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Chapter 1

Vector Algebra

Scalars and Vectors Unit Vector Vector Addition, Subtraction Vector Multiplication Chapter 2

Coordinate Systems

Cartesian Coordinates Cylindrical Coordinates Spherical Coordinates Chapter 3

Vector Calculus

Differential Length, Area and Volume Del Operator Gradient of a Scalar Divergence of a Vector Curl of a Vector Laplacian of a Scalar Classification of Vector Fields Chapter 4

Electrostatic Fields


Coulombs Law and Field Intensity Electric Flux Density Gausss Law Electric Potential Electrostatic Energy Chapter 5

Electric Fields in Materials


Convection and Conduction Current Conductors Dielectrics Boundary Conditions Chapter 6

Poissons & Laplaces Equations Capacitance


Poissons & Laplaces Equations Capacitance Chapter 7

Magnetostatic Fields


Biot-Savarts Law and Magnetic Flux Intensity Amperes Circuit Law Magnetic Flux Density Magnetic Vector Potential

Chapter 8

Magnetic Forces and Materials Inductance


Magnetic Forces Magnetization Magnetic Materials Boundary Conditions Inductance Magnetic Energy Chapter 9

Maxwells Equations


Faradays law Displacement Current Maxwells Equations Time Varying Potentials Time Harmonic Fields Chapter 10

Electromagnetic Plane Wave


Waves Equations in Source-Free Region Electromagnetic Power and Poynting Theorem Solution of Uniform, Time-Harmonic Plane Wave Motion

Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 4 Tutorial 5 Tutorial 6 Tutorial 7 Tutorial 8 Tutorial 9

Chapter 1

I. Scalars and Vectors
Scalar a quantity that has only magnitude (exe: time (t), mass (m), distance (d), temperature (T)) Vector a quantity that has both magnitude and direction r r r (exe: velocity ( v ), force ( F ), displacement ( d ) ) Field a function that specifies a particular quantity everywhere in a region. If the quantity is a scalar (or vector), the field is said to be a scalar field (or vector field).

II. Unit Vector

A unit vector uA along a vector A is defined as a vector whose magnitude is unity and its direction is along A ;

r r A A uA = r = A A
Note that u A = 1 .


r r A = A : magnitude of A

We may write : A = A.u A

In Cartesian (rectangular) coordinates: A = Ax u x + Ay u y + Az u z Where Ax , Ay , Az : the components of A in the x, y, z directions respectively.

ux , u y , uz : unit vectors in the x, y, z directions respectively. r 2 2 2 We may write A = A = Ax + Ay + Az uA =

z Az

Ax u x + Ay u y + Az u z Ax + Ay + Az
2 2 2

r A

y Ax x x Ay



III. Vector Addition, Subtraction

Given 2 vectors ; Addition :

r A = Ax u x + Ay u y + Az u z r B = Bx u x + B y u y + Bz u z
r r r C = A+ B
= ( A x + B x )u x + ( A y + B y )u y + ( A z + B z )u z

Subtraction :

r r r D= AB
= ( Ax B x )u x + ( A y B y )u y + ( Az B z )u z

3 basic laws of algebra obeyed by any given vectors A, B, C : LAW Commutative Associative Distributive Addition

r r r

r r r r A+ B= B+ A r r r r r r A+ B+C = A+ B +C r r r r k A + B = kA + kB

Multiplication r r kA = A k

) (

r r k (lA) = (kl) A

IV. Position and Distance Vector

The position vector rP (radius vector) of point P is the directed distance from the origin O to P. (Cartesian :)
z P

rP = OP = xu x + yu y + z u z





r Q
Q x

The distance vector (or separation vector) in Cartesian of P and Q is the displacement from P to Q;

rPQ = rQ rP = ( x Q x P )u x + ( y Q y P )u y + ( z Q z P )u z


Vector Multiplication
V.1. Scalar (or dot) product

rr A.B = A.B. cos AB

r r AB : the smaller angle between A and B
(In Cartesian)

r r A.B = Ax .B x + Ay .B y + Az .B z

Scalar product obeys the following : r r r r Commutative : A.B = B. A

Distributive :

r r r2 A. A = A = A 2 r r r r AB A.B = 0

r r r r r r r A. B + C = A.B + A.C

(Cartesian :)

u n .u m = 0 u n .u n = 1


n, m {x, y, z} nm

V.2. Cross product

r r r r A B = A B = A.B. sin AB .u n
r r AB : the smaller angle between A and B


: unit vector, normal to the plane containing A and B . The direction of

u n is defined using the right hand rule.

r r2 r2 r2 rr 2 u v = u v (u .v )

