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4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.3-1

at a cross section just to the left of the 1600-lb load acting on the simple beam AB shown in the figure.

Calculate the shear force V and bending moment M

800 lb
1600 lb
A
B
30 in.
60 in.
30 in.
120 in.
Solution 4.3-1
Simple beam
800 lb
1600 lb
D
A
B
30 in.
60 in.
30 in.
R A
R B
M A
0:
M B 0:
R B 1400 lb
R A 1000 lb

Free-body diagram of segment DB

M

1600 lb
V
D
B
30 in.
R B

©F VERT 0: V 1600 lb 1400 lb 200 lb ©M D 0: M (1400 lb)(30 in.) 42,000 lb-in.

Problem 4.3-2

at the midpoint C of the simple beam AB shown in the figure.

Determine the shear force V and bending moment M

6.0 kN
2.0 kN/m
C
A
B
1.0 m
1.0 m
2.0 m
4.0 m
Solution 4.3-2
Simple beam
6.0 kN
2.0 kN/m
C
A
B
1.0 m
1.0 m
2.0 m
R
R A
B
M A 0:
M B 0:
R B 4.5 kN
R A 5.5 kN

Free-body diagram of segment AC

6.0
kN
M
V
A
C
1.0 m
1.0 m
R
A
©F VERT 0: V 0.5 kN
©M C 0: M 5.0 kN m

260

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.3-3

the midpoint of the beam with overhangs (see figure). Note that one load acts downward and the other upward.

Determine the shear force V and bending moment M at

P
b
L
b

P

Solution 4.3-3
Beam with overhangs
©M A 0: R B P ¢1 2b ≤ (downward)
P
P
L
A
B
P
M
A
C
b
L
b
b L/2
R
A
R
R
B
A
V
Free-body diagram (C is the midpoint)
1
2bP
R A L [P(L b b)]
V R A P P ¢1 2b ≤ P
L
L
P
¢1
2b ≤ (upward)
L
L
M P ¢1 2b
¢ L
≤ P ¢b
L
2
2
M
PL Pb Pb PL
0
2 2
4.0 kN
Problem 4.3-4
Calculate the shear force V and bending moment M at a
1.5 kN/m
cross section located 0.5 m from the fixed support of the cantilever beam
AB shown in the figure.
A
B
1.0 m
1.0 m
2.0 m

Solution 4.3-4

Cantilever beam

4.0 kN

1.5 kN/m

 A 1.0 m 1.0 m 2.0 m

B

Free-body diagram of segment DB Point D is 0.5 m from support A.

M

4.0
kN
1.5 kN/m
V
D
0.5 m
1.0 m
2.0 m

B

V 4.0 kN (1.5 kN m)(2.0 m) 4.0 kN 3.0 kN 7.0 kN ©M D 0: M (4.0 kN)(0.5 m) (1.5 kN m)(2.0 m)(2.5 m) 2.0 kN m 7.5 kN m 9.5 kN m

SECTION 4.3
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
261
Problem 4.3-5
Determine the shear force V and bending moment M
400 lb/ft
200 lb/ft
at a cross section located 16 ft from the left-hand end A of the beam
with an overhang shown in the figure.
B
A
C
10 ft
10 ft
6 ft
6 ft
Solution 4.3-5
Beam with an overhang
400 lb/ft
200 lb/ft
B
A
C
10 ft
10 ft
6 ft
6 ft
R A
R B

400 lb/ft

D
A
10 ft
6 ft
R
V
A

M

 M B 0: R A 2460 lb M A 0: R B 2740 lb Point D is 16 ft from support A.

V 2460 lb (400 lb ft)(10 ft) 1540 lb ©M D 0: M (2460 lb)(16 ft) (400 lb ft)(10 ft)(11 ft) 4640 lb-ft

Problem 4.3-6

supported at A and B and has an overhang from B to C. The loads consist of a horizontal force P 1 4.0 kN acting at the end of a vertical arm and a vertical force P 2 8.0 kN acting at the end of the overhang. Determine the shear force V and bending moment M at a cross section located 3.0 m from the left-hand support. (Note: Disregard the widths of the beam and vertical arm and use centerline dimensions when making calculations.)

