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# Code: 9A03302

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012 THERMODYNAMICS (Common to AE and ME) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 70 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 (a) (b) Explain the following terms: (i) State (ii) Process (iii) Cycle A fluid at a pressure of 3 bar, and with specific volume of 0.18 m3/kg, contained in a cylinder behind a piston expands reversibly to a pressure of 0.6 bar according to a law p = C/v2 where C is a constant. Calculate the work done by the fluid on the piston. State the limitations of first law of thermodynamics. A system undergoes a cycle composed of four processes. The heat transfers n each process are: 400 kJ, -365 kJ, -200 kJ and 250 kJ. The respective work transfers are 140 kJ, 0, -55 kJ and 0. Is the data consistent with first law of thermodynamics? Show the equivalence of Clausius and Kelvin statement of second law. A heat engine receives heat at the rate of 1500 kJ/min and gives an output of 8.2 KW. Determine (i) the thermal efficiency (ii) the rate of hear rejection. Describe with a neat sketch a separating-throttling calorimeter for measuring the dryness fraction of steam. Find the specific volume, enthalpy and internal energy of wet steam at 18 bar, dryness fraction 0.8. The specific heat of a gas are given by Cp= a + KT, CV = b + Kt where a,b and k are constants.1.5 kg of this gas occupying a volume of 0.06 m3 at 5.6 MPa expands isentropically until the temperature is 2400C. If a = 0.946, b = 0.662, k = 10-4. Calculate work done due to expansion. 0.30 m3 of air at a temperature of 450C and a pressure of 1000 kN/m2 is allowed to expand to 1.2 m3 according to the law PV1.25 = constant. Calculate (i).Work done (ii) Heat transfer. A perfect gas mixture consists of 4 kg of hydrogen and 6 kg of carbon dioxide at a pressure of 4 bar and a temperature of 250C. Calculate Cp and Cv of the mixture. If the mixture is heated at constant volume to 500C, find the change in the internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of the mixture. Contd. in Page 2

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## Code: 9A03302 7 (a)

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Define the following: (i) Wet bulb temperature (ii) Dew point temperature (iii) Absolute humidity (iv) Degree of saturation. Distinguish between summer air conditioning and winter air-conditioning with the help of sketch. An oil engine working on a dual combustion cycle has a compression ratio 14 and explosion ratio obtained from and indicator card is 1.4. If the cut-off occurs at 6% of the stroke. Find the ideal efficiency. The efficiency of Otto cycle is 60% and = 1.5. What is compression ratio?

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Code: 9A03302

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012 THERMODYNAMICS (Common to AE and ME) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 70 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 (a) (b) 2 (a) (b) 3 Differentiate between the cyclic process and non-cyclic process. Prove that heat and work are the path functions. A new temperature scale in 0N is to be defined. The boiling and freezing points on this scale are 4000 N and 1000 N respectively. Correlate this with Centigrade and Fahrenheit scale. What will be the reading on the new scale corresponding to 600C? In order to check the validity of second law of thermodynamics m1 kg of water at temperature T1 is isobarically and adiabatically mixed with m2 kg of water at temperature T2 (T1>T2). Determine the change in entropy of the universe and find an expression for the same for equal mass of water. Also prove that the change is necessarily positive. Explain the significance of triple point in case of pure substance. Explain in detail the formation of steam with the help of T-H diagram indicating the salient points A mass of air is initially at 2600C and 700 kPa and occupies 0.028 m3. The air is expanded at constant pressure to 0.084 m3. A polytropic process with n = 1.50 is then carried out, followed by a constant temperature process which completes a cycle. All the processes are reversible. (i) Sketch the cycle on the p-v and T-s planes. (ii) Find the heat received and heat rejected in the cycle. (iii) Find the efficiency of the cycle. A 5 m3 tank has 60% hydrogen and 40% methane by volume at 100 kPa and 300 K. Determine the amount of methane to be added at 300 K to change the composition to 50% methane by volume. Also determine the final pressure of the mixture in the tank. Define (i) Relative humidity. (ii) Specific humidity. An air-water vapour mixture at 250C and 1 bar has relative humidity of 50% determine: (i) Partial pressure. (ii) Dew point temperature. (iii) Density of each constituent. (iv) Specific humidity. Derive an expression for an air standard efficiency of Otto cycle. Compute the changes in efficiencys of an Otto cycle when the compression ratio changes from 4 to 5. Take = 1.4. *****

