Hay bridge is used to measure high-Q inductors (Q>10)

Maxwell bridge measures an unknown inductance in terms of known capacitance Maxwell bridge is used for measuring medium Q coils (1<Q<10) Wien bridge has a series RC combination in one arm and a parallel RC combination in the adjoining arm and used as a notch filter in harmonic distortion analyzer Sensitivity of a voltmeter is express in ohm/volt The smallest change in applied stimulus that will indicate a detectable change in deflection in an indicating instrument is called resolution Insulation material is measured by Megger

INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS Breaker one type of circuit control device which may be manual, automatic or multi-contact Switching a tapped inductor and using a saturable reactor are the common methods of controlling electrical power with reactance Saturable reactor a reactive device used in controlling electrical power by using two windings on a common iron core. The control winding is supplied with small dccurrent which causes the reactance of a large ac-winding to change accordingly Magnetic amplifier a saturable reactor with regenerative feedback Thyratrons in industrial electronics refers to gas-filled triode Ignitrons an electronic switch that has the highest single-device current capacity and can withstand overloads better SCR a semiconductor, electronic switch that has the highest single-device current rating The purpose of installing thyrectors across the incoming power lines to the speed control system is to protect drive circuits from high voltage transient surges Semiconductor devices equivalent to thyratrons are generally called thyristor Phase control power control switching method greatly generates RFI or EMI and is therefore limited to low-frequency applications One of the electronic semiconductor devices known as diac, function as two terminal bi-directional switch Bidirectional-trigger diac trigger diode has the highest holding voltage Break-over devices general term of electronic devices used to control or trigger large-power switching devices Trigger diode a break-over device that is basically a diode SCR a four-element solid state device that combines the characteristics of both diodes and transistors SCR - the most popular thyristor used in electrical power controllers Conducting and non-conducting are the two stable operating conditions of an SCR To stop conduction during which SCR is also conducting, interrupt anode current To turn ON or trigger an SCR is by making the gate positive with respect to its cathode The anode to cathode continues to conduct even if the gate triggering voltage is removed Holding voltage the voltage across the anode and cathode terminals of an SCR when conducting Holding current the minimum amount of current needed for an SCR to conduct continuously Breakback voltage the voltage decreased across the anode and cathode of an SCR from non-conducting state to conducting state Minimum-gate trigger voltage is the needed voltage at the gate of an SCR before it conducts Water cooling is the only recommended to be used for the largest power dissipating device To increase the forward-voltage blocking capability of SCRs we connect them in series In connecting two SCRs in series, during OFF state, the voltage source must be properly shared between them, but due to devices difference, there might be unequal voltages across each SCR, we equalize these voltages by using a blocking-equalizing resistor Snubber circuit a circuit used for voltage equalization during ON-OFF switching action of SCRs in series

In controlling electrical power using phase control method with SCR/triac being the active device, firing delay angle is the period of the cycle before the device switches to conduction SBS a three terminal device that behaves roughly like SCR, except that it can conduct current in either direction when at ON. Gate, anode 1 and anode 2 are the three terminals of a TRIAC SUS a thyristor that is very similar to an SCR except that it has low voltage and current ratings. It is very temperature stable, and is therefore suitable to be used as a triggering device Silicon unilateral switches (SUSs) generally have a breakover voltage of 8 V, however, this value can be altered by normally connecting a zener diode. The diode is installed by diodes cathode to SUSs gate and diodes anode to SUSs cathode Shockley diode thyristor whose characteristic curve closely resembles that of SCRs and SUSs, except that its forward breakover voltage (+VBO) is not alterable, for the device has no gate terminal The forward breakdown or breakover voltage of SCRs and triacs will decrease if the gate current is increased For a unijunction transistor (UJT) to switch ON, the voltage between the emitter and base 1 should be greater than the peak voltage with emitter being more positive In selecting thyristors for a particular application, thyristors with high breakdback-voltage is generally desirable Portion in the welding process interval during which the welding current is flowing is called heat sub-interval In automatic welding system, basically there are 5 intervals In automatic welding, squeeze interval is the first interval wherein the material to be welded are held together After the squeeze interval, weld interval comes next in the automatic welding system During welding or weld interval, when a welding current is flowing the system is said to be at heat subinterval Cool subinterval the portion of the weld interval during which the current is absent After the welding interval, it goes to hold interval wherein the electrode pressure is maintained on the metal surfaces Next to hold interval is release interval in automatic welding system After the release interval in automatic welding, the system will go to standby interval Open-loop system refers to the system that has no feedback and is not self correcting The system is overdamped if a position servo system does not respond to small changes in the input The purpose of using a differential synchro instead of a regular synchro is that differential synchros can handle more signals and also performs addition and subtraction function Open-loop industrial circuit or system that is not self-correcting Closed-loop is a circuit or system that is self-correcting Open-loop in control system means: it has no feedback, it is not self-correcting, it is not self-regulating In control system, closed-loop means: it has feedback, it is self-correcting, it is self-regulating When a closed-loop system is used to maintain physical position it is referred as servo system In closed-loop control system, error is the difference in the measured value and the set value or desired value Error signal in closed-loop systems is also known as difference signal, deviation, system deviation In a closed-loop control system, when the error signal is zero the system is at null