The beam ABC shown in the figure is simply

P 1 = 4.0 kN
P 2 = 8.0 kN
1.0 m
A
B
C
4.0 m
1.0 m

Solution 4.3-6

Beam with vertical arm

P 1 = 4.0 kN
P 2 = 8.0 kN
1.0 m
A
B
4.0 m
1.0 m
R
R
A
B
M B 0:
R A 1.0 kN (downward)
M A 0:
R B 9.0 kN (upward)

Point D is 3.0 m from support A.

M
A
D
4.0 kN • m
3.0 m
V
R A
©F VERT 0: V R A 1.0 kN

©M D 0: M R A (3.0

m) 4.0 kN m

7.0 kN m

262

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.3-7

at each end and carries a uniform load of intensity q. For what ratio b/L will the bending moment at the midpoint of the beam be zero?

The beam ABCD shown in the figure has overhangs

q
A
D
B
C
b
L
b
Solution 4.3-7
Beam with overhangs
q
A
B
C
b
L b
R B
R C

Free-body diagram of left-hand half of beam:

D Point E is at the midpoint of the beam.

q
M = 0
(Given)
A
E
b L/2
V
R B
0
1
R B ¢ L ≤ q ¢ 2 ≤ ¢b L
2
0
2
2

From symmetry and equilibrium of vertical forces:

R B

R C

q ¢b L

2

q ¢b L

Solve for b /L :

2

¢ L

2

q ¢ 2 ≤ ¢b L

2

1

2

0

b
L 2 1

Problem 4.3-8

bowstring of the bow shown in the figure. Determine the bending moment at the midpoint of the bow.

At full draw, an archer applies a pull of 130 N to the

70°
1400 mm
350 mm
Solution 4.3-8
Archer’s bow
B
H
C
P
A
b

P 130 N

70°

 H 1400 mm 1.4 m b 350 mm 0.35 m

Free-body diagram of point A

P

T
A
T

T tensile force in the bowstring

F HORIZ 0:

2T cos P 0

T

P

2 cos b

SECTION 4.3

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

263

Free-body diagram of segment BC

B
H
T
2
b
C
M
0
T(cos b )¢ H ≤ T(sin b ) (b) M 0
2
M
T ¢ H cos b
b
sin b≤
2
P ¢ H b tan b≤
2
2

Substitute numerical values:

130 N
B 1.4 m
M
(0.35 m)(tan 70 )R
2
2
M
108 N m

264

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.3-9

of two equal and opposite forces P, as shown in the figure. The axis of the bar forms a semicircle of radius r. Determine the axial force N, shear force V, and bending moment M acting at a cross section defined by the angle .

A curved bar ABC is subjected to loads in the form

B
P
r P
A
O
C
M
N
V
P
A
Solution 4.3-9
Curved bar
B
P
r P
A
O
C

P

M
0
B
P cos
V
F V
0
O
A
P sin

Q

b N P sin u 0

N
P sin u
R a
V
P cos u
0
V P cos u
M Nr 0
M Nr Pr sin u

Problem 4.3-10

acting on the wing of a small airplane has the idealized variation shown in the figure. Calculate the shear force V and bending moment M at the inboard end of the wing.

Under cruising conditions the distributed load

1600 N/m
900 N/m
1.0 m
2.6 m
2.6 m
Solution 4.3-10
Airplane wing
1600 N/m
900 N/m
V
M
A
1.0 m
2.6 m
2.6 m
Shear Force

F VERT 0 c T

700

900

N/m

N/m

1
2 3

B

B A

Bending Moment

1

V 2 (700 N m)(2.6 m) (900 N m)(5.2 m)

1

2 (900 N m)(1.0 m) 0

V 6040 N 6.04 kN

(Minus means the shear force acts opposite to the direction shown in the figure.)

