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AIR DENSITY AND ITS

AIR DENSITY AND ITS


UNCERTAINTY
UNCERTAINTY
Manuel Salazar Manuel Salazar
Maria Vega Maria Vega
CONTENTS
CONTENTS

Air and its composition
Air and its composition

Ways to calculate the air density
Ways to calculate the air density

Chart
Chart

CIPM Equation
CIPM Equation

Approximate equation
Approximate equation

Uncertainty
Uncertainty
Air and its composition
Air and its composition
The air is a mixture of several gases dry air, and water in steam
form. Troposphere is the inferior layer of the terrestrial atmosphere,
terrestrial surface altitude of 6 to 18 kilometers, the air we breathed is
concentrated there.
The dry air as the water steam behaves like ideal gases. They have been
developed to empirical laws that relate the macroscopic values, in ideal
gases, these values include pressure (p), volume (V) and temperature (T)
Ley de Charles Ley de Gay-Lussac Ley de Boyle
IDEAL GAS LAW
It It is is constituted by a nitrogen constituted by a nitrogen
mixture and of oxygen like mixture and of oxygen like
basic element (99%) and the basic element (99%) and the
rest like noble gases. The rest like noble gases. The
composition is similar around composition is similar around
the world. the world.
Water Steam (0 Water Steam (0- -5%), Carbon 5%), Carbon
dioxide, hydrocarbons, tars, dioxide, hydrocarbons, tars,
ashes, dust and SO2. ashes, dust and SO2.
Electrical delivery form Electrical delivery form C2H2, C2H2,
H202, 03, NO3H, NH3, H202, 03, NO3H, NH3,
NO3NH4. NO3NH4.
4 10 4 10
- -5 5
1 10 1 10
- -5 5
Xen Xen n n
0,35 10 0,35 10
- -5 5
5 10 5 10
- -5 5
Hidrogeno Hidrogeno
3 10 3 10
- -4 4
1 10 1 10
- -4 4
Cript Cript n n
0,7 10 0,7 10
- -4 4
5 10 5 10
- -4 4
Helio Helio
1 10 1 10
- -3 3
1,5 10 1,5 10
- -3 3
Ne Ne n n
0,3 0,3 0,94 0,94 Arg Arg n n
23,1 23,1 20,92 20,92 Oxigeno Oxigeno
75,6 75,6 78,14 78,14 Nitr Nitr geno geno
en peso en peso en volumen en volumen Elemento Elemento
Proporci Proporci n n Proporci Proporci n n
COMPOSICION DEL AIRE COMPOSICION DEL AIRE
PURO PURO
Air and its composition
Air and its composition
Ways to calculate the air
Ways to calculate the air
density
density
Density defined in a qualitative manner as the measure of the
relative mass of objects with a constant volume
Hypothesis de Avogadro Two gases same volume (same pressure and
temperature) contain the same number of particles, or molecules
Standard Law gases
P.V = n . R . T n = m/Mr

As function of altitude
As function of altitude

Using a
Using a
refractometer
refractometer

Air buoyancy artefacts methods
Air buoyancy artefacts methods

Equation CIPM /81
Equation CIPM /81

Approximate equation
Approximate equation
Ways to calculate the air
Ways to calculate the air
density
density
Atmospheric pressure drops Atmospheric pressure drops
about about or about 1.1 mbar ( or about 1.1 mbar (kPa kPa) )
for each 100 meters. for each 100 meters. Density Density
decreases decreases
Ways to calculate the
Ways to calculate the
air density
air density
AS FUNCTION OF ALTITUDE
L = L = 6,5 6,5 temperature lapse rate, deg K/km temperature lapse rate, deg K/km
H = H = geopotencial geopotencial altitude altitude
Z = geometrical altitude Z = geometrical altitude
To = Temperature K To = Temperature K
Po = Atmospheric Pressure Po = Atmospheric Pressure
Ways to calculate the air density
Ways to calculate the air density
AS FUNCTION OF ALTITUDE
Changes in air density can be determined with good precision usi Changes in air density can be determined with good precision using ng
an optical method based on the high correlation between air an optical method based on the high correlation between air
density and air index of refraction. density and air index of refraction.
R R specific refraction or the specific refraction or the refractional refractional invariant in unction composition of air and invariant in unction composition of air and
the local atmospheric conditions the local atmospheric conditions
n n is is determined by a simple ratio of laser frequencies: determined by a simple ratio of laser frequencies:
laser frequency locked to one transmission peak o laser frequency locked to one transmission peak of the interferometer under vacuum f the interferometer under vacuum
the frequency locked to the same peak of the interferometer plac the frequency locked to the same peak of the interferometer placed in air ed in air. .
vacio

