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TOPIK Beginner Grammar

TYPE 1. //~ // offer to do something for someone else is used to convey meanings such // as someone tries doing something ( to see how it will turn out) or someone does something to see (how it will turn out). // conveys meanings such as likeness, resemblance, or similarity. when attached directly to the stems of adjectives. The past tense form of this pattern is -// . expresses the speakers request // for something // // // the informal polite speech style

//

//

is used to indicate an action which took place in the past or a condition which used to exist.

`- is used to express even if, // even though // if `- is used with the word // , , `, this pattern is used to ask for and giving permission. For the negative answer to a request for permission, you have to use the pattern -() . May do is used to indicate cause or // 1 / reason; mostly used with adjectives and (to go), (to come), (dont have) etc. in declarative and interrogative sentences; cannot be used in imperative and propositive sentence, where another connective -() is used is used when the subject performs / // 2 one action and then a second one; it is attached to the first verb and is then followed by a second verb is used to express obligation or // necessity; tense is expressed in / the verb . Must, have to TYPE 2. -()~

is used to express the speakers hope or desire. Even though the past tense -//- is used, this pattern does not refer to the past. So, even when this pattern is used without the past tense like -() , there is no difference in meaning. the negative of -

The informal polite form of

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this pattern Verb + -() + -() time word + is used to express an interval of time which extends from a definite past to the present. The case marker -` or - can be attached optionally after -()// is used in the present tense with -()/ adjectives or to express the speakers thought or opinion, in the future tense to indicate the speakers stronger conjecture or presumption. With general verbs, the pattern - is used in the present tense, () in the past tense, and () in the future tense; tense is expressed in the final verb means after having done smth; -()/ -() used with the action verbs. The tense is expresses in the main (final) verb -() ()

indicate ones past experiences. The literal meaning is the experience of having done something exists ( or dont exist )

-() The informal ending of the future -() tense -() ; with a 3rd person subject it expresses a supposition or presumption, with a 1st person subject the speakers plan or intention -() / is used with verbs and indicates ability, capability, possibility or permission -()

-()

-() /

-() Means I think I will (do smth) -()

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is used to introduce a certain fact,occurrence, or event. The form `-() is used for the adjectives and -` in the present tense. The form -` is used for all other cases. Indicates reason and cause; if the main clause is an imperative or propositive, only the connective - can be used in the dependent clause. In this case, -(/) cannot be used While; when the two actions happen at the same time, past tense is not expressed with this pattern. But if the action of the `- clause happened before the action of the next clause, past tense should be expressed in the `- clause; is used with all verbs and adjectives but ` can be used only in the past tense is used to express the knowledge or lack of knowledge of a technique or process of doing something the speakers intention or plan or promise. It is used with action verbs as well as with the verb , but not with adjectives.

-()

-()?

-()

is used to express the purpose of -() the subjects action and is followed by either (to go), (to come) or their compounds, or any verb which indicates movement, such as (to go and come regularly) -()

-()

-()

-()

is used to express inquiring about someones opinion, view or appraisal on a certain matter or fact with the action verb. used to indicate the purpose of the speaker (subject)s action; can be followed by any verbs; it is used in the present and past tense of the main verb (final verb), but is never used with the future tense. Tense and negation are expressed in the main verb (final verb). is used with verbs(including `); this pattern is used to indicate a subjects intention; restricted to first and second personal pronouns can be used with any verb or adjective and indicates condition and/or stipulation; in Korean the dependent clause precedes the main clause. Sometimes, the word `/ is used at the beginning of a conditional clause is used to express two simultaneous actions done by the same person. It attaches to the verb directly; someone does something while he is doing something else (at the same time) implies respect of the speaker for the subject of the sentence, means Please do something when referring to the second person

-() -()

-() -()

-()

-()-

to expressing the subjects -() suggestion with the action verbs and the verb of existence . It cannot be used with nor with adjectives. In plain speech style() you can use the form - instead of -// the honorific form -()

imperative verb form

TYPE 3. ~ ()+ because of, owing to, as a result ()+ of, in consequence of - [] and; or; [](even) - though [if]; no matter how (what whenwherewho); whatever

Polite form of
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is used to express the idea that the -situation has been arranged by certain environmental facts or conditions. It is used with verbs and ; (it) turns out (that), It is arranged that -, (the situation) makes something to be is used to indicate the desire of the - subject and is used with action verbs and .

pre-ending -- is used for expressing the speakers conjecture or supposition or for asking intention of the person spoken to in a polite request.