M 2 (700 N m)(2.6 m)¢ 2.6 m

1

3

(900 N m)(5.2 m)(2.6 m)

2 (900 N m)(1.0 m)¢5.2 m 1.0 m 0

1

3

M 788.67 N m 12,168 N m 2490 N m

15,450 N m

15.45 kN m

SECTION 4.3
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
265
Problem 4.3-11
A beam ABCD with a vertical arm CE is supported as
E
P
a simple beam at A and D (see figure). A cable passes over a small pulley
that is attached to the arm at E. One end of the cable is attached to the
Cable
beam at point B.
What is the force P in the cable if the bending moment in the
beam just to the left of point C is equal numerically to 640 lb-ft?
(Note: Disregard the widths of the beam and vertical arm and use
centerline dimensions when making calculations.)
8
ft
A B
C
D
6 ft
6 ft
6 ft
Solution 4.3-11
Beam with a cable
E
P
Cable
8
ft
A
B
C
D
P
6 ft
6 ft
6 ft
4P
4P
9
9

UNITS:

P in lb

M in lb-ft

Free-body diagram of section AC

P
4P
3P
M
A
5
5
C
P
6 ft
B
6 ft
4P
V
9
M
4P (6 ft) 4P
(12 ft) 0
5
9
M 8P
15 lb-ft

N

Numerical value of M equals 640 lb-ft.

640 lb-ft 8P

15 lb-ft

and P 1200 lb

Problem 4.3-12

distributed load (see figure). The intensity of the load varies linearly from 50 kN/m at support A to 30 kN/m at support B. Calculate the shear force V and bending moment M at the midpoint of the beam.

A simply supported beam AB supports a trapezoidally

50 kN/m

30 kN/m
A
B
3 m

266

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Solution 4.3-12

50 kN/m

30 kN/m
A
B
3 m
R
A
R

Reactions

B

©M B 0 R A (3 m) (30 kN m)(3 m)(1.5 m)

(20 kN m)(3 m)( 1 2 )(2 m) 0

R A 65 kN

R A R B 1 2 (50 kN m

R B 55 kN

30 kN m)(3 m) 0

Free-body diagram of section CB

Point C is at the midpoint of the beam.

40 kN/m
30 kN/m
V
M
B
C
1.5 m
55 kN
F VERT 0 c T

1

V (30 kN m)(1.5 m) 2 (10 kN m)(1.5 m)

55 kN 0

V 2.5 kN

M (30 kN/m)(1.5 m)(0.75 m)

1 2 (10 kN m)(1.5 m)(0.5 m)

(55 kN)(1.5 m) 0

M 45.0 kN m

Problem 4.3-13

foundation beam that supports a uniform load of intensity q 1 3500 lb/ft

(see figure). Assume that the soil pressure on the underside of the beam is uniformly distributed with intensity q 2 .

Beam ABCD represents a reinforced-concrete

 (a) Find the shear force V B and bending moment M B at point B. (b) Find the shear force V m and bending moment M m at the midpoint

of the beam.

A

q 1 = 3500 lb/ft

B

C

3.0 ft

q 2

8.0 ft

3.0 ft

D

Solution 4.3-13

Foundation beam

q 1 = 3500 lb/ft

AB
CD
q 2
3.0 ft
8.0 ft
3.0 ft
F VERT 0:
q 2 (14 ft) q 1 (8 ft)
8
∴ q 2 14
q 1 2000 lb ft
(a) V and M at point B
A
B
M
B
F VERT 0:
2000 lb/ft
V B
6000 lb
3 ft
V B

0: M B

9000 lb-ft

(b) V and M at midpoint E

3500 lb/ft

B

A

3 ft

2000 lb/ft

4 ft

E

M m
V m

F VERT 0: V m (2000 lb/ft)(7 ft) (3500 lb/ft)(4 ft)

V m 0

M E 0:

M m (2000 lb/ft)(7 ft)(3.5 ft)

(3500 lb/ft)(4 ft)(2 ft)

M m 21,000 lb-ft

SECTION 4.3
Shear Forces and Bending Moments
267
Problem 4.3-14
The simply-supported beam ABCD is loaded by
E
a weight W 27 kN through the arrangement shown in the figure.
The cable passes over a small frictionless pulley at B and is attached
at E to the end of the vertical arm.
Calculate the axial force N, shear force V, and bending moment
M at section C, which is just to the left of the vertical arm.
(Note: Disregard the widths of the beam and vertical arm and use
centerline dimensions when making calculations.)
Cable
1.5 m
A B
C
D
2.0 m
2.0 m
2.0 m