Ways to calculate the air density


Ways to calculate the air density
REFRACTROMETRY
aire
vacio
n

=
aire

The method is based on the weighing of two artefacts having the The method is based on the weighing of two artefacts having the same same
nominal mass and the same surface area but with very different nominal mass and the same surface area but with very different
volumes. Two weightings are necessary to determine the air densi volumes. Two weightings are necessary to determine the air density , ty ,
one in air and one in vacuum one in air and one in vacuum
I I
1 1
e I e I
2 2
balance readings in air balance readings in air mass mass
1 1
and and mass mass
2 2
V V
m1 m1
e e V V
m2 m2
volume of m volume of m
1 1
y m y m
2 2
air density air density
I I
3 3
e I e I
4 4
the balance readings in vacuum the balance readings in vacuum mass mass
1 1
y mass y mass
2 2
S the difference in surface area between the two artefacts and S the difference in surface area between the two artefacts and
mass of adsorption per unit area. mass of adsorption per unit area.
Ways to calculate the air density
Ways to calculate the air density
AIR BUOYANCY ARTEFACTS METHODS
) (
2 1 2 1 m m aire
V V I I m + =
4 3
I I m
vaco
=
S m m
vacio aire
+ =
2 1
2 1 4 3
) (
m m
V V
S I I I I

Ways to calculate the air density


Ways to calculate the air density
FORMULA CIPM
From the equation of state of a non-ideal gas and the experimental
conditions the density of moist air
Where
P pressure
T thermodynamic temperature 273,15 + t
Mv molar mass of the water
Z compressibility factor
R molar gases constant
| |
1 3
10 * ) 0004 , 0 ( 011 , 12 9635 , 28
2

+ = kgmol x M
co a
p
t p
t p hf x
sv
v
) (
) , ( =
From
From
BIPM
BIPM
formula we obtain one
formula we obtain one
numerical approximate equation :
numerical approximate equation :
Ways to calculate the air density
Ways to calculate the air density
APPROXIMATE EQUATION
t
e h p
t
r
a
+

=
15 , 273
* * 009024 , 0 * 34848 , 0
* 0612 , 0

Thermodynamic properties of mixtures of gas with Thermodynamic properties of mixtures of gas with vapor vapor. saturation . saturation
pressure and temperature of dew, Indexes of humidity, Volume, he pressure and temperature of dew, Indexes of humidity, Volume, heat at
and humid enthalpy, temperature of saturation adiabatic and wet and humid enthalpy, temperature of saturation adiabatic and wet
thermometer thermometer. .
Some definitions: Some definitions:
Relative Humidity. Relative Humidity. The relative humidity is the percent of The relative humidity is the percent of saturation saturation
humidity humidity, generally calculated in relation to saturated , generally calculated in relation to saturated vapor vapor density, in density, in
(%): (%):
HR = 100 HR = 100 Pv Pv/Ps (%) /Ps (%)
Temperature of adiabatic saturation, Temperature of adiabatic saturation, Th Th , is the ideal temperature of , is the ideal temperature of
equilibrium will have the air non saturated after undergoing an equilibrium will have the air non saturated after undergoing an adiabatic adiabatic
and isobaric process ( and isobaric process (iso iso enthalpic enthalpic), that it takes it temperature to the ), that it takes it temperature to the
saturation by means of liquid evaporation of water to this. saturation by means of liquid evaporation of water to this.
Temperature of wet thermometer is Temperature of wet thermometer is the temperature the temperature that it reaches a that it reaches a
thermometer covered with a wet cloth that is exposed to an airfl thermometer covered with a wet cloth that is exposed to an airflow ow
without saturating that it flows at speeds near 5 without saturating that it flows at speeds near 5 m/s m/s
Dew point Dew point is the temperature, at which the moisture content in the air wi is the temperature, at which the moisture content in the air will ll
saturate saturate the air the air , , If the air is cooled further, some of the moisture will If the air is cooled further, some of the moisture will
condense condense . .
Ways to calculate the
Ways to calculate the
air density
air density
PSYCHROMETRY
Variation of Variation of
electrical electrical
properties properties
Hygrometer digital Hygrometer digital
Gravimetric Gravimetric
Hygrometer of Chemist Hygrometer of Chemist
absorption absorption
Condensation Condensation
Hygrometer of dew Hygrometer of dew
point point
Hygroscopic Hygroscopic
hygrometer hygrometer of hair or of hair or
others materials others materials
Thermodynamic Thermodynamic psychrometer psychrometer
METHOD METHOD ARTEFACT ARTEFACT
To mesure the humidity :
Ways to calculate the air density
Ways to calculate the air density
PSYCHROMETRY
Ways to calculate the
Ways to calculate the
air density
air density
PSYCHROMETRY
Psychrometer and aspiro
psychrometer Consist two
thermometers, one normal
(dry) and another with their
bulb permanently humidified
thanks to a cloth or wet gauze
that it recovers it.
The humidity can be measured
between both starting from
the difference of temperature
apparatuses
Diagram Carrier. Diagram Carrier.
- - The T represents (C) in the The T represents (C) in the
abscissa axis (axis x) and the abscissa axis (axis x) and the
mixture reason or humidity (X, in mixture reason or humidity (X, in
kg of water/kg of dry air) in the kg of water/kg of dry air) in the
axis of orderly (axis and, to the axis of orderly (axis and, to the
right). right).
- - The saturation curve (HR = 100%) The saturation curve (HR = 100%)
it ascends toward the right and it it ascends toward the right and it
represents the end of the represents the end of the
diagram. In this curve the diagram. In this curve the
temperatures of humid temperatures of humid
thermometer and the thermometer and the
temperatures of dew are located. temperatures of dew are located.
- - - - The curves of humidity relative The curves of humidity relative
constant are similar to that of constant are similar to that of
saturation, advancing down (lying saturation, advancing down (lying
down more) as it diminishes the down more) as it diminishes the
humidity of the air. humidity of the air.
Ways to calculate the
Ways to calculate the
air density
air density
PSYCHROMETRY
CHART
600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700
0.7
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.8
.8
0.7

