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Crisis and Absolutism in Europe, 1550-1715 Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion Social Crises,
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe,
1550-1715
Europe in Crisis: The
Wars of Religion
Social Crises, War,
and Revolution
Response to Crisis:
Absolutism
The World of
European Culture
Wars of Religion Social Crises, War, and Revolution Response to Crisis: Absolutism The World of European
Wars of Religion Social Crises, War, and Revolution Response to Crisis: Absolutism The World of European
Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion
Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion
Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion
Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion
Objectives: 1. Discuss the situation in many European nations in which Protestants and Catholics fought
Objectives:
1. Discuss the situation in
many European nations
in which Protestants and
Catholics fought for
political and religious
control
2. Summarize how,
during the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries,
many European rulers
extended their power and
their borders
The French Wars of Religion By 1560, Calvinism and Catholicism had become highly militant (combative)
The French Wars of
Religion
By 1560, Calvinism and
Catholicism had become
highly militant (combative)
religions
Aggressive wars emerged
trying to win converts and
in eliminating each other’s
authority
Economic, social, and
political forces also played
an important role
French Civil Wars—”French Wars of Religion” (1562-1598) The French kings persecuted Protestants *Huguenots were
French Civil Wars—”French Wars of
Religion” (1562-1598)
The French kings persecuted
Protestants
*Huguenots were French Protestants
influenced by John Calvin
An extreme Catholic party—known as
the ultra-Catholics—strongly opposed
the Huguenots
The religious wars, and those who
fought in them, sought political and
economic gain
*Henry of Navarre, the political leader of the Huguenots and member of the Bourbon dynasty,
*Henry of Navarre, the
political leader of the
Huguenots and member of
the Bourbon dynasty,
succeeded to the throne as
Henry IV
Converted to Catholicism
to solidify his reign
Issued the *Edict of Nantes
in 1598—recognized
Catholicism as the official
religion but gave
Huguenots the right to
worship
Philip II and Militant Catholicism *King Philip II of Spain, the son and heir of
Philip II and Militant
Catholicism
*King Philip II of Spain, the son
and heir of Charles V
He ushered into an age of Spanish
greatness, both politically and
culturally
Empire included Spain, the
Netherlands, possessions in Italy,
and the Americas
He insisted on a strict conformity
to Catholicism
Spain saw itself as a nation of people chosen by God to save Catholic Christianity
Spain saw itself as a nation of
people chosen by God to save
Catholic Christianity from the
Protestant heretics
The Spanish Netherlands
were the richest parts of the
empire
Philip tried to crush
Calvinism in the Netherlands
The Dutch, under leadership
of *William the Silent, the
prince of Orange, offered
growing resistance
Spain had the most populous empire in the world. Spain controlled almost all of South
Spain had the most
populous empire in the
world. Spain controlled
almost all of South America
and a number of settlements
in Asia and Africa
Philip II brought Spain to
bankruptcy for spending too
much on the war
By the end of the war, real
power in Europe had shifted
to England and France
The England of Elizabeth *Elizabeth Tudor ascended the throne of England During her reign, England
The England of Elizabeth
*Elizabeth Tudor ascended the
throne of England
During her reign, England
entered a Golden age and laid a
foundation for a world empire
She repealed the laws favoring
Catholics
Act of Supremacy named
Elizabeth “the only supreme
governor” of both church and
state
Moderate in her foreign policy, trying to keep out of conflict with Spain and France
Moderate in her foreign
policy, trying to keep
out of conflict with
Spain and France
If one nation seemed to
be gaining in power,
England would support
the weaker nation
Philip attempted to
overthrown England
with a massive armada
Objectives: 1. Discuss the situation in many European nations in which Protestants and Catholics fought
Objectives:
1. Discuss the situation in
many European nations
in which Protestants and
Catholics fought for
political and religious
control
2. Summarize how,
during the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries,
many European rulers
extended their power and
their borders
Social Crises, War, and Revolution
Social Crises, War, and
Revolution
Objectives: 1. Explain how the Thirty Years’ War ended the unity of the Holy Roman
Objectives:
1. Explain how the Thirty
Years’ War ended the
unity of the Holy Roman
Empire
2. Relate how democratic
ideals were strengthened
as a result of the English
and Glorious Revolutions
Economic and Social Crises One of the greatest issues was *inflation The great influx of
Economic and Social Crises
One of the greatest issues was
*inflation
The great influx of gold and
silver from the Americas was
one factor
Spain’s economy grew