W = 27 kN

Solution 4.3-14

Beam with cable and weight

E
Cable
1.5 m
A B
C
D
2.0 m
2.0 m
2.0 m
27 kN
R A
R D
R A 18 kN
R D 9 kN

Free-body diagram of pulley at B

27 kN

10.8 kN

27 kN

21.6 kN

Free-body diagram of segment ABC of beam

18 kN

10.8 kN
21.6 kN
A
B C
M
2.0 m
2.0 m
V
©F HORIZ 0: N 21.6 kN (compression)

©F VERT 0: V 7.2 kN

©M C 0: M 50.4 kN m

N

268

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

The centrifuge shown in the figure rotates in a horizontal

plane (the xy plane) on a smooth surface about the z axis (which is vertical) with an angular acceleration . Each of the two arms has weight w per unit length and supports a weight W 2.0 wL at its end. Derive formulas for the maximum shear force and maximum bending moment in the arms, assuming b L/9 and c L/10.

Problem 4.3-15

y
W
x
W
b
L
c

Solution 4.3-15

Rotating centrifuge

Tangential acceleration r

Inertial force Mr W

g

r

Maximum V and M occur at x b.

V max W

g (L b c)

b

W

g

(L b c)

L b

w

g

wL

2g

(L 2b)

M max W

b

(L b c)(L c)

x(x b)dx

(L b c)(L c)

L b

g

w

g W

g

w L 2

6g

(2L 3b)

g
w
x
x g
b
c
L

W (L + b + c)

Substitute numerical data:

x dx

W 2.0 wL b L

9

c

V max 91wL 2
30g
M max 229wL 3
75g

L

10

SECTION 4.5

Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams

269

Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams

When solving the problems for Section 4.5, draw the shear-force and

bending-moment diagrams approximately to scale and label all critical ordinates, including the maximum and minimum values. Probs. 4.5-1 through 4.5-10 are symbolic problems and Probs. 4.5-11 through 4.5-24 are numerical problems. The remaining problems (4.5-25 through 4.5-30) involve specialized topics, such as optimization, beams with hinges, and moving loads.

Problem 4.5-1

a simple beam AB supporting two equal concentrated loads P (see figure).

Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for

a
P
P
a
A
B
L
Solution 4.5-1
Simple beam
a
P
P
a
A
B
L
R A = P
R B = P
P
V
0
P

M

0

Pa

270

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.5-2

couple of moment M 0 acting at distance a from the left-hand support (see figure). Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

A simple beam AB is subjected to a counterclockwise

M 0
A
B
a
L
Solution 4.5-2
Simple beam
M 0
A
B
a
R A = M 0
L
R B = M 0
L
L
M 0
V
L
0
M
0 a
0
L
M
M 0 (1
a L )

Problem 4.5-3

for a cantilever beam AB carrying a uniform load of intensity q over one-half of its length (see figure).

Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams

q
A
L L
— —
2 2

B

Solution 4.5-3
Cantilever beam
3qL 2
q
M A =
8 A
B
qL
L
L
R A =
2
2
2
qL
2
V
0
0
M
qL 2
8
3qL 2

8

SECTION 4.5

Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams

271

Problem 4.5-4

is subjected to a concentrated load P at the midpoint and a counterclockwise couple of moment M 1 PL/4 at the free end. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

The cantilever beam AB shown in the figure

P
M
A
B
L
L
2
2

1 =

—– PL

4

Solution 4.5-4

Cantilever beam
P
A
B
M 1 PL
M A
4
L/2
L/2
R
A
V
P
0
PL
0
4
M
PL

R A P

M A PL

4

4

Problem 4.5-5

a concentrated load P and a clockwise couple M 1 PL /4 acting at the third points. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