Offset the small error signal or system deviation where the system cannot correct anymore A good closed-loop control system has the following characteristics: with very small offset signal or voltage, quick response, highly stable In control system, the manner in which the controller reaats to an error is termed as mode of control On-off mode of control wherein the controller has only tow operating states. This mode is also known as ban-bang control Proportional is a mode of control wherein the controller has a continuous range of possible position, not just two as in bang-bang control Proportional plus integral proportional mode of control wherein the controller is not only considering the magnitude of the error signal but as well as the time that it has persisted Proportional plus derivative proportional mode of control wherein the controller is not only considering the magnitude of the error signal but as well as its rate of change Error signal magnitude, error signal period of occurrence, and error signal rate of change are being considered in Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative mode of control If on-off mode of control is the simplest, proportional plus integral plus derivative is its opposite or the most complex The articulated arm and cylindrical are two of the most common mechanical configuration of industrial robots One advantage of hydraulic actuator in industrial robots include great force capability handling heavy loads Hydraulic and Pneumatic includes two of the actuator type used in industrial robots Servo a system in which the precise movement of a large load is controlled by a relatively weak signal Industrial robot a programmable, multifunction manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specific devices Robotics the technology for automations The number of axis a robot is free to move is called degrees of freedom Hydraulic fluid actuators has the greatest force capability Hydraulic actuator requires the highest initial cost Hydraulic robot actuator has the highest operating cost Hydtraulic - the most messy robot actuator Hard interrupt a robot software or program that produces only two-position motion for a given robot axis Point-to-point program a robot program that has the ability to move a robot to any position within the range but without specific path Continuous path program a robot program that has the ability to move a robot to any position within the range with specific path When a robot moves on several axis at the same time, it is to have compound motion In robotics, SCARA means Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Arm or Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm SCARA Robots has 4 axis of motion SCARA Robots are designed for assembling SCARA Robots are attractive in industry because it is relatively cheaper

A UJT is sometimes called double-based diode A diac is an AC switch An SCR is made of silicon and not germanium because silicon has low leakage current Gate is the control element in an SCR Rate effect an effect that reduces the possibility of accidental triggering of the SCS Sawtooth generator is a common application of UJT Diac does not have a gate terminal An SCR is a current triggered device When a UJT is turned on the resistance between emitter terminal and lower base terminal decreases A UJT has one pn junction The UJT may be used as a sawtooth generator The normal way to turn on a diac is by breakover voltage Essentially power electronics deals with the control of ac power at 60 Hz frequency When the emitter terminal of a UJT is open, the resistance between the base terminals is generally high AC power in a load can be controlled by connecting two SCRs in parallel opposition To turn off an SCR, reduce anode voltage to zero is done Regulator control system that maintains a speed voltage, or other variable within specified limits of a preset level To turn on a UJT, the forward bias on emitter diode should be more than the peak point voltage When the temperature increases, the intrinsic stand off ratio is essentially constant Damping ratio dimensionless parameter of the second-order characteristic equation Transfer function is the ratio of two exponential functions of time A diac is turned on by breakover voltage LASCR an SCR whose state is controlled by the light falling upon a silicon semiconductor layer of the device A diac is simply a triac without gate terminal Negative-resistance region lies between the peak point and valley point of UJT emitter characteristics Biomedical electronics refers to the application of electronic theory, technology, instrumentation, and computing system to biological research and medical problems UJT exhibits negative resistance region The UJT operates in negative-resistance region after peak point SCR is a rectifier constructed of silicon material. Silicon is chosen because of its high temperature and power capabilities Photovoltaic transduction a transduction principle used primarily in optical sensors SCR is a solid state equivalent of gas-filled triode

The supply voltage is generally less than that of breakover voltage in an SCR The triac is fundamentally a diac with a gate terminal for controlling the turn-on conditions of the bilateral device in either direction When the supply voltage exceeds the breakover voltage of an SCR, it starts conducting Servomechanism a feedback control system in which the controlled variable is mechanical position Forward breakover voltage is the voltage above which the SCR enters the conduction region Root locus a locus or path of the roots traced out on the s-plane as a parameter is changed Open-loop control system a control system in which the output is related to the input by device parameters only Holding current is that value of current below which the SCR switches from the conduction state to the forward blocking region under stated conditions Reverse breakdown voltage is equivalent to the zener or avalanche region of the fundamental two-layer semiconductor diode The required gate triggering current of GTO is 20 mA Flywheel governor an automatic speed control device using the centrifugal force on rotating flyweights as the feedback element Seismic mass is the sensing element of acceleration transducer GTO is applicable to some areas of counters, pulse generators, multivibrators Thy a greek word which means switch 1 s is the typical turn-on time of an SCR An SCR is a solid state equivalent to Gas-filled triode The gate of an SCR is positive with respect to its cathode A normally operated SCR has an anode which is positive with respect to cathode Hygrometer a device which can measure humidity directly, with a single sensing element. It is usually calibrated in terms of relative humidity Bourdon tube one of the most widely used sensing elements, particularly for pressure ranges higher than 2 MPa Changing gate voltage can change the angle of conduction in an SCR An SCR is a member of the thyristor family An SCR have three pn junction Sonic, Radiation & Vibrating element are methods used for density sensing When SCR starts conducting, then gate loses all control An SCR when turned on has a typical voltage across of 1V The typical turn-off time of an SCR is about 5 to 30 s An SCR is made of Silicon ECG stands for electrocardiography while EEG stands for electroencephalography Acceleration transducers are also called accelerometers When an SCR is compared to a switch, it is considered as a unidirectional switch

