4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.31
at a cross section just to the left of the 1600lb load acting on the simple beam AB shown in the figure.
Calculate the shear force V and bending moment M
Freebody diagram of segment DB
M
©F _{V}_{E}_{R}_{T} 0: V 1600 lb 1400 lb 200 lb ©M _{D} 0: M (1400 lb)(30 in.) 42,000 lbin.
Problem 4.32
at the midpoint C of the simple beam AB shown in the figure.
Determine the shear force V and bending moment M
Freebody diagram of segment AC
259
260
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.33
the midpoint of the beam with overhangs (see figure). Note that one load acts downward and the other upward.
Determine the shear force V and bending moment M at
P
Solution 4.34
Cantilever beam
4.0 kN
1.5 kN/m
A 










1.0 m 
1.0 
m 
2.0 m 
B
Freebody diagram of segment DB Point D is 0.5 m from support A.
M
B
©F VERT 0:
V 4.0 kN (1.5 kN m)(2.0 m) 4.0 kN 3.0 kN 7.0 kN ©M _{D} 0: M (4.0 kN)(0.5 m) (1.5 kN m)(2.0 m)(2.5 m) 2.0 kN m 7.5 kN m ^{} ^{} ^{9}^{.}^{5} ^{k}^{N} ^{} ^{m}
Freebody diagram of segment AD
400 lb/ft
M
M _{B} 0: 
R _{A} 2460 lb 

M _{A} 0: 
R _{B} 2740 lb 
Point D is 16 ft from support A. 
©F _{V}_{E}_{R}_{T} 0:
V 2460 lb (400 lb ft)(10 ft) 1540 lb ©M _{D} 0: M (2460 lb)(16 ft) (400 lb ft)(10 ft)(11 ft) 4640 lbft
Problem 4.36
supported at A and B and has an overhang from B to C. The loads consist of a horizontal force P _{1} 4.0 kN acting at the end of a vertical arm and a vertical force P _{2} 8.0 kN acting at the end of the overhang. Determine the shear force V and bending moment M at a cross section located 3.0 m from the lefthand support. (Note: Disregard the widths of the beam and vertical arm and use centerline dimensions when making calculations.)
The beam ABC shown in the figure is simply
Solution 4.36
Beam with vertical arm
Freebody diagram of segment AD
Point D is 3.0 m from support A.
©M _{D} 0: M R _{A} (3.0
m) 4.0 kN m
7.0 kN m
262
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.37
at each end and carries a uniform load of intensity q. For what ratio b/L will the bending moment at the midpoint of the beam be zero?
The beam ABCD shown in the figure has overhangs
Freebody diagram of lefthand half of beam:
D Point E is at the midpoint of the beam.
From symmetry and equilibrium of vertical forces:
R _{B}
R _{C}
q ¢b ^{L}
2
≤
q ¢b ^{L}
Solve for b /L :
2
≤
¢ ^{L}
2
≤ q ¢ _{2} ≤ ¢b ^{L}
2
1
≤
2
0
Problem 4.38
bowstring of the bow shown in the figure. Determine the bending moment at the midpoint of the bow.
At full draw, an archer applies a pull of 130 N to the
P 130 N
70°
H 
1400 mm 
1.4 m 