The simple beam AB shown in the figure is subjected to

—– PL
P M 1 =
4
A
B
L
L
L
3
3
3
Solution 4.5-5
Simple beam
—– PL
P M 1 =
4
A
B
L
L
L
—– 5P
—– 7P
R A =
R B =
12 3
3
3
12
5P/12
V
0
7P/12
7PL/36
5PL/36
M
0

PL/18

272

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.5-6

and 2M 1 acting at the third points is shown in the figure. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

A simple beam AB subjected to clockwise couples M 1

2M 1
M 1
A
B
L
L L
— —
3
3
3
Solution 4.5-6
Simple beam
2M 1
M 1
A
B
L L
L
R A = 3M —– 1
— —
R
B = 3M —– 1
L
3 3
3
L
0
V
3M —– 1
L
M
1
0
M
M 1
M 1

Problem 4.5-7

load P acting at the end of a bracket BDE (see figure). Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for beam ABC.

A simply supported beam ABC is loaded by a vertical

B

A
C
D
E
P
L
L
L
4
4
2
L

Solution 4.5-7

Beam with bracket

P
—– PL
4
A
C
B
L
3L
P
4
4
P
—–
—–
R A =
R C =
2
2
P
—–
2
V 0
P
—–
2
3PL —–
—– PL
8

M 0

8
SECTION 4.5
Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams
273
Problem 4.5-8
A beam ABC is simply supported at A and B and
P
P
Pa
has an overhang BC (see figure). The beam is loaded by two forces
P and a clockwise couple of moment Pa that act through the
arrangement shown.
Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for
beam ABC.
A
B C
a
a a
a

Solution 4.5-8

Beam with overhang

upper

beam:

P
P

C

aa

a

P

P

C

Pa

P

P

B

aa

lower

beam:

2 P

a

P
P
Pa

V 0

M 0

Problem 4.5-9

overhangs at each end (see figure). The span length is L and each overhang has length L /3. A uniform load of intensity q acts along the entire length of the beam. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

Beam ABCD is simply supported at B and C and has

q
A
D
B
C
L
L L
3
3

Solution 4.5-9

Beam with overhangs

q

A
D
L/3
B
L/3
L C
5qL
5qL
R B =
R C =
6
6
qL
qL/3
V
0 2
qL
qL
5qL 2
3
2
72
M
0
x 1 L 5
X
–qL 2 /18
1
–qL 2 /18
6

0.3727L

274

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.5-10

for a cantilever beam AB supporting a linearly varying load of maximum intensity q 0 (see figure).

Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams

A

B
L

q 0

Solution 4.5-10
Cantilever beam
x
q 0
q=q 0
L
q 0 L 2
M B =
6
A
B
q 0 L
L
R B =
x
2
V
0
q 0 x 2
q 0 L
V = –
2L
2
M
0
q 0 x 3
q 0 L 2
M = –
6L
6

Problem 4.5-11

intensity q 10 lb/in. acting over one-half of the span and a concentrated load P 80 lb acting at midspan (see figure). Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

The simple beam AB supports a uniform load of

P = 80 lb
q = 10 lb/in.
A
B
L
L
— = 40 in.
— = 40 in.
2
2
Solution 4.5-11
Simple beam
P = 80 lb
10 lb/in.
A
B
R A =140 lb
40 in.
40 in.
R B = 340 lb
140
V
60
(lb)
0
6 in.
–340
M max = 5780
5600
M
(lb/in.)
0
46 in.

SECTION 4.5

Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams

275

The beam AB shown in the figure supports a uniform

load of intensity 3000 N/m acting over half the length of the beam. The beam rests on a foundation that produces a uniformly distributed load over the entire length. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

Problem 4.5-12

3000 N/m

 A B
 0.8 m 1.6 m 0.8 m Solution 4.5-12 Beam with distributed loads 3000 N/m A B

0

0

1500 N/m
0.8 m
1.6 m
0.8 m
1200
960 –1200
480
480

V

(N)

M

(N . m)

Problem 4.5-13

concentrated load, as shown in the figure. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

A cantilever beam AB supports a couple and a

200 lb
400 lb-ft
A
B
5 ft
5 ft
Solution 4.5-13
Cantilever beam
200 lb
400 lb-ft
A
B
M
A = 1600 lb-ft
5 ft
5 ft
R A = 200 lb
+200
V
(lb)
0
0
M
(lb-ft)
–600
–1000
–1600