Remark : (Lagranges Identity)

r r A B

r B

r A r B

r A

r r A B

A B r r x x A B = A y B y = ( A y B z Az B y ).u x + ( Az B x Ax B z ).u y + ( Ax B y A y B x ).u z A B z z


ux r r A B = Ax Bx

uy Ay By

uz Az = (A y B z Az B y ).u x + ( Az B x Ax B z ).u y + ( Ax B y A y B x ).u z Bz

Basic properties: i) ii) iii) iv) It is not commutative: It is anticommutative: It is not associative:

It is distributive: r r r r A parallel to B A B = 0

r r r r A B B A r r r r A B= B A r r r r r r A BC A B C r r r r r r r A B+C = A B+ AC

( ( r

) ( )

V.3. Scalar Triple Product

r r r r r r r r r A BC = B C A =C A B
V.4. Vector Triple Product

) (

) (

r r r r r r r rr A B C = B A.C C A.B
Remark :

) ( ) ( )

r r (A.B)C A(B.C ), r r r

r r (A.B)C = C(A.B) r r r r

Chapter 2

We shall restrict ourselves to 3 coordinate systems: Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinate systems.


Cartesian coordinate system

A point P can be represented as (x,y,z) and the ranges of the coordinate variables x, y, z are:

< x < + < y < + < z < + r A vector A in Cartesian can be written as: r A = Ax u x + A y u y + Az u z
where u x , u y , u z are unit vectors along x, y and z directions.

II. Circular cylindrical coordinates (, , z)

The ranges of variables are:

0 < + 0 < 2 < z < + r Given a vector A ;

r A = A u + A u + Az u z

III. Spherical coordinates (r, , )

The ranges of variables are:

0 r < + 0 < 0 < 2

Given a vector A ;

r A = Ar u r + A u + A u + Az u z

Note that the direction of u is the same as the direction of u in cylindrical coordinate system.

Chapter 3



Differential length, area and volume

I.1. Cartesian coordinates
i) Differential displacement :

dl = dx.u x + dy.u y + dz.u z dS = x

ii) Differential normal area : y dx.dy.u z

Remark : dS = dS .u n = l.m.u n


iii) Differential volume : Remark : dv is a scalar

dv =

dx dz

dx dy

dy O z x


dx y



O y

I.2. Cylindrical coordinates

i) Differential displacement :

dl = d .u + .d .u + dz.u z

dS = .d .dz.u
ii) Differential normal area :

d .dz.u

.d .d .u z
iii) Differential volume :

dv = .d .d .dz

d dz .d y

I.3. Spherical coordinates

i) Differential displacement :

dl = dr.u r + r.d .u + r sin .d .u

dS = r 2 sin .d .d .u r

ii) Differential normal area :

r sin .dr.d .u r.dr.d .u

iii) Differential volume :


dv = r 2 . sin .dr.d .d

r.d dr

. d=r.sin.d

I.4. Line, surface and volume integrals

Given a vector field A and a curve L (curve, or line, or contour), we define the line integral of A around L as :

r b r A.dl = A cos .dl


r A

path L a

If the path of integration is a closed curve (or path) such as a-b-c-a (see figure), the integral becomes a closed contour integral ; and we define the circulation of A around L as :


CIRCULATION of A around L Given a vector field A , continuous in a region containing the smooth surface S, we define the surface integral (or the flux) of A through S as :

r = A.dS S r = A.u n .dS S r = A cos .dS


r A


surface S

Remark :

for a closed surface (defining a volume), we have :

= A.dS

We define the volume integral of the scalar v over the volume v, as :


II. Del operator

The del operator, written , is the vector differential operator ; Cartesian :

r = u x + u y + u z y x z
Vector differential operator / Gradient operator

Cylindrical :

r 1 = u + u + z u z r 1 1 = u r + u + r sin u r r

Spherical :

III. Gradient of a scalar

The gradient of a scalar V is a vector that represents both the magnitude and the direction of the maximum space rate of increase of V. [ also noted:

r V or

grad (V )

Cartesian :

r V V V V = u x + y u y + z u z x r V 1 V V V = u + u + z u z r V V = r

Cylindrical :

Spherical :

1 V u r + r

1 V u + r sin u

r r r (V + U ) = V + U r r r (VU ) = VU + UV r r r V UV VU = U2 U r n r V = nV n 1V

U,V : scalar n : integer Remarks : The magnitude of V equals the maximum rate of change in V per unit distance.

r V points the direction of the maximum rate of change. r V at any point is perpendicular to the constant V surface which passes through that r r


If A = V , V is said to be the scalar potential of A .


IV. Divergence of a vector DIVERGENCE THEOREM

The divergence of vector A is the net outward flow per unit volume over a closed incremental surface, or, the divergence of A at a given point P is the outward flux per unit volume as the volume shrinks about P.