b 
350 mm 
0.35 m 
Freebody diagram of point A
^{P}
T tensile force in the bowstring
F _{H}_{O}_{R}_{I}_{Z} 0:
2T cos P 0
T
^{P}
2 cos b
SECTION 4.3
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
263
Freebody diagram of segment BC
Substitute numerical values:
264
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.39
of two equal and opposite forces P, as shown in the figure. The axis of the bar forms a semicircle of radius r. Determine the axial force N, shear force V, and bending moment M acting at a cross section defined by the angle .
A curved bar ABC is subjected to loads in the form
P
Q _{}
b ^{} N P sin u 0
Problem 4.310
acting on the wing of a small airplane has the idealized variation shown in the figure. Calculate the shear force V and bending moment M at the inboard end of the wing.
Under cruising conditions the distributed load
F _{V}_{E}_{R}_{T} 0 c _{} T ^{}
Loading (in three parts)
700
900
N/m
N/m
B
B A
Bending Moment
©M _{A} 0
_{}_{}
1
V _{2} (700 N m)(2.6 m) (900 N m)(5.2 m)
1
_{2} (900 N m)(1.0 m) 0
V 6040 N 6.04 kN
(Minus means the shear force acts opposite to the direction shown in the figure.)
M _{2} (700 N m)(2.6 m)¢ ^{2}^{.}^{6} ^{m}
1
3
≤
(900 N m)(5.2 m)(2.6 m)
_{2} (900 N m)(1.0 m)¢5.2 m ^{1}^{.}^{0} ^{m} ≤ 0
1
3
M 788.67 N • m 12,168 N • m 2490 N • m
15,450 N • m
15.45 kN m
UNITS:
P in lb
M in lbft
Freebody diagram of section AC
N
Numerical value of M equals 640 lbft.
∴ 640 lbft ^{8}^{P}
_{1}_{5} lbft
and P 1200 lb
Problem 4.312
distributed load (see figure). The intensity of the load varies linearly from 50 kN/m at support A to 30 kN/m at support B. Calculate the shear force V and bending moment M at the midpoint of the beam.
A simply supported beam AB supports a trapezoidally
50 kN/m
266
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Solution 4.312
Beam with trapezoidal load
50 kN/m
Reactions
B
©M _{B} 0 _{} R _{A} (3 m) (30 kN m)(3 m)(1.5 m)
(20 kN m)(3 m)( ^{1} _{} _{2} )(2 m) 0
R _{A} 65 kN
©F _{V}_{E}_{R}_{T} 0 ^{} c
R _{A} R _{B} ^{1} _{} _{2} (50 kN m
R _{B} 55 kN
30 kN m)(3 m) 0
Freebody diagram of section CB
Point C is at the midpoint of the beam.
1
V (30 kN m)(1.5 m) _{2} (10 kN m)(1.5 m)
55 kN 0
V 2.5 kN
©M _{C} 0
M (30 kN/m)(1.5 m)(0.75 m)
_{}_{}
^{1} _{} _{2} (10 kN m)(1.5 m)(0.5 m)
(55 kN)(1.5 m) 0
M 45.0 kN m
Problem 4.313
foundation beam that supports a uniform load of intensity q _{1} 3500 lb/ft
(see figure). Assume that the soil pressure on the underside of the beam is uniformly distributed with intensity q _{2} .
Beam ABCD represents a reinforcedconcrete
(a) 
Find the shear force V _{B} and bending moment M _{B} at point B. 
(b) 
Find the shear force V _{m} and bending moment M _{m} at the midpoint 
of the beam.
A
q _{1} = 3500 lb/ft
B
C
3.0 ft
q 2
8.0 ft
D
Solution 4.313
Foundation beam
q _{1} = 3500 lb/ft
©M _{B}
0: M _{B}
9000 lbft
(b) V and M at midpoint E
3500 lb/ft
B
A
3 ft
2000 lb/ft
4 ft
E
F _{V}_{E}_{R}_{T} 0: V _{m} (2000 lb/ft)(7 ft) (3500 lb/ft)(4 ft)
V _{m} 0
M _{E} 0:
M _{m} (2000 lb/ft)(7 ft)(3.5 ft)
(3500 lb/ft)(4 ft)(2 ft)
M _{m} 21,000 lbft
W = 27 kN
Solution 4.314
Beam with cable and weight
Freebody diagram of pulley at B
27 kN
10.8 kN
27 kN
21.6 kN
Freebody diagram of segment ABC of beam
18 kN
©F _{V}_{E}_{R}_{T} 0: V 7.2 kN
©M _{C} 0: M 50.4 kN m
N
268
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
The centrifuge shown in the figure rotates in a horizontal
plane (the xy plane) on a smooth surface about the z axis (which is vertical) with an angular acceleration . Each of the two arms has weight w per unit length and supports a weight W 2.0 wL at its end. Derive formulas for the maximum shear force and maximum bending moment in the arms, assuming b L/9 and c L/10.
Problem 4.315
Solution 4.315
Rotating centrifuge
Tangential acceleration r
Inertial force Mr ^{W}
_{g}
r
Maximum V and M occur at x b.
V max ^{W}
_{g} (L b c) _{}
b
_{} W
_{g}
(L b c)
L b
w
_{g}
_{} wL
_{2}_{g}
(L 2b)
M max ^{W} ^{}
b
(L b c)(L c)
x(x b)dx
(L b c)(L c)
L b
_{g}
w
_{g} _{} W
_{g}
_{} w L ^{2}
_{6}_{g}
(2L 3b)
W (L + b + c)
Substitute numerical data:
x dx
W 2.0 wL b ^{L}
_{9}
c
^{L}
10
SECTION 4.5
ShearForce and BendingMoment Diagrams
269
ShearForce and BendingMoment Diagrams
When solving the problems for Section 4.5, draw the shearforce and
bendingmoment diagrams approximately to scale and label all critical ordinates, including the maximum and minimum values. Probs. 4.51 through 4.510 are symbolic problems and Probs. 4.511 through 4.524 are numerical problems. The remaining problems (4.525 through 4.530) involve specialized topics, such as optimization, beams with hinges, and moving loads.
Problem 4.51
a simple beam AB supporting two equal concentrated loads P (see figure).
Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for
M
0
Pa
270
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.52
couple of moment M _{0} acting at distance a from the lefthand support (see figure). Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
A simple beam AB is subjected to a counterclockwise
Problem 4.53
for a cantilever beam AB carrying a uniform load of intensity q over onehalf of its length (see figure).
Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams
B
8
SECTION 4.5
ShearForce and BendingMoment Diagrams
271
Problem 4.54
is subjected to a concentrated load P at the midpoint and a counterclockwise couple of moment M _{1} PL/4 at the free end. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
The cantilever beam AB shown in the figure
1 ^{=}
—– PL
4
Solution 4.54
R _{A} P
M _{A} ^{P}^{L}
4
4
Problem 4.55
a concentrated load P and a clockwise couple M _{1} PL /4 acting at the third points. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
The simple beam AB shown in the figure is subjected to
PL/18
272
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.56
and 2M _{1} acting at the third points is shown in the figure. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
A simple beam AB subjected to clockwise couples M _{1}
Problem 4.57
load P acting at the end of a bracket BDE (see figure). Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for beam ABC.
A simply supported beam ABC is loaded by a vertical
B
Solution 4.57
Beam with bracket
M 0
Solution 4.58
Beam with overhang
upper
beam:
C
aa
a
P
P
C
Pa
P
P
B
aa
lower
beam:
2 P
a
V 0
M 0
Problem 4.59
overhangs at each end (see figure). The span length is L and each overhang has length L /3. A uniform load of intensity q acts along the entire length of the beam. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
Beam ABCD is simply supported at B and C and has
Solution 4.59
Beam with overhangs
q
0.3727L
274
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.510
for a cantilever beam AB supporting a linearly varying load of maximum intensity q _{0} (see figure).
Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams
^{A}
q 0
Problem 4.511
intensity q 10 lb/in. acting over onehalf of the span and a concentrated load P 80 lb acting at midspan (see figure). Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
The simple beam AB supports a uniform load of
SECTION 4.5
ShearForce and BendingMoment Diagrams
275
The beam AB shown in the figure supports a uniform
load of intensity 3000 N/m acting over half the length of the beam. The beam rests on a foundation that produces a uniformly distributed load over the entire length. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
Problem 4.512
3000 N/m
A 