276

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.5-14

subjected to a uniform load acting throughout one-half of its length and a concentrated load acting at the free end. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

The cantilever beam AB shown in the figure is

2.0 kN/m
2.5 kN
B
A
2 m
2 m
Solution 4.5-14
Cantilever beam
M A = 14 kN . m
R A = 6.5 kN

V

(kN)

0

0

M

(kN . m)

2.0 kN/m
2.5 kN
B
A
2 m
2 m
6.5
2.5
–5.0
–14.0

Problem 4.5-15

The uniformly loaded beam ABC has simple supports at

A and B and an overhang BC (see figure). Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

25 lb/in.

A
B
72 in.
48 in.

C

Solution 4.5-15

Beam with an overhang

25 lb/in.

A
B
72 in.
R A = 500 lb
48 in.
R B = 2500 lb
1200
500
V 0
(lb)
20 in.
–1300

M 0

(lb-in.)

5000
20 in.
40 in.
–28,800

C

SECTION 4.5

Problem 4.5-16

uniform load of intensity 12 kN/m and a concentrated load of magnitude 2.4 kN (see figure). Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

A beam ABC with an overhang at one end supports a

Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams
277
12 kN/m
2.4 kN
A
C
B
1.6 m
1.6 m
1.6 m

Solution 4.5-16

Beam with an overhang

12 kN/m
2.4 kN
A
C
B
1.6 m
R A = 13.2 kN
1.6 m
1.6 m
R B = 8.4 kN

0

0

13.2
2.4
1.1m
–6.0
M max = 7.26
M max
5.76 0.64 m
1.1m
–3.84

V

(kN)

M

(kN . m)

Problem 4.5-17

supported at A and B and has an overhang from B to C. The loads consist of a horizontal force P 1 400 lb acting at the end of the vertical arm and a vertical force P 2 900 lb acting at the end of the overhang. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam. (Note: Disregard the widths of the beam and vertical arm

and use centerline dimensions when making calculations.)

The beam ABC shown in the figure is simply

P 1 = 400 lb
P 2 = 900 lb
1.0 ft
A
B
C
4.0 ft
1.0 ft

Solution 4.5-17

Beam with vertical arm

P 1 = 400 lb
P 2 = 900 lb
1.0 ft
A
B
C
4.0 ft
1.0 ft
R A = 125 lb
R B = 1025 lb
900 lb
400 lb-ft
B
A
C
125 lb
1025 lb

900

V
(lb)
0
125
M 0
(lb)
400
900

278

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.5-18

uniform load and two horizontal forces acting at the ends of a vertical arm (see figure). Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

A simple beam AB is loaded by two segments of

8 kN
4 kN/m
4 kN/m
1 m
A
B
1
m
8 kN
2 m
2
m
2 m
2 m
Solution 4.5-18
Simple beam
4 kN/m
4 kN/m
6.0
16 kN . m
V
A
B
(kN)
0
1.5
m
2.0
2 m
2 m
2 m
2 m
R A = 6 kN
R B = 10 kN
10.0
16.0
12.0
4.5 4.0
M
(kN . m)
0
1.5
m
E
1800 lb
Problem 4.5-19
A beam ABCD with a vertical arm CE is supported as a
simple beam at A and D (see figure). A cable passes over a small pulley
that is attached to the arm at E. One end of the cable is attached to the
beam at point B. The tensile force in the cable is 1800 lb.
Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for beam ABCD.
(Note: Disregard the widths of the beam and vertical arm and use center-
line dimensions when making calculations.)
Cable
8
ft
A B
C
D
6 ft
6 ft
6 ft
Solution 4.5-19
Beam with a cable
E 1800 lb
Cable
8
ft
1800 lb
A B
C
D
6 ft
R D = 800 lb
6 ft
6 ft
R D = 800 lb

V 0

(lb)