Cartesian :

r r A Ay Az + A = x + y z x rr 1 (. A ) + 1 A + Az A = z rr 1 2 A 1 ( A sin ) + 1 r . Ar + A = 2 r sin r sin r r

Cylindrical :

Spherical :

Properties: The divergence of a vector is a scalar.

r r r rr rr A + B = A + B

There is no divergence of a scalar V.

(or GAUSS-OSTROGRADSKY THEOREM) The total outward flux of a vector field A through the closed surface S is the same as the volume integral of the divergence of A . Where,

r A.dS =

r r . A.dv



Curl (Rotational) of a vector STOKES THEOREM

The curl (or rotational) of a vector field A is an axial (or rotational) vector whose magnitude is the maximum circulation of A per unit area as the area tends to zero and whose direction is the normal direction of the area when the area is oriented so as to make the circulation maximum. Cartesian :

r r r r curl ( A) = rot ( A) = A x Ax A Ay Ay Ax A A u x + x z u y + = Ay = z u z y y y z z x A y z z

Cylindrical :

r r 1 Az A A Az 1 (A ) 1 A A= u + u + u z z z
1 ( A sin ) A r sin

Spherical :

r r A=

1 1 Ar (rA ) 1 (rA ) Ar u u + u r + r r r r sin

r r r r r r r A+ B = A+ B r r r r r r r r r rr r rr r A B = A .B B . A + B. A A. B r r r . A = 0 (the divergence of the rotational of a vector field

( (

) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

vanishes) vanishes)

r r r V = 0 (the rotational of the gradient of a scalar field

(or ROTATIONAL THEOREM) The circulation of A around a closed path L is equal to the surface integral of the curl of A over the open surface S bounded by L. ( A and A are continuous on S) Where,

A.dl = ( A).dS
r r r

dl, dS : the direction obtained using right-hand rule.


VI. Laplacian of a scalar

The Laplacian of the scalar field V, is the divergence of the gradient of V. Cartesian :

r 2V 2V 2V 2V = 2 + 2 + 2 x y z
r 1 V 2V = 1 2V 2V + 2 2 + z 2

Cylindrical : Spherical :

r 1 2 V 1 V 1 2V 2V = 2 r + 2 sin + 2 r sin 2 2 r r r r sin

Properties: A scalar field V is said to be harmonic in a given region if its laplacian vanishes in that region, or:

r 2V = 0

(Laplaces Equation)

The laplacian of a vector A :

r r r r r r r r r 2 A = . A A

( )

(Cartesian :)

r r r r r 2 A = 2 Ax u x + 2 A y u y + 2 Az u z

VII. Classification of vector fields

A vector field is uniquely characterized by its divergence and curl. A divergenceless field is solenoidal :

r r . A = 0

A curl-free field (the circulation of the vector field around a closed path is zero) is irrotational :

r r r A=0
A solenoidal (or divergenceless) field has neither source nor sink of flux. An irrotational field is also known as a conservative field (the line integral of an irrotational field is independent of the chosen path)


We may classify vector fields as : 1. Solenoidal and irrotational. (exe : a static electric field in a charge-free region)

2. Solenoidal but not irrotational. (exe : a steady magnetic field in a current-carrying conductor)

3. Irrotational but not solenoidal. (exe : a static electric field in a charged-region)

4. Neither solenoidal nor irrotational. (exe : an electric field in charged medium with a time-varying field)

HEMHOLTZS THEOREM r r r . A = v r Any vector A satisfying the equations : r (where v can be regarded as the source density A = S r of A and S its circulation density) with both v and S vanishing at infinity can be written as the
sum of 2 vectors: one irrotational, the other solenoidal. Where,

r r r r A = V + B

If we let Ai = V and AS = B it is evident that Ai = 0 and . AS = 0 . ( Ai is irrotational and AS is solenoidal)


Chapter 4

We begin with fundamental concepts that are applicable to static electric fields in free-space (vacumm). An electrostatic field is produced by a static charge distribution. We investigate 2 fundamental laws governing electrostatic fields : Coulombs law Gausss Law


Coulombs Law and field intensity

Point charge : Charge : a charge that is located on a body whose dimensions are much smaller than other relevant dimensions. Symbol, q. Unit, coulombs (C). 1 electron charge : e = -1.6019 x 10-19 C. 1 coulomb equivalent to 6 x 1018 electrons.