B 













0.8 m 
1.6 m 
0.8 m 

Solution 4.512 
Beam with distributed loads 
3000 
N/m 

A 





B 












0
0
V
(N)
M
(N . m)
Problem 4.513
concentrated load, as shown in the figure. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
A cantilever beam AB supports a couple and a
276
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.514
subjected to a uniform load acting throughout onehalf of its length and a concentrated load acting at the free end. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
The cantilever beam AB shown in the figure is
V
(kN)
0
0
M
(kN . m)
Problem 4.515
The uniformly loaded beam ABC has simple supports at
A and B and an overhang BC (see figure). Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
25 lb/in.
C
Solution 4.515
Beam with an overhang
25 lb/in.
M 0
(lbin.)
C
SECTION 4.5
Problem 4.516
uniform load of intensity 12 kN/m and a concentrated load of magnitude 2.4 kN (see figure). Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
A beam ABC with an overhang at one end supports a
Solution 4.516
Beam with an overhang
0
0
V
(kN)
M
(kN . m)
Problem 4.517
supported at A and B and has an overhang from B to C. The loads consist of a horizontal force P _{1} 400 lb acting at the end of the vertical arm and a vertical force P _{2} 900 lb acting at the end of the overhang. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam. (Note: Disregard the widths of the beam and vertical arm
and use centerline dimensions when making calculations.)
The beam ABC shown in the figure is simply
Solution 4.517
Beam with vertical arm
900
278
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.518
uniform load and two horizontal forces acting at the ends of a vertical arm (see figure). Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
A simple beam AB is loaded by two segments of
V 0
(lb)
640
Freebody diagram of beam ABCD
800
4800
R _{A} = 8 k
R _{B} = 16 k
V
(k)
M
(kft)
0
0
^{8}
280
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.522
a concentrated load and a segment of uniform load. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this cantilever beam.
The cantilever beam shown in the figure supports