dependent on imported silver
Population increased from 60
million in 1500 to 85 million
by 1600
The Witchcraft Trials The religious zeal that led to the Inquisition and the hunt for
The Witchcraft Trials
The religious zeal that led to the
Inquisition and the hunt for
heretics was extended to concern
about witchcraft
Perhaps more than a hundred
thousand people were charged
with witchcraft
More than 75 percent of those
accused were women—single or
widowed and over 50 years old
Features and accusations against witches: sworn allegiance to the devil, black Sabbaths, and evil spells
Features and
accusations
against witches:
sworn allegiance
to the devil,
black Sabbaths,
and evil spells
Witch trials and
the witchcraft
hysteria
The Thirty Years’ War Calvinism had not been recognized by the peace settlement Religion played
The Thirty Years’ War
Calvinism had not been recognized
by the peace settlement
Religion played an important role in
the outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War,
called the “last of the religious wars”
All major European powers except
England became involved. For 30
years Germany was plundered and
destroyed
The Peace of Westphalia officially
ended the war in Germany in 1648
The Peace of Westphalia stated that all German states, including the Calvinist ones, could determine
The Peace of
Westphalia stated
that all German
states, including
the Calvinist ones,
could determine
their own religion
This brought an
end to the Holy
Roman Empire as
a political entity
Revolutions in England A series of rebellions and civil wars rocked Europe in the seventeenth
Revolutions in England
A series of rebellions and
civil wars rocked Europe
in the seventeenth
century
The most famous struggle
was the English
Revolution, a struggle
between king and
Parliament to determine
what role each should
play
The Stuarts and Divine Right The Stuart line of rulers began with the accession to
The Stuarts and Divine Right
The Stuart line of rulers began
with the accession to the throne
of Elizabeth’s cousin, the king
of Scotland, who became
*James I of England
Parliament did not think much
of the divine right of kings—
something James I believed
fervently
*The Puritans did not like the
king’s strong defense of the
Church of England
The Puritan gentry formed an important part of the House of Commons, the lower house
The Puritan gentry
formed an important part
of the House of
Commons, the lower
house of Parliament
The conflict that began
during the reign of James
came to a head during
the reign of his son,
*Charles I
Charles also tried to
impose more ritual on the
Church of England
Civil War and the Commonwealth Civil war emerged between supporters of the king (*Cavaliers) and
Civil War and the Commonwealth
Civil war emerged between
supporters of the king
(*Cavaliers) and the
parliamentary forces
(*Roundheads—because of
their short hair)
*Oliver Cromwell, a military
genius, took control of the
Parliament and purged
members who did not support
him
Charles I was executed in 1649
Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House of the Lords After destroying both king and
Parliament abolished the
monarchy and the House
of the Lords
After destroying both
king and Parliament,
Cromwell set up a
military dictatorship
This was one of the first
steps toward ending the
concept of “Divine Right
of Kingship”
The Restoration Cromwell ruled until his death in 1658 Parliament restored the monarchy in the
The Restoration
Cromwell ruled until his
death in 1658
Parliament restored the
monarchy in the person of
Charles II, the son of Charles I
The Stuart monarchy gained
much of its power back
James II (made king in 1685)
and was a devout catholic, an
unsettling issue for the
Parliament
A Glorious Revolution Parliament invited the Dutch leader, William of Orange—a Protestant leader With almost
A Glorious Revolution
Parliament invited the
Dutch leader, William of
Orange—a Protestant leader
With almost no bloodshed,
England had undergone a
“Glorious Revolution”
A Bill of Rights was created
which helped fashioned
system of government based
on the rule of law and a
freely elected Parliament
Objectives: 1. Explain how the Thirty Years’ War ended the unity of the Holy Roman
Objectives:
1. Explain how the Thirty
Years’ War ended the
unity of the Holy Roman
Empire
2. Relate how democratic
ideals were strengthened
as a result of the English
and Glorious Revolutions
Response to Crisis: Absolutism
Response to Crisis: Absolutism
Objectives: 1. Identity and describe Louis XIV, an absolute monarch whose extravagant lifestyle and military
Objectives:
1. Identity and describe
Louis XIV, an absolute
monarch whose extravagant
lifestyle and military
campaigns weakened
France
2. Discuss how Prussia,
Austria, and Russia
emerged as great European
powers in the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries
France Under Louis XIV Absolutism is a system in which a ruler holds total power
France Under
Louis XIV
Absolutism is a
system in which a
ruler holds total
power
The reign of Louis
XIV has long been
regarded as the best
example of the
practice of
absolutism in the
seventeenth century
Richelieu and Mazarin *Cardinal Richelieu, Louis XIII’s chief minister, strengthened the power of the monarchy.