is used to express surprise, delight, - or wonder with an exclamation mark; adjectives and - take the -! form, other verbs take the -! form. In past tense, verbs also take the - form. -

is used to indicate a kind of process or continuing action; Is doing; this pattern can have two different meanings when used with verbs dealing with items of clothing : , , ; it is often used to express an action which started in the past and is still going on is used to express cause and reason; so, therefore, because

Is used in complex sentences and indicates the action in the second sentence that is the reason for achieving the object of the first sentence the ending `- is attached to the verb directly and is used in the present tense; the ending `() is used in the past tense; The forms , , , , are the present inflected forms of the infinitives; `-() is used in the future tense formal polite speech style stop doing Forms a negative suggestion is used to join two sentences which are in contrast with each other. But

- -

- is used to indicate ones decision; /()/() the verb `- can be replaced () by the verb `, , , - means to decide not to do; - means do not decide to do

- -/? - / -

TYPE 4.

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Formal style question final ending - - the pattern - ` preceded by - an action verb expresses prohibition or dissuasion. This pattern is always used as a negative imperative sentence or a negative propositive sentence. long type negation; directly - follows by verbs or adjectives; not, no

is used if you want to seek the listeners agreement or to ascertain what listener means

/ indicates that the preceding noun phrase is , the subject of the sentence. - is used after a word which ends with a vowel, while `- is used after a consonant , expresses the finishing point of the action /, , to (by/for) a person; about; around; toward (a (), time); in the vicinity (neighborhood) of; near (a place) , From (a person) /,

at or in indicating the place where an action takes place; from, indicating a starting point or cause. and, with, along (together) with Indicates a choice, shows direction, means, status, cause is attached to a Noun to indicate the direct object of a transitive verb is preceded by a noun and indicates possession, relationship, origin or status location Indicates a choice, shows direction, means, status, cause only; can be attached to almost any word in the sentence [] but; (and) yet; [] while; meanwhile; [ ] though; although; nevertheless; however; still. [] as many [much] as; no less [fewer] than; as long as; nearly; about.; [] either or; or; any. like; as; as as; <not> so as; as if

/, indicates the comparison of topics. If there is , no connotation of comparison with another subject, this marker cannot be used. means also or too. This can replace the (), subjective marker -/, and the objective marker -/` , each; every; all , , because (of); since; as; for (),

, outside, in the open air + besides

() 2,

, (more than) is attached to a standard of , comparison (which is usually the second noun) when both items of comparison are mentioned. It is often accompanied by - which means more; when the standard of comparison is omitted, (more) is used , means from, the starting point of an action , , indicates a destination and that someone or something is stationary in a place. It is attached to nouns, and followed by (to be) and (not to be).. meanings: to, in, at. , Its a dative marker which attaches to animate nouns; is often used as in spoken language TYPE 5. Plural form of the noun , -, - , is used to indicate distribution and is attached ()

means and; connects words on an equal basis is used for indicating the receiver of an action; the marker - is used for indicating the source or starting point of an action.

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means aroundoclock (a space of) time; a period; in,

to numbers and any counting classifier; each, respectively TYPE 6. , is used with action verbs, and means impossibility or strong denial and refusal.

for, during, as (so) long as

expresses the negative and means do not. is put before the verb.

TOPIK Beginner Vocab/Verb/Adjectives & others

Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation Price furniture Bag fall, autumn family

Korean Word

Price River distance anxiety; worry wedding Race experience season Plan worry; agony Cat hometown Place performance Park note book airport Fruit snack ex) .

English Meaning Explanation theater Near Letter this year period feeling; ex) standard kimchi black flower flower shop country tree day weather Namsan next year content tomorrow cold noodle refrigerator year song males older sister tear

interest car accident dress shoe purchase picture

feeling; next next month word month

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Korean Word () 2

English Meaning Explanation home library money Dongdaemun younger sibling back drama hike hiking shoes radio Russia across from head figure hat weight door stationary store problem; question; issue culture thing The USA bottom pants museum outside class room method broadcasting station ship pear actor department store bus number hospital ball point pen spring parent Parents

Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation part request atmosphere bulgogi rain airplane bread apple person office freebie; bonus gift dictionary photo mountain color Colors thinking, thought birthday Life Seoul Seoul Station Bookstore present, gift teacher explanation Seoraksan character introduction news hand customer class pocket book Time Watch market city hall test restaurant meal newspaper