When the firing angle of an SCR is increased, its output decreases When an SCR is OFF, the current in the circuit has small leakage current An SCR can exercise control over positive or negative half-cycle of ac supply Gyro is the most widely used attitude and attitude-rate transducers Bellow a sensing element which is typically made from a thin-walled tube formed into deep convolutions and sealed at one end, whose displacement can then be made to act on a transduction element The voltage across an SCR when it is turned on is about 1 V

Microelectronics The integrated circuit was invented at Texas instrument in 1958 by Jack Kilby Inductor component cannot be fabricated into ICs The purpose of a comparator in op-amps is to produce a change in output when an input voltage equals a reference voltage The op-amp comparator circuit uses no feedback Integrated circuit is a complete electronic circuit, containing transistors, diodes, resistor, and capacitors processed on and contained entirely within a single chip of silicon Planar diffusion a process used to produce IC semiconductor elements Very large-scale integration (VLSI) integrated circuit is having more than 1,000 gates A low power characteristic that does not apply to an op-amp An integrator op-amp uses capacitor as an element in the feedback path Large-scale integration (LSI) integrated circuit is having more than 100 gates The difference in Vbe values is a source of output offset voltage The voltage gain of differential amplifier equals the AC collector resistance divided by two time the AC resistance of the emitter diode Medium-scale integration (MSI) integrated circuit is having 10 to 100 gates Integrated circuit having up to 9 gates is called small-scale integration (SSI) VCO exhibits a frequency that can be varied with a dc control voltage The reason why integrated circuits are divided into digital and linear categories is because they are simply circuits that happen to be constructed integrally and like all circuits, are either switching type of amplifying type The output of a differentiator is proportional to the rate of change of the input ICs have advantage over discrete device circuits which is lower cost, high reliability, smaller size 2 Mohm is the typical input resistance of the op-amplifier when measured under open loop After assembly, the ICs are tested and classified as either military of industrial Relaxation oscillator operate in the principle of the charging and discharging of a capacitor ICs for military and space applications are tested in the temperature range of -55C to + 125C For most commercial and industrial applications, ICs are tested in the temperature range of 0C to +70C BIFET an IC op-amp that combines FETs and bipolar transistor Heat sink a mass of metal attached to the case of a transistor to allow the heat to escape more easily Digital IC processes digital signals Linear IC processes analog signals Common-mode signal a signal that is applied with equal strength to both inputs of a differential amplifier or an op-amp Prototype a basic circuit that a designer can modify to get more advanced circuits

Operational amplifier is the most commonly used type of linear IC 741 op amp has been considered as the industry standard of linear ICs Flat from dc to the critical frequency type of response that characterizes the single pole, low pass filter An advantage of a shunt regulator over a series type it has an inherent current limiting The most popular IC used in timing circuits is the 555 timer The total power dissipated by the operational amplifier is typically 50 mW In the standard letter-number identification code of operational amplifiers, the letter prefix which normally consists of two or three letters identifies the manufacturer An op amp circuit that has its output tied directly to the inverting input terminal is called a voltage follower Most op amp circuits use negative feedback D is the package suffix code for a plastic dual-in-line for surface mounting on a pc board 25 mA is the approximate short circuit current output of 741 op amp Discrete unit a circuit whose components are soldered or otherwise connected mechanically MPP value in an op-amp is synonymous with output voltage swing, equal to the difference of the two supply voltages, the maximum unclipped peak-to-peak output of an amplifier Power bandwidth is the highest undistorted frequency out of an op amp for a given slew rate and peak voltage The summing point in op-amps is a terminal of the op-amp where the input resistors are commonly connected In terms of circuit component, the term pole refer to a single RC circuit 0.5 V/s is the slew rate of a 741 operational amplifier Slew rate specification of an amplifier tells how fast the output voltage can change 80 nA is the typical input bias current of a 741 operational amplifier The open-loop of an op amp is its voltage gain when there is no negative feedback The term monolithic is derived from a combination of the Greek words monos and lithos which means single-stone RC synthesis a technique used to eliminate the need for inductive elements in monolithic integrated circuits Most linear ICs are low-power devices with power dissipation ratings of less than 1 W 555 timer an integrated circuit for both astable and monostable applications Astable mulivibrator is a square wave clock In a 5 V level detector circuit the inverting input is connected to +5V To convert a summing amplifier to an averaging amplifier the ratio of Rf/R must be equal to the reciprocal of the number of inputs An oscillator is described by unity gain and zero phase shift around the feedback loop To use a comparator for zero-level detection, the inverting input is connected to ground