a
19 40 % . p . ( )

a
20 40 % . p . ( )

a
21 40 % . p . ( )

a
24 40 % . p . ( )
700 600 p
Air density evaluated with
Relative humidity 40 %,
temperature 19 C 24 C,
pressure 600 mbar 700 mbar
660 694 728 762 796 830 864 898 932 966 1000
0.8
0.84
0.88
0.92
0.96
1
1.04
1.08
1.12
1.16
1.2
1.2
0.8

a
19 50% . p . ( )

a
20 50% . p . ( )

a
21 50% . p . ( )

a
24 50% . p . ( )
1000 660 p
Air density with evaluated with
Relative humidity 50 %,
temperature 19 C 24 C,
pressure 660 mbar 1000 mbar
Ways to calculate the
Ways to calculate the
air density
air density
CHART
Air density evaluated with
Relative humidity 40 % - 60 %,
temperature 20 C ,
pressure 600 mbar 1000 mbar
40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
1.185
0.7

a
20 h
r
. 1000 .
( )

a
20 h
r
. 800 .
( )

a
20 h
r
. 700 .
( )

a
20 h
r
. 600 .
( )
60 40 h
r
Ways to calculate the
Ways to calculate the
air density
air density
CHART
Air density evaluated with
Relative humidity 40 %,
temperature 19 C 25 C,
pressure 800 mbar 1000 mbar
19 19.6 20.2 20.8 21.4 22 22.6 23.2 23.8 24.4 25
0.9
0.93
0.96
0.99
1.02
1.05
1.08
1.11
1.14
1.17
1.2
1.189
0.929

a
t 40 . 1000 . ( )

a
t 40 . 800 . ( )
25 19 t
Ways to calculate the
Ways to calculate the
air density
air density
CALCULATION OF THE AIR DENSITY
CIPM
Where:
p Pressure of air in Pa.
M
a
molar mass of dry air.
Z Compressibility factor
R Universal constant of ideal gases
T Temperature of air in K
X
v
molar fraction of water steam
M
v
molar mass of water