Richelieu and Mazarin
*Cardinal Richelieu,
Louis XIII’s chief
minister, strengthened
the power of the
monarchy. Because the
Huguenots were seen
as a threat to the king’s
power, Richelieu took
away their political
and military rights
while preserving their
religious rights
The royal court that Louis established at Versailles served three purposes: personal household, chief offices
The royal court that Louis
established at Versailles served
three purposes: personal
household, chief offices of the
state, and powerful subjects
came to find favors
Louis neutralized the power of
high nobles
Government and Religion
He had complete authority over
foreign policy, the Church, and
taxes
His power was only limited at
the local level
The king bribed important people in the provinces to see that his policies were carried
The king bribed
important people in the
provinces to see that
his policies were
carried out
The desire to keep this
power led Louis to
pursue an anti-
Protestant policy aimed
at converting the
Huguenots to
Catholicism
The Economy and War Louis wished to ensure the domination of his Bourbon dynasty over
The Economy and
War
Louis wished to
ensure the
domination of his
Bourbon dynasty
over European
affairs
Louis waged four
wars between 1667
and 1713
Legacy of Louis XIV In 1715, the Sun King died. He left France with great
Legacy of Louis XIV
In 1715, the
Sun King
died. He left
France with
great debts
and
surrounded
by enemies
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe After the Thirty Years’ War, there was no German
Absolutism in Central
and Eastern Europe
After the Thirty Years’
War, there was no
German state, but over
300 “Germanies.”
Prussia and Austria are
the only states to
emerge
The Emergence of Prussia *Frederick William the Great Elector laid the foundation for the Prussian
The Emergence of Prussia
*Frederick William the Great
Elector laid the foundation
for the Prussian state
He built a large and efficient
standing army—the fourth-
largest in Europe
Many of its officials were
members of the Prussian
landed aristocracy, known
as the Junkers
The New Austrian Empire The Hapsburg made a difficult transition in the seventeenth century. They
The New Austrian Empire
The Hapsburg made a
difficult transition in the
seventeenth century. They
had lost the German Empire,
but now they created a new
empire in eastern and
southeastern Europe
After the defeat of the Turks
in 1687, Austria took control
of all of Hungary,
Transylvania, Croatia, and
Slavonia
The Austrian monarchy, however, never became a highly centralized, absolutist state, chiefly because it was
The Austrian
monarchy, however,
never became a
highly centralized,
absolutist state,
chiefly because it
was made up of so
many different
national groups
became a highly centralized, absolutist state, chiefly because it was made up of so many different
became a highly centralized, absolutist state, chiefly because it was made up of so many different
Russia Under Peter the Great In the sixteenth century, Ivan IV became the first ruler
Russia Under Peter the Great In the sixteenth century, Ivan IV became the first ruler
Russia Under Peter the Great
In the sixteenth century, Ivan IV
became the first ruler to take the
title of czar, the Russian word for
caesar
Ivan expanded the territories of
Russia eastward
*Peter the Great claimed the
divine right to rule
He was determined to westernize,
or Europeanize, Russia and eager
to Borrow European technology
Military and Governmental and Cultural Changes He employed both Russians and Europeans as officers, forming
Military and Governmental
and Cultural Changes
He employed both Russians
and Europeans as officers,
forming the first Russian navy
Peter introduced Western
customs, practices, and
manners into Russia
The cutting of beards, the cut
cloaks, and the removal of veils
Construction of St. Petersburg
Objectives: 1. Identity and describe Louis XIV, an absolute monarch whose extravagant lifestyle and military
Objectives:
1. Identity and describe
Louis XIV, an absolute
monarch whose extravagant
lifestyle and military
campaigns weakened France
2. Discuss how Prussia,
Austria, and Russia emerged
as great European powers in
the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
The World of European Culture
The World of European Culture
Objectives: 1. Describe the artistic movements of Mannerism and the baroque, which began in Italy
Objectives:
1. Describe the artistic
movements of Mannerism
and the baroque, which
began in Italy and reflected
the spiritual perceptions of
the time
2. Identify Shakespeare and
Lope de Vega, prolific
writers of dramas and
comedies that reflected the
human condition
Mannerism Emerged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s The worldly enthusiasm of the Renaissance
Mannerism
Emerged in Italy in the 1520s
and 1530s