In most modern IC op-amps, the 741 requires 2 power supplies In an op-amp integrator, the feedback path consist of a capacitor Microwave ICs cover the frequency range from 0.5 to 15 GHz Monolithic considered as the fundamental form of IC Plastic dual-in-line for insertion into sockets has a package suffix code of N and P The specific application of A741C op-amp is for commercial Czochralsky pulling technique is the most common method used for the growth of single crystals for IC fabrication The charge-coupled device (CCD) is a unique and versatile semiconductor structure invented in 1969 by W.S. Boyle and G.E. Smith Trip point the value of the input voltage that switches the output of a comparator or Schmitt trigger Virtual ground - a type of ground that appears at the inverting input of an op-amp that uses negative feedback The intel i486 32-bit microprocessor incorporates 1 million transistors on a single chip In IC op-amps, the input bias current is defined as the average of the two base currents CMRR means common-mode rejection ratio, the ratio of differential voltage gain to common-mode voltage gain The typical dimension of a MOSFET in a single IC chip is 1.5 mils x 3 mils Slew rate the maximum rate that an output voltage of an op-amp can change Stray wiring capacitance the unwanted capacitance between connecting wires and ground The typical dimension of a BJT in a single IC chip is 4 mils x 6.5 mils The typical dimension of a diode in a single IC chip is 3 mils x 4.5 mils Astable multivibrator is equivalent to a relaxation oscillator If the base 10 is called decimal number system, then base 12 is called duodecimal number system Planar technology is the principal method used in the fabrication of semiconductor devices for hybrid and monolithic ICs The gain reduction in operational amplifier is known as roll-off 20 dB per decade (-20 dB/decade) the rate of gain reduction in operational amplifiers Compensating capacitor a capacitor inside an op-amp that prevents oscillations Integrated circuit a device that contains its own transistors, resistors and diodes Slew rate provides a parameter specifying the maximum rate of change of the output when driven by a large step-input signal The absolute maximum rating for op-amps interval power dissipation is 500 mW +-30V is the absolute maximum rating for an op-amps differential input voltage The maximum CMRR of A741 op-amp is 70 dB The letter prefix LM identifies National Semiconductor Corporation manufacturer A is the letter prefix used by Fairchild semiconductor on their op-amp product

Letter suffix identifies the package style that houses the op amp chip The package suffix code for ceramic dual-in-line is J The summing amplifier has two or more inputs, and its output voltage is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of its input voltages When higher power ICs are needed we can use thin& thick film ICs In IC op-amps, one of the most important input characteristics is the input offset current which is defined as the difference between the base currents. Monolithic ICs are forms of discrete circuits

COMPUTER PRINCIPLES William Oughtred an English mathematician who invented the slide rule in 1622 John Van Neumann built a computer in 1946 at the Institute of Advance Study (IAS), Princeton, USA, that uses binary numbers and stores information Computer an electronic device design to accept data performs prescribed computational and logical operations at high speed and output the result of this operation UNIVAC first commercial computer introduced in 1953 that uses valves ENIAC the first electronic computer and was completed in 1946 ENIAC was developed at University of Pennsylvania Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly constructed ENIAC and UNIVAC ENIAC consist of 18,000 vacuum tubes ENIAC could perform 5,000 additions or up to 500 multiplications per second. Whirlwind I, developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology is capable of 20,000 operations per second Computers refers to the increased use of data conversion circuits as a result of increased application Control unit is a group of circuits that provides timing and signals to all operation in the computer ALU refers to the part of computer that performs mathematical operations ALU which carries arithmetic and logic operations process binary numbers Bit is the smallest part of a computer language A digital word consisting of only four bits is called nibble Digital electronics electronics methodology in solving application problems using circuits, in which there are only two possible voltage levels In digital electronics, there are mainly two possible voltage levels and these make binary number system to be useful in its analysis 8 symbols are used in octal digital number system Hexadecimal digital number system use 16 symbols Conversion from binary to octal number system needs a grouping of bits by three The most practical way of converting hexadecimal numbers to binary is to give each number its four equivalent bits Boolean algebra mathematics used in expressing, analyzing, and designing of digital electronic circuits Karnuagh map is the most commonly used method in simplifying Boolean expression or logical functions. In this method only 1s and 0s are entered into the table, while map-entered variable technique includes variables into the table Quine-McCluskey tabular method a suitable method in simplying Boolean expression when the system deals with more than six variables Low level is used to represent logic 1 in a negative logic circuit High level is used to represent logic 0 in a negative logic circuit OR is a gate which has two or more low inputs signals to get a low output OR gate is the logic circuit having two or more inputs but only one output, with high output if any or all inputs are high, with low output only if all inputs are low OR gate a logic gate whose output is HIGH when a single HIGH at its input is present