3 kN 
1.0 kN/m 

A 










0.8 m 
0.8 m 
1.6 m 
B
R _{A} = 4.6 kN
B
0
0
4.6
V
(kN)
M
(kN ^{.} m)
6.24
Problem 4.523
to a triangular load of maximum intensity 180 lb/ft. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
The simple beam ACB shown in the figure is subjected
180 lb/ft
V
(lb)
M
(lbft)
0
0
Problem 4.524
trapezoidally distributed load (see figure). The intensity of the load varies from 1.0 kN/m at support A to 3.0 kN/m at support B. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this beam.
A beam with simple supports is subjected to a
3.0 kN/m
SECTION 4.5
ShearForce and BendingMoment Diagrams
281
Solution 4.524
Simple beam
3.0 kN/m
A
B
2.4 m
R _{A} = 2.0 kN
_{R} B _{=} _{2}_{.}_{8} _{k}_{N}
V
x
^{2}
2.0 x _{2}_{.}_{4} (x meters;
V kN)
Set V 0:
x _{1} 1.2980 m
V
(kN)
M
(kN ^{.} m)
0
0
A beam of length L is being designed to support a uniform load
of intensity q (see figure). If the supports of the beam are placed at the ends, creating a simple beam, the maximum bending moment in the beam is qL ^{2} /8. However, if the supports of the beam are moved symmetrically toward the middle of the beam (as pictured), the maximum bending moment is reduced. Determine the distance a between the supports so that the maximum bending moment in the beam has the smallest possible numerical value. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this condition.
Problem 4.525
q
Solution 4.525
Beam with overhangs
q
M _{1} M _{2}
(L a) ^{2} L(2a L)
282
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.526
consists of two beams (AD and DE ) joined by a hinged connection at D. The hinge can transmit a shear force but not a bending moment. The loads on the beam consist of a 4kN force at the end of a bracket attached at point B and a 2kN force at the midpoint of beam DE. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this compound beam.
The compound beam ABCDE shown in the figure
V
(kN)
M
(kN ^{.} m)
_{0}
^{0}
^{2}^{.}^{5}
Problem 4.527
consists of two beams (AD and DE ) joined by a hinged connection at D. The hinge can transmit a shear force but not a bending moment. A force P acts upward at A and a uniform load of intensity q acts downward on beam DE. Draw the shearforce and bendingmoment diagrams for this compound beam.
The compound beam ABCDE shown in the figure
A
Solution 4.527
Compound beam
SECTION 4.5
Problem 4.528
is shown in the figure. Determine the loading on the beam and draw the bending moment diagram, assuming that no couples act as loads on the beam.
The shearforce diagram for a simple beam
V
0
Solution 4.528
Simple beam (V is given)
Problem 4.529
in the figure. Assuming that no couples act as loads on the beam, determine the forces acting on the beam and draw the bending moment diagram.
The shearforce diagram for a beam is shown
V
Solution 4.529 
Forces on a beam (V is given) 
Force diagram 
20 lb/ft
V
(lb)
M
(lbft)
652
0
0
500
2448
284
CHAPTER 4
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
Problem 4.530
and 2P that are distance d apart (see figure). The wheels may be placed at any distance x from the lefthand support of the beam.
A simple beam AB supports two connected wheel loads P
(a) 
Determine the distance x that will produce the maximum shear force in the beam, and also determine the maximum shear force V _{m}_{a}_{x} . 
(b) 
Determine the distance x that will produce the maximum bending moment in the beam, and also draw the corresponding bending moment diagram. (Assume P 10 kN, d 2.4 m, and L 12 m.) 
Solution 4.530
Moving loads on a beam
P 
2P 
P 
10 kN 


d 
2.4 m 

x 
d

L 
12 m 

B 
A
L
Reaction at support B:
R _{B} ^{P} x ^{2}^{P} (x d) ^{P}
L
L
_{L} (2d 3x)
Bending moment at D:
M _{D} R _{B} (L x d)
^{P} _{L} (2d 3x)(L x d)
(a) Maximum shear force
By inspection, the maximum shear force occurs at support B when the larger load is placed close to, but not directly over, that support.
^{P} [ 3x ^{2} (3L 5d)x 2d(L d) ]
L
dM _{D}
dx
^{P} _{L} ( 6x 3L 5d) 0
A
x ^{L}
6
¢3 ^{5}^{d} ≤ 4.0
L
P
d
2P
Solve for x:
x = L − d
B Substitute x
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.