The worldly enthusiasm of the
Renaissance declined as people
grew anxious and uncertain and
wished for spiritual experience
The rules of proportion were
deliberately ignored as
elongated figures were used to
show suffering, heightened
emotions, and religious ecstasy
deliberately ignored as elongated figures were used to show suffering, heightened emotions, and religious ecstasy
deliberately ignored as elongated figures were used to show suffering, heightened emotions, and religious ecstasy
High point in the work of *El Greco elongated and contorted figures, portraying them in
High point in the work of *El Greco elongated and contorted figures, portraying them in
High point in the
work of *El Greco
elongated and
contorted figures,
portraying them in
unusual shades of
yellow and green
against an eerie
background of
stormy grays
The Baroque Period Baroque artists tried to bring together the classical ideals of Renaissance art
The Baroque Period
Baroque artists tried to
bring together the
classical ideals of
Renaissance art with
the spiritual feelings
of the 16th century
religious revival
Dramatic effects to
arouse the emotions
Reflected the search
for power
*Gian Lorenzo Bernini, who completed Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome Bernini’s Throne of Saint Peter
*Gian Lorenzo
Bernini, who
completed Saint
Peter’s Basilica in
Rome
Bernini’s Throne of
Saint Peter is a highly
decorated cover for
the pope;s medieval
wooden throne
Basilica in Rome Bernini’s Throne of Saint Peter is a highly decorated cover for the pope;s
Basilica in Rome Bernini’s Throne of Saint Peter is a highly decorated cover for the pope;s
Artemisia Gentileschi —famous for her pictures of heroines from the Old Testament (Judith Beheading Holofernes)
Artemisia Gentileschi —famous for her pictures of heroines from the Old Testament (Judith Beheading Holofernes)
Artemisia Gentileschi —famous for her pictures of heroines from the Old Testament (Judith Beheading Holofernes)
Artemisia Gentileschi
—famous for her
pictures of heroines
from the Old
Testament (Judith
Beheading
Holofernes)
A Golden Age of Literature England’s Shakespeare Of all the forms of Elizabethan literature, none
A Golden Age of Literature England’s Shakespeare Of all the forms of Elizabethan literature, none
A Golden Age of
Literature
England’s Shakespeare
Of all the forms of
Elizabethan literature, none
expressed the energy of the
era better than drama
Although best known for
writing plays, he was also
an actor and shareholder in
the chief theater company
of the time, the lord
Chamberlain’s Men
Spanish Literature Touring companies brought the latest Spanish plays to all parts of the Spanish
Spanish Literature
Touring companies brought
the latest Spanish plays to
all parts of the Spanish
Empire
*Miguel de Cervantes, Don
Quixote, one of the greatest
literary works of all time
The Knight and Sancho
Panza, an image of both the
dreamer and the hard work
of reality are necessary to
the human condition
Political Thought The English revolutions of the 17th century prompted very different responses from two
Political Thought The English revolutions of the 17th century prompted very different responses from two
Political Thought The English revolutions of the 17th century prompted very different responses from two
Political Thought
The English
revolutions of the
17th century
prompted very
different responses
from two English
political thinkers,
Thomas Hobbes
and John Locke
Hobbes humans were guided not by reason and moral ideals but by a ruthless struggle
Hobbes
humans were guided
not by reason and
moral ideals but by a
ruthless struggle for
self-preservation
Rebellion must be
suppressed. To
Hobbes, such absolute
power was needed to
preserve order in
society
John Locke—Two Treatises of Government He argued against the absolute rule of one person Locke
John Locke—Two Treatises
of Government
He argued against the
absolute rule of one person
Locke believed that before
society was organized,
humans lived in a state of
equality and freedom
rather than a state of war
natural rights—life, liberty,
and property
People found it difficult to protect their natural rights. For that reason, they agreed to
People found it difficult to
protect their natural rights.
For that reason, they agreed
to establish a government to
ensure the protection of
their rights
Locke was not an advocate
of democracy, but his ideas
proved important to both
America and the French in
the eighteenth century
Objectives: 1. Describe the artistic movements of Mannerism and the baroque, which began in Italy
Objectives:
1. Describe the artistic
movements of Mannerism
and the baroque, which
began in Italy and reflected
the spiritual perceptions of
the time
2. Identify Shakespeare and
Lope de Vega, prolific
writers of dramas and
comedies that reflected the
human condition