An output of logic zero can be generated by OR gate if all inputs are zero OR gate logic gate that generates an output of logic zero if and only if all inputs are zero A solid state device which only gives a 1 output if all inputs are also 1 is called an AND gate AND gate only when all inputs are logic one that this gate can deliver an output of logic one A solid state logical device which only gives a 1 output if all inputs are O is called NOR gate To cause a three-state buffer to output 0-1 levels, the signal OE must be at logic 1 The rapidly flashing logic probe tip tell you that the logic node being probe has rapidly changing logic activity Exclusive NOR is a single bit comparator Sequential refers to the class of logic circuit containing flip-flops Binary counter is the counter that follows the binary sequence Multiplexer logic circuit is analogous to a single pole mechanical selector switch An encoder is an MSI(medium-scale-integrated) circuit that provides an output code that corresponds to which of a set of input line is true Multiplexing is called the time sharing of one line with multiplex signals Data selector is also called multiplexer Producing one output pulse for every 10 inputs pulses refers to a function of a decade counter digital IC Decade counter refers to BCD counter In a system with MOS devices, the main bus loading factor is likely to be capacitive When a logic circuit rejects an unwanted signal, this is termed as noise margin Speed of a logic circuit is normally expressed as propagation delay Bus is a multi-wire connection between digital circuits Digitize is the process used to describe analog-to-digital conversion Time division multiplexing is the process of converting multiple analog input signals sequentially to digital output A circuit that changes pure binary code into ASCII is called a code converter The output pulses of the logic pulser can be used to overdrive logic nodes high or low Circuit used to implement Boolean expression or equations: logic gates/circuits, ditigal circuits, an binary circuits NAND gate logic gate whose output is HIGH when one or all its inputs is LOW NAND gate generates an output of logic zero(LOW) only when all its inputs are logic one(HIGH) NOR gate only when all inputs are low thus, this logic gate produces an output of HIGH NOR gate a logic gate whose output is logic zero every time one of its inputs goes to logic one NAND gate gates with HIGH output level every time one of its inputs goes LOW XOR logic gate gives an output of logic one if there is and odd number of 1s at the input

XNOR logic gate that gives a HIGH output when the input has an even number of 1s If the fan out of a logic gate is not enough, a buffer should be used A buffer multiplies the number of gates a certain output can drive, and this can also be used as a voltage follower, a current amplifier or an isolator XOR is considered as a controlled inverter Universal gate a logic gate that can be wired to function like any other gate NOR and NAND known as universal gates 2 NAND-gates are needed to have an AND function 3 the number of NAND-gates needed to form an OR-gate OR function can be achieved by using 2 NOR gates Binary 0 is the probable output if all inputs of a TTL gate are binary 1 Noise immunity refers to the ability of a logic circuit to withstand noise superimposed on its input signal Fan-in the number of logic gates of the same family that can be connected to the input of a particular gate without degrading the circuit performance Fan-out refers to the number of logic gate of the same family that can be driven by a single output of a particular logic gate RTL a bipolar logic family that uses resistors at its circuit DTL logic family that uses diodes and transistors as its circuit elements. This logic family is more resistant to noise than RTL HLDTL a logic circuit family with a supply voltage of 25 V, and are generally used in industry where machinery causes electrical noise and large power line transients to occur STTL a variation of transistor-transistor-logic (TTL), wherein transistors base and collector junctions are clamped with a Schottky diode In a transistor-transistor-logic (TTL), if the base collector junction of a transistor is clamped with a Schottky diode it becomes Schottky TTL. The significance of having this diode is it increases the switching speed ECL bipolar logic circuit is the fastest CML, CSL and NSL are other name of emitter-coupled logic (ECL) Of the MOS logic family, CMOS is the fastest PMOS are generally supplied with a voltage up to 24 V CMOS are normally supplied with a voltage up to 15 V By providing a pull-down resistor at the interconnection (PMOS output to CMOS input) you interface PMOS to CMOS NMOS can be interfaced to CMOS by providing a pull-up resistor Open-collector configuration a digital IC whose output transistor has no internal pull-up resistor In digital ICs, such as buffers and registers, tri-state output configuration is used if they are intended for busing Complementary the output configuration of most CMOS ICs In TTL ICs, substrate pnp input configurations gives a high-input impedance at both logic states (HIGH and LOW state) The purpose of the internal clamping diodes at the input of a logic circuit is to minimize negative ringing effects