|
|
.
|

\
|

a
v
v
a
M
M
x
ZRT
pM
1 1

Molar mass of dry air, Ma
Molar mass of dry air, Ma
If it considers constant of air component
If it considers constant of air component
M
M
a a
= 0,028963 512440 kg mol
= 0,028963 512440 kg mol
- -1 1
If it can measure the concentration of CO
If it can measure the concentration of CO
2 2
M
M
a a
= [28,9635 + 12,011 (
= [28,9635 + 12,011 (
X
X
CO2 CO2
.
.
-
-
0,0004)]* 10
0,0004)]* 10
- -3 3
kg
kg
mol
mol
- -1 1
Compressibility factor, Z Compressibility factor, Z
Where: Where:
p p Air pressure in Pa Air pressure in Pa
T T Air temperature in K Air temperature in K
t t Environmental temperature in Environmental temperature in
o o
C C
a a
0 0
1, 581 23 1, 581 23 X X 10 10
- -6 6
K Pa K Pa
- -1 1
a a
1 1
- -2,9331 x 10 2,9331 x 10
- -8 8
Pa Pa
- -1 1
a a
2 2
1,1043 x 10 1,1043 x 10
- -10 10
K K
- -1 1
Pa Pa
- -1 1
b b
0 0
5,707 x 10 5,707 x 10
- -6 6
K Pa K Pa
- -1 1
b b
1 1
- -2,051 X 10 2,051 X 10
- -8 8
Pa Pa
- -1 1
C C
0 0
1.9898 x 10 1.9898 x 10
- -4 4
K Pa K Pa
- -1 1
C C
1 1
- - 2,376 x 10 2,376 x 10
- -6 6
Pa Pa
- -1 1
d d 1,83 x 10 1,83 x 10- -11K 11K
2 2
Pa Pa
- -2 2
e e - -0,765 x 10 0,765 x 10
- -8 8
K K
2 2
Pa Pa
- -2 2
( ) ( ) | | ( )
2
2
2
2
1 0 1 0
2
2 1 0
1
v v v
ex d
T
p
x t c c x t b b t a t a a
T
p
Z + + + + + + + + =
Universal Constant of ideal gases, R Universal Constant of ideal gases, R
R = 8.314510 8,4 x R = 8.314510 8,4 x lO lO- -6 J . mol 6 J . mol
- -1 1
. K . K
- -1 1
Molar fraction of water steam, Xv Molar fraction of water steam, Xv
In function of relative humidity, h In function of relative humidity, h
In function of temperature of dew point, tr
Where:
Relative humidity
Pressure of saturated steam
Fugacity factor
p
t p
t p hf x
sv
v
) (
) , ( =
p
t p
t p f X
r sv
r v
) (
) , ( =
sv
p
sv
p
h
sv
p
) , (
r
t p f
Enhancement factor f f(p,t
r
)
Where:
2
t p f + + =

p
T
1,000 62
3.14 x 10
-8
Pa
-1
5,6 x 10
-7
K
-2
Air pressure in Pa
Air temperature in
O
C or dew point
temperature (t
r
) in
O
C
Pressure of saturated steam, p
sv
Where:

+ + + =
T
D
C BT AT Pax p
sv
2
exp 1
A 1,237 884 7 x 10-5 K-2
B -1,912 131 6 x 10-2 K-1
C 33,937 110 47
D -6,343 164 5 x 103 K
T Air temperature in K or dew point
temperature (Tr) in K
UNCERTAINTY OF AIR DENSITY
SOURCES OF UNCERTAINTY
Atmospheric temperature
Calibration of barometric
Resolution of barometric
Variation of
atmospheric pressure
during calibration
2
3
2
2
2
1 p p p
u u u up + + =
k
U
u
B
p
=
1
12
2
B
p
d
u =
24
3
+

=
p p
up
Environmental conditions
Calibration of thermometer
Resolution of instrument
Variation of temperature
during calibration
k
U
u
t
t
=
1
12
2
t
t
d
u =
24
3
+

=
t t
u
t
2
3
2
2
2
1 t t t t
u u u u + + =
Relative humidity of air
Calibration of hygrometer
Resolution of hygrometer
Variation of the air relative
humidity during calibration
2
3
2
2
2
1 h h h h
u u u u + + =
k
U
u
h
h
=
1
12
2
h
h
d
u =
24
3
+

=
h h
u
h
Constant R of ideal gases
Equation adjustment for the determination of
air density
u
R
= 84x 10
-7
J mol
-1
K
-1
3 5 4
10 50 , 9 ) 9495 , 0 )( 10 1 (

= = kgm x x u
ec
Sensitivity Coefficient
Pressure
Temperature
Relative humidity.