The force between 2 charged bodies, q1 and q2, that are very small compared with the distance of separation, R12, is proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance, the direction of the force being along the line connecting the charges. Unlike charges attract and like charges repel each other. Using vector notation, Coulombs Law can be written mathematically as:

F12 = k

q1 q 2 R12

u R12 =

q1 q 2

4 0 R12 2

u R12

k : the proportionality constant

In this case, we say F12 is the force exerted on point charge q2 due to q1 with


1 4 0

9 10 9 m / F and 0 : permittivity of free space, where

0 8.854 10 12 F / m
1 F /m 36 10 +9

We may write,

F12 =

q1 q 2 4 0 R12

u R12 =

q1 q 2 q q r r R12 = 1 2 2 1 3 3 4 0 r r 4 0 R 2 1

R12 = r2 r1 R = R12 = R21 u R12 = R12 R


O (Origin)




Remarks : Since u R12 = u R21 , we have : F12 = F21 The distance R between q1 and q2 must be large compared with the linear dimensions of the bodies. q1 and q2 must be static (at rest). The signs of q1 and q2 must be taken into account.

For N charges (q1,q2, . qN) located respectively at points with position vectors
1 2 N

(r , r ,....r ) , the resultant force on a charge q located at point rr is the vector sum of the
r q k r rk Fq = r 4 0 k =1 r r 3 k

forces exerted on q by each of the charges q1,q2, . qN.

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY The force exerted to a charge is due to the electric field created by another charge. By definition, the electric field intensity is the force per unit charge that a very small stationary test charge experiences when it is placed where an electric field exists.

r r F E= , q

r r F = qE

Given 2 point charges q1 and q2 , placed respectively at points 1 and 2. We define,

F21 : force exerted on q1 due to q2. F21 = q1 E 21

where 1.

E 21 : electric field intensity created by q2 at point

By identification, we may write,

E 21 =


4 0 R21

u R21

In general, the electric field intensity created by a point charge q at a point of observation P can be written as:

r E=

q 4 0 R

u R V/m

r R
r E

For N point charges (superposition):

r E=

r q k r rk r 4 0 k =1 r r 3 k 1


II. Electric fields due to continuous charge distributions

We denote ; l (C/m) : line charge density S (C/m2) : surface charge density v (C/m3) : volume charge density

We start from the expression E =

4 0 R 2

u R . By replacing q with the charge element

l.dl, S.dS and v.dv and integrating, we get :

r .dl E = l 2 uR 4 0 R r .dS E = S 2 u R 4 0 R r .dv E = v 2 u R 4 0 R

: electric field at a point given due to a line charge : electric field at a point given due to a surface charge : electric field at a point given due to a volume charge

II.1. A line charge

Consider a finite line charge AB placed on z-axis, as shown in figure. The density of the line charge is l (C/m). If dl is the element (small portion) of the line AB, the total charge carried by dl is dq, where dq = l. dl. Hence, the total charge carried by the line charge AB is q, where

q = l .dl = l .dz '

A zA


with dl = dz

Remark :

We denote the field point by (x, y, z) and the source point (of the line charge AB) by (x, y, z).

dE z


( , , z)P
2 B 1



r R

( ' , ' , z ' )dl

z A y O x


We have :

r .dl .dz ' r E = l 2 uR = l 3 R 4 0 R 4 0 R

where :

r R = u + ( z z ' )u z cos ( z z ' ) = tan d ( z z' ) = R=

cos 2

d d

dz ' =

cos 2

r . E= l 4 0 =

cos 3 l ( z z ' ) cos 3 d .u + 3 cos 2 d .u z 3 cos 2 4 0

l cos .d .u + tan . cos .d .u z 4 0 l cos .d .u + sin .d .u z = 4 0 l cos .d .u + sin .d .u z = 4 0 l (sin 1 sin 2 )u + (cos 2 cos 1 )u z = 4 0

[ [

(electrostatic field at point P due a finite line charge AB)

Remark : For an infinite line charge (A at (0, 0, -) and B at (0, 0, +)), 1 will tend to /2, and 1 will tend to - /2, where the electric field at point P becomes :

r E=

l u 2 0


II.2. A surface charge

Consider a finite surface charge of density S (C/m2), placed in xy-plane, at z = 0 as shown below. dS is an element of S, carrying a total charge of dq, where dq = S.dS. Note that dS = .d.d. The element of charge, dq, carried by dS creates an element of electric field dE at the point of observation P located at (0, 0, h). From the expression E =

S .dS


u R , the electric field can be defined at point P.

r R = u + hu z r 1/ 2 R = R = ( 2 + h 2 )

r .dS . .d .d r E = S 2 u R = S R 4 0 R 4 0 R 3 = =

S 4 0 S 4 0

.d .d

+ h2

3/ 2

( u

+ hu z


2 .d .d h. .d .d uz u + 3/ 2 3/ 2 2 + h2 2 + h2

Remark: For an infinite surface charge, due to the symmetry of the distribution, for each dE1 , there is dE 2 , hence the component along of the vector sum of dE1 and dE 2 will vanish. The resultant vector E has only z-component.