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Korean Word 2

English Meaning Explanation Shoe Baby Bottom Father ice cream sir, uncle maam, aunt Morning Breakfast Apartment In eye glasses Information in front of Baseball Medicine Pharmacy Appointment Mother Yesterday Face Old Girl Trip History Contact Pencil Receipt English Movie Beside

Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation Umbrella Milk Exercise what matter upper part study abroad bank drink food concert meaning chair name this (ex. this year) strange internet work Japan Japanese Sunday car seat bicycle last year magazine place evening electronic dictionary phone number lunch arrangement

ex) after a long time ex) after a long time right (direction) Afternoon this year Clothes Foreigner Chef these days

Jeju Island graduate week weekend address owner prepare china wallet

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Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation last week last year subway house a tea charge front gate Book desk clean football (soccer) hobby getting a job skirt friend bed camera Canada coffee computer males oldest brother tennis court Saturday bankbook blue party letter weekday

Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation grape ticket goods piano need boarding house academy Korea Korean speech Korean language traditional Korean Clothes Korean restaurant grandmother grandfather discount event males older brother room number subway line company office worker meeting after holiday hope effort

Counting Units Korean Word English Meaning Explanation general counter books machines animal people times (ex, 3 times) bottle people people Korean Word English Meaning Explanation age bunch (of fruit) a serving of food glass paper floor package
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Verbs Korean Word English Meaning Explanation go bring go with so.th transfer (subway) catch a cold go and come take worry cross (a road) catch experience make a plan plan ex) . there is something wrong choose with engine be so.th wrong; be in trouble watch rescue draw a picture Korean Word () English Meaning Explanation come out take out money drop pour sing a song sing effort play play basketball cry go back go back and forth close

answer arrive cost return become give (to older person) eat (to older person) ex) ex)

wait remember ?? ex) .

remember block the pathway trim take out turn off cut end finish put on go out

listen enter enter leave drink like finish meet


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ex) put on gloves

make

ex)

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Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation ex) speak to (older person) speak speak eat do not know gather insufficient take a bath question ask receive eat food learn take off

Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation

()

send see full send mail request lend borrow subtract

ex) there is an accident

have a meal wear (shoes) dislike write wear (hat) wash (face) sit know understand match travel connect practice have a fever make a promise/appoint ment come rise come up, climb take an umbrella exercise drive laugh move to other place move conversation use understand wake read lose lose wear forget be well do well become sleepy eat transmit; tell

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accident be buy use take a photo take a walk live stand wash explain introduce swim rest begin start order

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Korean Word ()

English Meaning Explanation Korean Word transmit a phone call (telephone) to other person Can I talk to___. receive a call call call be careful to like give sleep (only to older persons) order prepare pass spend; live ask a question make search for visit ex) .

English Meaning Explanation clean invite play depart employ turn on have a runny nose ride play tennis incorrect sleep deeply play piano do angry have a meeting

Adjectives: 72 Words light thanks be (to older people) thanks sunny clear ok feel happy long Deep Clean Bad write down Low Wide High different Dirty ex)

Hot Clean Many clear tastes bad tastes good cool (a cool person) scary sorry glad bright hungry full hungry crowded diligent inconvenient similar

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Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation expensive New Easy Sad Hate cheap beautiful painful dark young not have pretty dangerous famous strange have small interesting/fun less

Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation quiet narrow like sorry important merry short cold kind big tall convenient comfortable easy tired needed free difficult

Adverbs Korean Word (+ )= English Meaning Explanation near sometimes most suddenly like almost continuously soon just soon exactly later everyday too late all more seperately Korean Word English Meaning Explanation and straight at last a lot of very daily ahead ex) all nail; cannot in advance straight; right right now already very normally quickly new each other

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Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation some time ago perhaps very yet quick, not always hard long in a long time for a long time these days later now early often well wait moment

Korean Word

English Meaning Explanation not at all really best a little quietly some now directly really first slowly largely particularly especially well together always alone alone

Conjunctions Korean Word Question Words Korean Word Numbers Korean Word English Meaning 3 13 12 Explanation
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English Meaning so only because if

Korean Word

English Meaning well then and

English Meaning who what what where how when

Korean Word

English Meaning how much why which how many what

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/ Pronouns Korean Word / / / Determiners Korean Word Interjections Korean Word English Meaning maybe; perhaps yes no English Meaning the English Meaning there the it wherever here everyone our this this that that there we

9 6 12 13 1 20

Explanation

ex) put it wherever

Explanation 4 2

new 3 20 whatever several this that 1 ex: (whatever)

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Korean Word

English Meaning hello yes