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
p
a v
v
a v
v
a v
v
a a a
p
Xv
Xv p
f
f
X
X p
X
X
Z
Z p
f
f
X
X
Z
Z p
Z
Z p
c

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

=
t
T
T
P
P
X
X t
f
f
X
X t
T
T
t
T
T
P
P
X
X
Z
Z t
f
f
X
X
Z
Z t
Z
Z t
T
T
Z
Z
ct
sv
sv
v
v
a v
v
a a
sv
sv
v
v
a v
v
a a a

|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

=
h
X
X h
X
X
Z
Z
C
v
v
a v
v
h
a
Where:
1 =

t
T

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =

2
2
2 exp
T
D
B AT
T
D
C BT AT
T
P
sv
1 8
10 14 , 3

= =

Pa x
p
f

t
t
f
2 =

p
fP
h
X
sv v
=

p
hP
f
x
sv v
=

2
p
hfP
p
xv
sv

p
hf
P
X
sv
v
=

( ) | | ( )
2
2
2
1 0 1 0
2
2 1 0
2
) (
1
v v v
ex d
T
p
X t C C X t b b t a t a a
T p
Z
+ + + + + + + +

( ) ( ) | | ( )
2
3
2
2 1 1 0
2
2 1 0
2
2
v
ex d
T
p
Xv t C C X t b b t a t a a
T
p
T
Z
o v
+ + + + + + + =

( )
2
1 2 1
1 2
v v
X c X b t a a
T
p
t
Z
+ + +

( )
2
1 1 0
2 2
2 2
T
eX p
tx c x c t b b
T
p
X
Z
v
v v o
v
+ + + +

Constant R
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

Ma
Mv
Xv
ZRT
Ma
p
1 1

a
v
v
a
M
M
x
RT Z
pM
Z
1 1
2

|
|
.
|

\
|

a
v
v
a
M
M
X
ZRT
pM
T
1 1
2

|
|
.
|

\
|

a
v a
v
M
M
ZRT
pM
X
1

|
|
.
|

\
|

a
v a
M
M
Xv
T ZR
pM
R
1
2

|
.
|

\
|

=
R
C
a
R

molK j kgm CR
1 3
114203618 , 0

=
Equation
Uncertainty evalation
Degrees of freedom
Expanded uncertainty
1 =
ec
C
( ) | |
2

=
t
i i p
x u c u
ec
ec
R
R
h
h
t
t
p
p
n
t
t
xt
ef
v
u
v
u
v
u
v
u
v
u
u
v
u
u
v
4 4 4 4
4
4
4
4
+ + + +
= =


p
u k U =
:
Where :
( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) p s t s
p p t t
n n
p t r
n
k
k k
=

=
1
1
1
,
( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) h s t s
h h t t
n n
h t r
n
k
k k
=

=
1
1
1
,
( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) h s p s
h h p p
n n
h p r
n
k
k k
=

=
1
1
1
,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )


= +
+ =
1
1 1
2
, 2
N
i
N
i j
j i j i j i
i
i i p
x x r x u x u c c x u c u
Consider that the atmospheric pressure, temperature and
relative humidity are correlated, its uncertainty:
Reference
Reference

Estimacin
Estimacin
de la incertidumbre en la
de la incertidumbre en la
determinacin
determinacin
de la
de la
densidad del aire, Luis Omar Becerra Santiago y
densidad del aire, Luis Omar Becerra Santiago y
mara
mara
Elena
Elena
Guardado
Guardado
gonzlez
gonzlez
, CENAM , Abril 2003.
, CENAM , Abril 2003.

Equation
Equation
for
for
the
the
determination
determination
of
of
the
the
density
density
of
of
Moir
Moir
Air
Air
,
,
R.S
R.S
.
.
Davis
Davis
,
,
Metrologia
Metrologia
1992,29,67
1992,29,67
-
-
70.
70.

Equation
Equation
for
for
the
the
dertimination
dertimination
of
of
the
the
density
density
of
of
moist
moist
air
air
, P.
, P.
giacomo.Metrologia
giacomo.Metrologia
18,33
18,33
-
-
40 1982.
40 1982.

Three
Three
methods
methods
of
of
determining
determining
the
the
density
density
of
of
moist
moist
air
air
during
during
mass
mass
comparisons
comparisons
, A.
, A.
Picard
Picard
y
y

h. Fang. Metrologia 2002, 39,


h. Fang. Metrologia 2002, 39,
31
31
-
-
40.
40.

Discrepancies
Discrepancies
in
in
air
air
density
density
determination
determination
between
between
the
the
thermodynamic
thermodynamic
formula
formula
and
and
a
a
gravimetric
gravimetric
method
method
:
:
evidence
evidence
for
for
a
a
new
new
value
value
of
of
the
the
mole
mole
fraction
fraction
of
of
argon
argon
in
in
air
air
, A
, A
Picard
Picard
,
,
H.
H.
Fang
Fang
,
,
Metrologia
Metrologia
41, 396
41, 396
-
-
400
400
Thanks for the
attention