In TTL ICs with more than one gate available, sometimes not all gates are used. To handle this unused gates force the output to go HIGH To handle unused inputs in a logic gate/logic IC pull them down or up, depending on circuit function Flip-flop is the memory element used in clocked sequential logic circuit A static memory will store information even when power is not applied to the memory The reason why more cells can be stored in a given area with dynamic cells is because they are smaller A magnetic bubble is a solid state memory device, which depends on the magnetic polarization of domains, usually in a garnet type material Magnetic cores are non-semiconductor devices still used in digital memories The density of data recorded on magnetic tape is measured in bits per inch A memory circuit that has 9 address inputs have 512 storage locations Clock periods are measured from similar points on the clock waveform Card readers are not a storage device The function of flip-flop as logic element is it stores binary data Register is not a type of flip-flop The higher voltage level in digital gates and flip-flop circuits is Yes or One Memory word is a byte data stored in a memory location Accessing is called retrieving data from memory Applying ultraviolet rays can erase EPROMS Stack is a segment register which normally access variables in the program Buffer is a storage device used to accommodate a difference in rate of flow of data or time of occurrence of events when transmitting from one device to another Latch is a device that stays on once triggered and store one or two conditions as a digital circuit The typical number of bits per dynamic memory location is 1 Address is an output applied to Read Only Memory (ROM) ROM is a kind of memory where only manufacturer can store program and has a group of memory locations each permanently storing a word In shift registers made up of several flip-flops, the clock signal indicates when to shift a bit of data from input of the flip-flop to the output The duration within it takes to read the content of a memory location after it has been addressed is called access time A static memory generally contains row and column decoders ROM is called a memory device which holds fixed set of data in a circuit Access time an interval required to address and read out memory word Counter refers to a circuit that stores pulses and produces an output pulse when specified number of pulses is stored A dynamic memory will store information as long as power is applied and the memory is refreshed periodically Flip-flop several gates combined to form the basic memory element

An RS flip-flop constructed from NOR-gates would have an undefined output when the inputs R/S combinations are HIGH/HIGH When a flip-flop is constructed from two NAND-gates, its output will be undefined is the R/S inputs are LOW/LOW D flip-flop a flip-flop whose output is always the same as its input. This is sometimes used as a delay element T flip-flop flip-flop that changes state every time the input is triggered Master/slave flip-flop flip-flop arrangement, such that the first receives its input on the positive edge of a clock pulse, and the other receives its input form the output of the first during the negative edge of the same pulse Clocked flip-flop combination of flip-flop, arranged so that they can be triggered at the same time JK flip-flop, T flip-flop, D flip-flop - A flip-flop without an undefined output state condition whatever the input combination is Register group of flip-flops used to store more bits Sequential access digital memory uses shift register storage circuit Volatile memory whose contents are lost when, electrical power is removed Blowing fuse can program PROMs ROM type of memory wherein the data are permanently stored. Usually the storing of data is done during manufacturing of the component PROM a type of ROM that allows data to be written into the device by a programmer. After it has been programmed it cannot be reprogrammed again PROM, EPROM and EEPROM are semiconductor memory device in which data can be stored after fabrications EPROM& RPROM can be programmed, and reprogrammed after the old programs are erased usually be an ultraviolet light EEPROM a variation of PROM, wherein its stored data can be erased by electrical signal instead of ultraviolet light The time interval to undertake a refresh operation in a typical dynamic RAM is 2 ms RAM semiconductor-based, volatile data storage device that can be written and read randomly DRAM Random access memory that needs recharging of capacitors Dynamic RAM (DRAM) uses capacitor as its data storage element, while static RAM (SRAM) uses flip-flip Bubble memory type of memory that is formed by a series of magnetic bubbles at the substrate Magnetic core non-semiconductor digital memory device PROM programmer a hardware used to program a PROM Shift register computer hardware device constructed to perform shifting of its contained data Serial to parallel register register wherein data can be serially inputted, while the output can be retrieved in parallel manner PLA and PAL digital device similar to that of a ROM and whose internal connections of logic arrays can be programmed by passing high current through fusible links The difference between a programmable logic array (PLA) and a programmable array logic (PAL) is that with PLA, both OR and AND- gates are programmable, while in PAL, only AND- gate is programmable Universal logic module (ULM) a circuit used for selecting a single output from multiple inputs Multiplexer another name for universal logic module (ULM)

Demultiplexer a device/circuit used to separate two or more signals from one line Ring counter an electronic counter in which bistable units are cascaded to form a loop Twisted ring counter is formed when the complemented output of the last stage of a shift register is fed back to the input of the first stage Decade scaler a digital circuit that produces logic 1 output pulse for every 10 input pulses Binary code are converted into ASCII by code converter Digitize the technical term used when signals are converted from analog-to-digital Program is a sequence of instructions that tells the computer machine on how available data shall be processed Diagram showing procedures that are followed, and actions taken is called flow chart Machine language is a medium of communication with a computer where programs are written in mnemonics An assembler, a program which converts instruction written in a source language into machine code, which can be read and acted upon by the computer Computer program a detailed step by step of direction telling a computer exactly how to proceed to solve a specific problem or process a specific task Compiler is a program that translates English-like words of high level language into the machine language of a computer Compiler is a software that converts a high level language program into machine or assembly language program The purpose of the fetch cycle in a computer is to obtain instruction Interpreter refers to a program that translates and then immediately executes statements in a high level language A macro-instruction is an instruction in a source language that is to be replaced by a defined sequence of instructions in the same source language Microprocessor a very high-dense and probably the most versatile integrated circuit used in digital electronics. It is known to function as the central processing unit of most computer applications Microcomputer the smallest computer in terms of physical size Encoder a logic/digital circuit that generates an output code for every input signal Binary coded decimal gives each digit of a decimal number with a corresponding binary equivalent Gray code is considered as minimum change code ASCII is a 7-bit alphanumeric code that is widely used Mnemonic the op-code of a computer instruction JUMP an instruction that causes the program to go to another task LOAD an instruction that can move data from memory to the accumulator STORE an instruction that moves data from accumulator to the memory FETCH part of the instruction cycle where the instruction is moved from memory to the instruction register CLI an instruction, which means clear the interrupt mask Underflow refers to a condition wherein the result of an arithmetic operation is more negative than the capacity of the output register Overflow refers to a condition wherein the result of an arithmetic operation is more than the capacity of the output register Machine instructions represented by mnemonics is considered as assembly language