r E= S 4 0 = = =

h. .d .d

Changing the variable (Consider m = 2),

+ h2

3/ 2


S .h 2 .d 0 d 0 ( 2 + h 2 )3 / 2 u z 4 0 S .h 1 1 (2 ) dm.u 0 2 3/ 2 4 0 (m + h ) 2 z

S .h 1 / 2 (m + h 2 ) 0 uz 2 0 = S uz 2 0 m= 2
= m
d = 1 2 m dm dm = 1 dm 2

.d =

m 2 m

(electric field due to infinite surface charge)

III. Electric flux density

Given vector A , continuous in a region containing the smooth surface S, the surface integral (or flux) of A through S is given by :

= A.dS = A.u n .dS = A cos .dS


We define the electric flux density (also called electric displacement) as:

r r D = 0 E C/m2


= D.dS Coulombs S


GAUSSS LAW The total electric flux through any closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by that surface.

= Qenclosed


Remark: The definition of flux is given by: can be written as: defined by:

= D.dS = D.dS

Knowing that the surface is a closed surface bounding a volume, the expression

The total charge enclosed in a closed surface (bounding a volume v) is generally

Qenclosed = v .dv

where v is the volume density of charge in (C/m3).

Hence, we can write

= D.dS = v .dv = Qenclosed

S v

Applying the divergence theorem, where to write

r r r D.dS = .D dv , leads us
S v

( )

(.D )dv =
r r
v v



r r .D = v
MAXWELL (the first of the Maxwells Equations to be derived)

Remark: Gausss law is an alternative statement of Coulombs law. Gausss law can be used to determine E or D when the charge distribution is symmetric. (If it is not symmetric, we must resort to Coulombs law to determine E or

r D ).

Whether the charge distribution is symmetric or not, Gausss law always hold.


Applications of Gausss law

If the charge distribution is symmetric (in order to be able to use Gausss law), construct a closed surface (Gaussian Surface) passing through the observation point where we want to find the electric field. Gaussian surface is chosen such that D is normal or tangential to the gaussian surface. So that, if if

r D tangential/parallel to dS , r D normal/orthogonal to dS ,

r D.dS = D.dS r D.dS = 0

V.1. A point charge

Consider a point charge Q placed at the origin. Due to the symmetry, the flux density D is along u r (the electric field is directed outward the point charge), where D = D.u r , with D is the magnitude of D , depending only on the distance between the observation point and the source (the point charge). In other words, the magnitude D depends only on the coordinate r of the spherical coordinate system.

r D = Dr .u r

dS = dS .u n = dS .u r
Gausss law :

= Qenclosed
Q r

r D
P (r, , ) y

r D.dS = Qenclosed = Q

Dr .dS .u r .u r = Q

Dr dS = Q Dr 4r 2 = Q Dr =

Gaussian Surface (a sphere of radius r)

Q 4r 2

r Q ur D= 4r 2


2 2 dS = r d sin .d = 4r

V.2. Infinite line charge

Consider an infinite line charge of density l , placed at z-axis. Due to the symmetry, the flux density D is along u (the electric field is directed outward the line), where

r D = D.u r , with D depends only on the distance between the observation point and the

source (the line charge). In other words, the magnitude D depends only on the coordinate of the cylindrical coordinate system.

r D = D .u

dS = dS side .u + dS top .u z + dS bottom .(u z ) u .u z = 0


Remark :

r D

Gaussian Surface (a cylinder of radius )

x l


Gausss law :

= Qenclosed
with and

= D.dS = D dS side = D 2l

Qenclosed = l .dl = l .l


r D = D u = l u 2

V.3. Infinite surface charge

Consider an infinite plane surface charge of density S , placed in xy-plane. Due to the symmetry, the flux density D is along u z (the electric field is directed outward the surface), where D = D.u z , with D depends only on the distance between the observation point and the source (the surface charge). In other words, the magnitude D depends only on the coordinate z.

r D .u D= z z D z .(u z )

( for z > 0) ( for z < 0)

dS = dS side .u side + dS top .u z + dS bottom .(u z )

Remark : dS top = dS bottom

u side .u z = 0
The top and bottom surfaces of the Gaussian surface are considered as 2 different surfaces

r D
y S

area : A

x Gaussian Surface

Gausss law :