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Code: 9A03302

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012 THERMODYNAMICS (Common to AE and ME) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 70 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 (a) (b) 2 (a) (b) Explain the terms state, path, process and cyclic process. Discuss the macroscopic and microscopic point of view of thermodynamics. Explain in detail about constant volume gas thermometer. In a certain cyclic process, the heat interactions are + 44 kJ, -108 kJ, -32 kJ and 136 kJ. Find the net work done during cyclic process. Derive the expression for heat transfer in the polytropic process. 0.44 kg of air at 1800C expands adiabatically to three times its original volume and during the process; there is a fall in temperature to 150C. The work done during the process is 52.5 kJ/kg. Calculate Cp and Cv. Define critical point and triple point. In a throttling calorimeter the pressure of the steam measure before and after throttling are 16 bar and 1 bar respectively. Find the dryness fraction of steam before passing through the calorimeter if the temperature after throttling is 1500C. Assume Cp for superheated steam at 1 bar is 2.1 kJ/kg K. 2 kg of ideal gas are expanded from a pressure of 8 bar and volume 1.5 m3 to a pressure of 1.6 bar and volume 4.5 m3. The change in internal energy is 45 kJ. The specific heat at constant heat at constant volume for the gas is 0.70 kJ/kg K. Determine: (i) Gas constant (ii) Index of polytropic expansion. (iii) Work done during polytropic expansion and (iv) Initial and final temperature. A perfect gas mixture consists of 2kg N2 and 6kg CO2 at a pressure 5 bar and temperature of 270C calculate (i) Mole fraction of each constituent. (ii) Equivalent molecular weight of the mixture. (iii) Equivalent gas constant of the mixture. (iv) Partial pressure and partial volumes. (v) Volume and density of the mixture. Define the term psychrometry and give different applications of psychrometrics. Draw a skeleton psychrometric chart and explain how to find different properties using it. An air standard dual cycle has a compression ratio of 16 and the compression starts at 1 bar, 500C. The maximum pressure is 70 bar. The heat transferred to air at constant pressure is equal to that at constant volume. Estimate (i) The pressures and temperatures at the cardinal points of the cycle. (ii) The cycle efficiency. (iii) MEP of the cycle. *****

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Code: 9A03302

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular and Supplementary Examinations, November 2012 THERMODYNAMICS (Common to AE and ME) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 70 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 (a) (b) Write the difference between system and control volume. A gas undergoes a reversible non-flow process according to the relation P = (- 3V + 15) where V is the volume in m3 and P is the pressure in bar. Determine the work done when the volume changes from 3 to 6 m3. What are the advantages of gases over liquids as a thermometric substances? During one cycle, the working fluid in an engine engages in two work interactions: 15 kJ to the fluid and 44 kJ from the fluid, and three heat interactions, two of which are 75 kJ of the fluid, and 40 kJ from the fluid. Evaluate the magnitude and direction of the third heat transfer. Describe the working of a Carnot cycle. A cyclic heat engine operates between a source temperature of 10000C and a sink temperature of 400C. Find the least rate of heat rejection per KW net output of the engine. Explain T-S diagram for a pure substance. Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and internal energy of steam at 7 bar and enthalpy 2550 kJ/kg. Show that the change in entropy during a polytropic process for a perfect gas per unit mass is given by: s2 - s1 = Cv (-n/n-1) ln (T1/T2) where n is polytropic index. Give the physical explanation of Entropy. Explain the methodology in converting gravimetric to volumetric analysis. The volumetric analysis of a dry flue gas in a boiler trial is given in percentage as 13% CO2; 1.5% CO; 3.5% O2 and 82% H2. Determine the percentage gravimetric analysis. Also find the specific gas constant of the mixture. Explain any four terms associated with psychrometry. What is psychrometric chart? Draw the various lines in a skeleton psychrometric chart. Derive the expression for air standard efficiency of Ericsson cycle. An Ericsson cycle operating with an ideal regenerator works between 1100 K and 288 K. The pressure at the beginning of isothermal compression is 1.013 bar. Determine: (i) The compressor and turbine work per kg of air. (ii) The cycle efficiency.

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