Machine language the first generation language of instruction, and is considered as the most primitive instruction that can be given to a computer COBOL, FORTRAN, and ALGOL are examples of high-level language 4GL or 4th generation language an advanced programming language, more advance than high-level language Compiler translator from high-level program to machine instructions Compiler translates source program to object program Assembler assembly language to machine language translator Source program a program in a programming language, as written by the programmer A source program can run in computers only after translation into a machine code by a compiler. This machine code is referred as the object program Interpreter a program that can read a source program in high-level language, translates, and executes the statement in one operation Program a sequence of instruction of statements designed to tell the computer how to carry out a particular processing task The instructions and data in a computer system is referred to as Software Asynchronous refers to digital interface in which data characteristics are individually synchronized and may be sent at a time A network facility used to connect individual similar network segments forming a larger extended network is called repeaters Parity detector is the circuit that detects bit error in binary characters Modem a device that enables users to transmit computer data and fax messages along telephone lines Modems are device that allow computer to communicate with other computers through telephone lines or radio frequency Bridges is a network facility used to interconnect distinct network physically Files in E-mail communication are sent thru attachment Host the first recipient in E-mail communication Network the interconnections of computers, terminals, and other equipment Private data network a network classification that is usually built and owned by a single company or government organization Public data network a network that is built and owned by a common carrier Peer-to-peer network configuration that let computers share their resources Hierarchical network a computer network configuration that makes the host computer manages a network of dependent terminals Circuit switching a network switching that creates a dedicated temporary connection between computers in a network Host the component that provides control of supporting services for other computers, terminals, or devices in a network Local area network it is a type of computer networking technology that is used to connect computers that are located within the same room, building, or complex File server it is a fast computer with a large amount of secondary storage, to which all of the other computers in a network have access for data storage & retrieval Client/server computing it is also known as cooperative processing that involve using two or more networked computers to perform an application task Printer server a type of server that allows multiple users to take advantage of a single printing device Star this topology is the most efficient centralized network for a small company

Hub it is the other term that is used to refer to a central device into which each node of a star network is directly connected Terminal it is simply the term that is used to refer to an I/O device that relies entirely on the host computer for processing Diskless workstations in a star network that can operate without storage devices A ring network requires that message travel around the ring to the desired destination Networks that transmit data across town using electromagnetic signals are called MANs The process of choosing a terminal on a network to receive data is called selection A microcomputer attached to a network requires a network interface card To upload is to send a file to a remote computer To download is to receive a file from a remote computer Network protocol it is the term that is used to describe the conventions of how network components communicate with each other Network topology it is the term that is used to describe the form or the shape of a network Polling is the process of asking each remote terminal, one at a time, if it has data to send Hierarchical network topology has more than one level of host computer System Network Architecture it describes its System Service Control Point (SSCP), Logical Units (LU), and Physical Units (PU) as network addressable units Networks that include telecommunications are called WANs A multi-network IBM token ring network is also a star network Token ring network topology, where stations are connected to a concentric ring through a ring interface unit (RIU). A router will decide which route the message or messages should follow through the network Bridge used in connecting networks at different sites Gateway similar to a bridge, which connects networks at different sites, it connects networks with different protocols Repeater used to extend the length of a network or to expand the network

Computer Fundamentals The decimal system is composes of 10 numerals or symbols Change in state is toggle A digital circuit is also referred to as a logic circuit CMOS means Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Microcomputer is the smallest type of computer in terms of their physical size If each digit of a decimal number is represented by its binary equivalent, the result is a code called binary-coded decimal BCD code has always 4 bits per number Logical subtraction is not one of the three basic operations in Boolean algebra 32 bits are required to represent an eight digit decimal number in BCD The Gray code belongs to a class of codes called the minimum-change codes, in which only one bit in the code group changes when going from one step to the next The most widely used 7-bit alphanumeric code is the ASCII A straight binary code takes the complete decimal number and represents it in binary The number of input combinations will equal 2^N for an N-input truth table The OR operation result will be 1 if any one or more variables is a 1 AND a circuit that operates in such a way that its output is high when all its inputs are high The only input combination that will produce a high at the output of a five-input AND gate is that all inputs should be high AND gate is equivalent to a NAND gate followed by an inverter CLC a circuit with no memory characteristic, and so its output depends only on the current value of its input Karnaugh map a graphical device used to convert a truth table to its corresponding logic circuit in a simple, orderly process The output of an EX-NOR gate when a logic signal and its exact inverse are connected to its input is 1 ULSI one of the standard levels of complexity of integrated circuits which contains 100,000 and more number of gates DIP is the most common type of digital IC package 0 to 0.8 V is an acceptable voltage range of a logic 0 for TTL 2 to 5 V is an acceptable voltage range of a logic 1 for TTL 0 to 1.5 V is an acceptable voltage range of a logic 0 for CMOS operating at Vdd = 5 V 3.5 to 5 V is an acceptable voltage range of a logic 1 for CMOS operating at Vdd = 5 V When the input to a digital IC is left unconnected for TTI ICs it acts like a logic 1 An unconnected input is termed as floating CMOS integrated circuit response unpredictable, may overheat and be destroyed to a floating input Shorted signal lines this type of fault has the same effect as an internal short between IC pins