640

800
800

Free-body diagram of beam ABCD

1800
1440
1440
5760 lb-ft
1800 A
B C
D
1080
720
800

800

Note: All forces have units of pounds.
4800
M 0
(lb-ft)
960

4800

SECTION 4.5
Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams
279
Problem 4.5-20
The beam ABCD shown in the figure has
10.6 kN/m
overhangs that extend in both directions for a distance of 4.2 m
from the supports at B and C, which are 1.2 m apart.
Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this
overhanging beam.
5.1 kN/m
5.1 kN/m
A
D
B
C
4.2 m
4.2 m
1.2 m
Solution 4.5-20
Beam with overhangs
32.97
6.36
10.6 kN/m
V
0
5.1 kN/m
5.1 kN/m
(kN)
6.36
A
D
32.97
B
C
M
0
4.2 m
R B = 39.33 kN
1.2 m
4.2 m
R C = 39.33 kN
(kN . m)
59.24
61.15
61.15
4.0 k
2.0 k/ft
Problem 4.5-21
The simple beam AB shown in the figure supports a
C
Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.
A
B
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
Solution 4.5-21
Simple beam
4.0 k
2.0 k/ft
C
A
B
5 ft
5 ft
10 ft

R A = 8 k

R B = 16 k

V

(k)

M

(k-ft)

0

0

8

4
8 ft
C
12
ft
16
64
60
M
max = 64 k-ft
40
C
12
ft
8 ft

280

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.5-22

a concentrated load and a segment of uniform load. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this cantilever beam.

The cantilever beam shown in the figure supports

 3 kN 1.0 kN/m A 0.8 m 0.8 m 1.6 m

B

Solution 4.5-22
Cantilever beam
3 kN
1.0 kN/m
A
M A =
6.24 kN . m
0.8 m
0.8 m
1.6 m

R A = 4.6 kN

B

0

0

4.6

1.6
1.28
2.56

V

(kN)

M

(kN . m)

6.24

Problem 4.5-23

to a triangular load of maximum intensity 180 lb/ft. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

The simple beam ACB shown in the figure is subjected

180 lb/ft

A
B
C
6.0 ft
7.0 ft
Solution 4.5-23
Simple beam
180 lb/ft
B
A
C
6.0 ft
1.0 ft
R A = 240 lb
R B = 390 lb

V

(lb)

M

(lb-ft)

0

0

240
x 1 = 4.0 ft
300
390
M max = 640
360

Problem 4.5-24

trapezoidally distributed load (see figure). The intensity of the load varies from 1.0 kN/m at support A to 3.0 kN/m at support B. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this beam.

A beam with simple supports is subjected to a

3.0 kN/m

1.0 kN/m
A
B
2.4 m

SECTION 4.5

Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams

281

Solution 4.5-24

Simple beam

3.0 kN/m

1.0 kN/m

A

B

2.4 m

R A = 2.0 kN

R B = 2.8 kN

V

x

2

2.0 x 2.4 (x meters;

V kN)

Set V 0:

x 1 1.2980 m

V

(kN)

M

(kN . m)

2.0
x 1 = 1.2980 m
x
2.8
M max = 1.450

0

0

A beam of length L is being designed to support a uniform load

of intensity q (see figure). If the supports of the beam are placed at the ends, creating a simple beam, the maximum bending moment in the beam is qL 2 /8. However, if the supports of the beam are moved symmetrically toward the middle of the beam (as pictured), the maximum bending moment is reduced. Determine the distance a between the supports so that the maximum bending moment in the beam has the smallest possible numerical value. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this condition.

Problem 4.5-25

q

A
B
a
L

Solution 4.5-25

Beam with overhangs

q

A
B
(L a)/ 2
a (L a)/ 2
R A = qL/2
R B = qL/2
M 2
M
0
M 1
M 1
The maximum bending moment is smallest when
M 1 M 2 (numerically).
M 1 q(L a) 2
8
qL 2
qL
M 2 R A ¢ a ≤
(2a L)
2
8
8

M 1 M 2

(L a) 2 L(2a L)

Solve for a:
a (2 2)L 0.5858L
M 1 M 2 q (L a) 2
8
qL 2
(3 2 2) 0.02145qL 2
8
0.2929 qL
0.2071 qL
0.2071L
V
0
0.2929L
0.2071 qL
0.2929 qL
0.02145 qL 2
M
0
x 1
x 1
0.02145 qL 2
0.02145 qL 2
x 1 = 0.3536 a
= 0.2071 L

282

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.5-26

consists of two beams (AD and DE ) joined by a hinged connection at D. The hinge can transmit a shear force but not a bending moment. The loads on the beam consist of a 4-kN force at the end of a bracket attached at point B and a 2-kN force at the midpoint of beam DE. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this compound beam.