ROM does not describe a flip-flop circuit SET = CLEAR = 1 is the normal resting state of the SET and CLEAR inputs in a NAND gate latch All arithmetic operations take place in the ALU of a computer A full adder has 3 inputs A full adder has 2 outputs A half adder has 2 inputs The three basic parts of a BCD adder circuit are two 4-bit adders and connection logic Accumulator is the principal register of an arithmetic logic circuit Machine language a computer programming language in which groups of 1s and 0s are used to represent instructions. It is also the only language a computer actually understood Encoder a digital circuit that produces an output code depending on which of its inputs is activated PLD an IC that contains a large number of interconnected logic functions wherein the user can program the IC for a specific function by selectively breaking the appropriate interconnections PAL class of programmable logic device wherein its AND array is programmable while its OR array is hard-wired Field Programmable Logic Array class of programmable logic device wherein both its AND and its OR arrays are programmable 2s complement form a result which is obtained when a one is added to the least significant bit position of a binary number in the 1s complement Astable multivibrator a digital circuit that oscillates between two unstable output states Backplane an electrical connection common to all segments of an LCD BDC counter a binary counter that counts from 0000 to 1001 before it recycles Ring counter a shift register in which the output of the last flip-flop is connected to the input of the first flip-flop Reset a term synonymous with CLEAR in computer systems Op code that part of a computer instruction that defines what type of operation the computer is to execute on specified data Mnemonic an abbreviation that represents the op code of a computer instruction Monotonoicity a property whereby the output of a digital-to-analog converter either increases or stays the same as the input is increases Optical disk memory class of mass memory devices that use a laser beam to write and read onto a specified coated disk Wired-AND a term used to describe the logic function created when open-collector outputs are tied together Strobing a technique often used to eliminate decoding spikes Glitch a momentary, narrow, spurious and sharply defined change in volume A single bit comparator is usually implemented using Exclusive NOR An equivalent Boolean equation for an exclusive NOR is xy+xy Data storage in a memory is termed as Writing

Data retrieval from a memory is called Reading A decoder with four inputs can have a maximum of 16 outputs Another name for a digital multiplexer is data selector An astable multivibrator has no stable state A bistable multivibrator has two stable states A monostable multivibrator has one stable state A type of multivibrator circuit which generates a square wave of its own is the astable Dont care a situation when a circuits output level for a given set of input conditions can be assigned as either a 1 or a 0. Combinational logic circuit circuits made up of combinations of logic gates, with no feedback from outputs to inputs BCD-to-7-segment driver a digital circuit that takes a 4-bit BCD input and activates the required outputs to display the equivalent decimal digit on a 7-segment display DC clear asynchronous flip-flop input used to clear Q immediately to 0 Down counter a counter that counts from a maximum count downward to zero Bubble small circle on the input or output lines of logic circuit symbols which represent inversion of a particular signal A multiplexer is described by its size through 2^N x 1, where n = number of bits Hang-up state a situation in a system where it can never leave or progress to another state Bubble diagram a diagram consisting of a set of circles, where each circle contains a number of state within it Truncated counter a counter that counts sequentially but does not step through all possible states, it returns to zero after a particular state Monostable circuit a circuit that produces an output pulse for a fixed period of time in response to a trigger and then returns to its quiescent state Tweaking a small change made in resistance or capacitance to time a circuit precisely Astable circuit a square wave oscillator or clock generator Debouncing circuit a circuit designed to produce a clean output in response to a switch closure Duty cycle for repetitive waveform is defined as the ratio of the ON time to the total time Reset the state of a flip-flop when Q = 0 and Q = 1 Set - the state of a flip-flop when Q = 1 and Q = 0 Toggle a state causing the flip-flop to change or reverse its state 5 flip-flops should be used to realize 32-count capacity Clock skew the time difference which results when a clock may not arrive at all flip-flops at precisely the same time A race condition that exists if a circuit output depends on which of two nearly simultaneous inputs arrive at a point in the circuit first A one-input JK flip-flop is the T flip-flop A JK flip-flop can be made to function like a T flip-flop by simply connecting the J and K inputs together as one-input