The compound beam ABCDE shown in the figure

1 m
4 kN
1 m
2 kN
A
E
2 m
2 m
2 m
2 m
Solution 4.5-26
Compound beam
4 kN
Hinge
2
kN
4
kN . m
B
C
D
A
E
2 m
2
m
2 m
11 mm
11
mm
R A = 2.5 kN
R
C = 2.5 kN
R E = 1 kN

V

(kN)

M

(kN . m)

0

0

2.5

1.0
D
1.5
1.0
5.0
1.0
1.0
D
2.67 m
2.0

Problem 4.5-27

consists of two beams (AD and DE ) joined by a hinged connection at D. The hinge can transmit a shear force but not a bending moment. A force P acts upward at A and a uniform load of intensity q acts downward on beam DE. Draw the shear-force and bending-moment diagrams for this compound beam.

The compound beam ABCDE shown in the figure

A

P
q
B
C
D
E
L
L
L
2L

Solution 4.5-27

Compound beam

P
q
B
C
D
A
E
Hinge
L
L
L
2L
R B = 2P + qL
R C = P + 2qL
R E = qL
P
qL
V
0
D
–qL
−P−qL
PL
qL
M
2
D
0
L
L
−qL 2

SECTION 4.5

Problem 4.5-28

is shown in the figure. Determine the loading on the beam and draw the bending- moment diagram, assuming that no couples act as loads on the beam.

The shear-force diagram for a simple beam

V

0

Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams
283
12 kN
–12 kN
2.0 m
1.0 m
1.0 m

Solution 4.5-28

Simple beam (V is given)

6.0 kN/m
12 kN
A
B
2 m
1 m
1 m
R
A = 12kN
R B = 12kN
12
V
(kN)
0
−12
12
M
(kN . m)
0

Problem 4.5-29

in the figure. Assuming that no couples act as loads on the beam, determine the forces acting on the beam and draw the bending- moment diagram.

The shear-force diagram for a beam is shown

V

652 lb
580 lb
572 lb
500 lb
0
–128 lb
–448 lb
4 ft
16 ft
4 ft
 Solution 4.5-29 Forces on a beam (V is given) Force diagram

20 lb/ft

4 ft
16 ft
4 ft
652 lb
700 lb
1028 lb
500 lb

V

(lb)

M

(lb-ft)

652

0

0

572 580
–128

500

2448

–448
14.50 ft
–2160

284

CHAPTER 4

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Problem 4.5-30

and 2P that are distance d apart (see figure). The wheels may be placed at any distance x from the left-hand support of the beam.

A simple beam AB supports two connected wheel loads P

 (a) Determine the distance x that will produce the maximum shear force in the beam, and also determine the maximum shear force V max . (b) Determine the distance x that will produce the maximum bending moment in the beam, and also draw the corresponding bending- moment diagram. (Assume P 10 kN, d 2.4 m, and L 12 m.)
P
2P
x
d
A
B
L

Solution 4.5-30

 P 2P P 10 kN d 2.4 m x d L 12 m B

A

L

Reaction at support B:

R B P x 2P (x d) P

L

L

L (2d 3x)

Bending moment at D:

M D R B (L x d)

P L (2d 3x)(L x d)

(a) Maximum shear force

By inspection, the maximum shear force occurs at support B when the larger load is placed close to, but not directly over, that support.

P [ 3x 2 (3L 5d)x 2d(L d) ]

L

dM D

dx

P L ( 6x 3L 5d) 0

A

x L

6

¢3 5d 4.0

L

P

d

2P

Solve for x:

x = L d

B Substitute x