= Qenclosed

r D

with and

= D.dS = D z (dS top + dS top ) = D z 2 A


Qenclosed = S .dS = S . A


r D = Dz u z = S u z 2

V.4. Uniformly charged sphere

Consider a uniformly charged sphere of radius R and with the density , centered at the origin. Two cases will be treated : 1) a point inside the sphere, 2) a point outside the sphere.
z charged sphere of density Gaussian Surface (a sphere of radius r1 for 1st case and r2 for 2nd case) R

r1 y r2

1) a point inside the sphere

= D.dS1 = Dr dS1 = Dr 4r1 2


Qenclosed = v1 .dv1 = v1 dv1 = v1


4 3 r1 3

D1 = Dr u r =

r1 v ur 3

2) a point outside the sphere

= D.dS 2 = Dr dS 2 = Dr 4r2 2

Qenclosed = v .dv = v dv = v

4 3 R 3

D2 = Dr u r =

R3 3r2

v ur


r Remark : Generalisation, for D everywhere :

r D

r r 3 v ur D= 3 R v ur 3r 2

for 0 < r R for r R

R v 3
r R


Electric potential MAXWELLS EQUATION

Consider a point charge Q in an electric field E . The force on Q is F = QE . The work done in displacing the charge Q by dl in the region of electric field E is:

Thus, the total work done in displacing the charge Q from a form A to B in the electric field

r r dW = F .dl = QE.dl

r E is:

B r W = Q E.dl A

We define the potential difference between points A and B, as:

V AB =

B r W = E.dl A Q

r E


If E is due to a point charge q,

V AB = =


q 4 0 r


u r .dr.u r =

q 1 1 4 0 rB rA

q 1 1 = VB V A 4 0 rB 4 0 rA

VA and VB are the potentials (or absolute potentials) at A and B respectively. VAB may be regarded as the potential at point B with reference to A. Thus, the potential at a point P due to a point charge q is given by


q 4 0 r

where r is the distance between P and Q, and the infinity is taken as the reference. 25

Remark: For an electric field due to n point charges (q1, q2, . qn) located at points with position vectors r1, r2, rn, the potential V created at point P is:

V ( P) =

1 4 0

k =1

qk r p rk

(for point charges)

For continuous charge distributions,


1 4 0 1 4 0 1 4 0

l .dl

(due to line charge)


S .dS

(due to surface charge)


v .dv

(due to volume charge)

l , S , v :

density of charge (source)

r : distance between the source ( dl, dS , dv ) and the observation point P

B r V AB = E.dl A A r B r E.dl = E.dl = V AB = V BA B A

We have seen that but hence,

B r A r V AB + V BA = E.dl E.dl A B r A r = E.dl = E.dl = V AA A


E.dl = 0

Applying Stokes Theorem: We find:

E.dl = ( E )dS
r r r

r r r E=0


E.dl = 0


r r r E=0

2nd MAXWELLS EQUATION to be derived

Remark: The circulation of the vector electrostatic field along a closed path is zero = the vector electrostatic field is conservative = no net work is done in moving a charge along a path in an electrostatic field = the line integral of E between two points doesnt depend on the path taken Since E = 0 , E is said to be derived from the gradient of a scalar field V, and from the way we define potential, it follows that,

r r E = V
(note that the curl of the gradient of a scalar function is always zero)

VII. Electric dipole

Electric dipole : and assemble of two point charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign separated by a small distance.
z P (r, , ) r1 r d -q x 2 r2 - r1 d cos r2 y

1 +q

Potential at point P :

V =V + +V +q q = + 4 0 r1 4 0 r2

1 1 r r 2 1 + q r2 r1 = 4 0 r1 r2 = +q 4 0


If r >> d,

r1 r2 r 2 qd cos V = 4 0 r 2 r2 r1 d cos

We define

r d .u r = d cos r r p = q.d r p = p = qd

r p : dipole moment,


r p.u r p = V= 2 4 0 r 4 0 r 2

The electric field due to the dipole (with centre at the origin),

r r E = .V =

4 0 r 3

(2 cos .u

+ sin .u

VIII. Electric flux lines and equipotential surfaces

Electric flux lines: the lines to which the electric field is tangential at every point. Properties: The line starts at positive charges (sources) and terminates at negative charges (sinks). No two flux lines can intersect, except at singular or equilibrium points (points at which the resultant electric field is zero) Cartesian: Let

r D = Dx u x + D y u y + Dz u z
dx dy dz = = Dx D y Dz d .d dz = = D D Dz dr r.d r sin .d = = Dr D D

The flux lines are given by: Cylindrical: The flux lines are given by: Spherical: The flux lines are given by:


Equipotential surface: any surface on which the potential is the same. Remark: No work is done in moving a charge from one point to another along an equipotential surface:

V A VB = 0 r E.dl = 0
The flux lines (or the direction of E ) are always normal to equipotential surfaces. The equipotential surfaces are determined by: V = constant, Exe: point charge (if V is given) Exe: electric dipole

Flux line

Equipotential surface

Equipotential surface

Flux line


Electrostatic energy
In introducing electrostatic potentials, we defined them in terms of the work done to move a positive charge from one point to another. We will quantify the potential energy present in a system of charges by determining the amount of work that must be done to assemble such a system of charge distribution. Consider a space completely empty and does not contain any charge. No work is done to bring a point charge Q1 from infinity to a point in the free region. The work required to bring a charge Q2 from infinity against the field of a charge Q1 in free space to a distance R12 is:

W2 = Q2V2 = Q2

Q1 4 0 R12


The work required to bring a third charge Q3 from infinity to a point that is R13 from Q1 and R23 from a Q2 is:

Q1 Q2 W3 = Q3V3 = Q3 4 R + 4 R 0 13 0 23
The total work required to place the three charges is (which is also the potential energy stored in the system of charge distribution):

Wtotal = W1 + W2 + W3 = 0 + Q2 = = =

Q1 Q1 Q2 + Q3 + 4 R 4 0 R12 4 0 R23 0 13

Q 2 Q3 Q3 Q1 Q1Q2 + + 4 0 R12 4 0 R23 4 0 R13 Q2 Q1 Q3 Q3 Q1 1 Q2 + Q3 + Q2 + + + Q1 4 R 4 R 2 4 0 R12 4 0 R13 4 0 R23 4 0 R13 0 12 0 23 1 [Q1V1 '+Q2V2 '+Q3V3 '] 2 Wtotal = 1 N Qk Vk ' 2 k =1
1 4 0

In general, (for N point charges):


Vk ' =

j=1, j k

Qj R jk

For a continuous charge distribution (line charge, surface charge, volume charge), the potential energy stored is given by:

1 l .V .dl 2 1 W = S .V .dS 2 1 W = v .V .dv 2 W =

ELECTROSTATIC ENERGY IN TERMS OF FIELD QUANTITIES: We use Gausss Law : and the following vector identity : hence;

r r .D = v r r r r r r . VD = V .D + D V

( ) ( ) ( )
( )

W =

r r 1 1 v .V .dv = 2 .D V .dv 2 r r r r 1 = . VD D. V dv 2

[ ( )

( )]


Using the divergence theorem, where

r r E = V , the expression of the energy is reduced to:

r r r A.dS = . A dv ,
S v

( )




W =

r r r r r r 1 1 1 1 VD.dS D. E dv = V .D.dS + E.D.dv 2 S 2 2 S 2 V 1


( )

Note that

R r term V .D.dS will vanish over a spherical surface at infinity.

r 1 D 2 , and the element dS varies as R2 , where the R

Hence, the energy becomes:


r r 1 1 E.D.dv = 0 E 2 dv v 2 2 v

We define the electrostatic energy density E (J/m3) as:

E =
WE =

dW E 1 r r 1 1 = D.E = 0 E 2 = D2 2 2 2 0 dv D2 1 1 0 E 2 dv = dv = E dv v 2 v 2 v 0



Chapter 5


In this chapter, we develop the theory of electric phenomena in material spaces. Materials are classified in terms of their conductivity (mhos/m) or (siemens/m), as conductors and nonconductors (or dielectrics or insulators). Conductors Dielectrics ( >> 1) ( << 1)

Microspically, the major difference between conductros and dielectrics is the amount of the (free) electrons available for the conduction of current : dielectrics have few electrons available for conduction of current, in contrast to conductors.


Convection and Conduction Current

Electric current is generally caused by the motion of electric charges. Convection current occurs when electric current flows through a dielectric. By definition, the current through a given area is the electric charge passing through the area per unit time:


dq dt
the transfer of charge at a rate of 1 coulomb per

1 Ampere of current: second

Consider a flow of charge of density v , accros an element of surface S , with velocity v . r In time t , the charge moves at distance v . t . The amount of charge passing through the surface S is:

r r Q = v volume = v (v .t ) S = v t.v .S

( )

I =

Q r = v .v .S t

r v

r J

We define the current density; (A/m2) Hence,

r r J = v .v




r I = J .S

r I = J .dS Convection Current (A)



When an electric field is applied to a conductor, conduction current occurs due to the drift motion of electrons. The electrons move and encounter forces called resistance. The average drift velocity of the electrons is directly proportional to the electric field intensity. This is explained by:

F = e E =



F : the force on the electron e due to E E : the electric field applied

v : the electron drift velocity

v= e E m
m : mass of the electron : average time interval between collisions


v = ne For n electrons per unit volume, the density of charge is given by: Hence, from the definition of convection current, the conduction current density can be defined:
r r ne 2 J = v .v = E =E m r r J = .E Conduction Current Density (A/m2)
(also known as the point form of OHMS LAW)


Conductor has a large amount of free electrons (mobile and free to move) in its body, described by its high value of conductivity. An electric field applied to a conductor introduces coulombs forces on the charges. Free to move electrons will then move against the direction of the positively applied electric field. These electrons will then leave behind the holes (protons) which are positively charged and attract other electrons. This process continues until a certain amount of electrons are accumulated at one side of the conductor, leaving positive charges at the other side. The amount of accumulated charges is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field applied. The time taken for the conductor and its charges to reach the equilibrium is called the relaxation time. The charge accumulation leads to the creation of internal electric field whose direction is to oppose the direction of the external electric applied. This makes the total electric field inside the conductor zero. The total charge density inside the conductor is also maintained at zero in dynamic case. Conductors are then said to be equipotential body since no electric field is formed inside the it even if an external electric field is applied (hence no change in potential is found along any line inside the conductor). The presence of free to move electrons in the conductor play the role in neutralizing the total charge and electric field in its body.


RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTOR Consider a conductor of uniform cross-sectional area S, and of length h. A voltage V is applied to the conductor producing an electric field E .

r E

l V

The electric field applied is uniform: The cross-sectional area is uniform: Ohms law:

r V = E.dl = E.h r I = J .dS = J .S


r r J = .E J = .E I V = S h



h I = R.I .S (if the conductor has the uniform cross-sectional V h h R= = = c I .S S


area) R:

c =


For a non-uniform cross-sectoin conductor,



E.dl r E.dS



III.1. Polarization
In ideal dielectrics, there is no electrons available for conduction of current. Charges in dielectrics are not able to move freely and they are bound by finite forces but we can expect a displacement when an externel force is applied. An atom (or molecule) of a dielectric is composed of a positively charged nucleus, surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The whole atom (or molecule) is electrically neutral (same amount of positive and negative charges). When an external electric field is applied, the positive charge is displaced in the direction of E and the negative charge is displaced in the opposite direction. These displacements create electric dipoles and polarize a dielectric. Dipole Moment :

r r p = q.d (Cm)



r d
Non-polar dielectric : dielectric whose molecules do not posess dipoles until the application of electric field (the dipole moment is in the direction of E ). (exe : oxygen, hydrogen, rare gases) dielectric which has built-in permanent dipoles which are randomly oriented (exe : water)

Polar dielectric :

We define polarization P (C/m2) as the dipole moment per unit volume of the dielectric ;

r P = lim

k =1


v 0

r p = v

( p : average dipole moment)

The major effect of the E on a dielectric is the creation of dipole momentswhich align themselves in the direction of E .

III.2. Equivalent charge distributions of polarized dielectrics

Weve seen in the previous section that for a dipole whose center is at the origin, the potential at point P is given by :

r p.u R V= 4 0 R 2

The potential dV at point P due to the dipole moment dp = P.dv is :

r P.dv.u R dV = 4 0 R 2


We have :

r 1 u = R ; 2 R R


r r r 1 P.u R = P. 2 R R

Using the vector identity ,

r r r r r r f . A = f . A + A. f

( ) ( ) ( )
( )

We find :

r P.u R r r 1 r 1 r 1 r r = P. = P .P R2 R R R

The potential V is given by (and using the divergence theorem) :

dV =

dv r 1 r 1 r r P .P 4 0 R R r 1 r 1 1 1 r r V = P dv + .P dv v 4 v 4 R 0 0 R 1 1 r 1 r r = .P dv P .dS + v S 4 4 0 R 0 R r r r 1 P.dS = + .P dv S 4 R v 4 R 0 0

( )

( )

( )

Remark :

r P.dS S 4 0 R

: Potential due to surface charge (closed surface bounding the volume of the dielectric given), with density PS = P.u n . ( PS : polarization/bound surface charge density)



( .P )dv R
r r

: Potential due to volume charge (the volume of the dielectric given), with density Pv = .P ( Pv : polarization/bound volume charge density)

r r

In other words :

A polarized dielectrics can be represented by an equivalent polarization/bound surface charge density PS and an equivalent polarization/bound volume charge density Pv for field calculations. Bound charges are those which are not free to move within the dielectric material ; they are cused by the displacement which occurs during the polarization.


If v is the free charge volume density, the total volume charge density in the dielectric is :

t = v + Pv = .D + Pv = . 0 E

r r

r r r r r r .D .P = . 0 E r r r r r r .D = . 0 E + .P r r r r r .D = 0 E + P r r r D = 0E + P

r r r D = 0E + P
(When E is applied to a dielectric, D is increased by amount P inside the dielectric) Note that in free space, P = 0, so that D = 0 E . To simplify the discussion, we except that P varies directly as the applied E , which is usually the case for some dielectrics and we have :

r r P = e 0 E
e : susceptibility (how sensitive a given dielectrics to electric fields)

III.3. Dielectric constant

From the results found above, we may conclude that ;

r r D = .E
Where : : 0 : r :

= 0 . r

r = 1+ e =

permittivity of the dielectric (F/m) permittivity of free space (F/m) relative permittivity / dielectric constant (dimensionless) -depends on the frequency -equal to 1 for free space and non-dielectric materials

III.4. Linear, isotropic, homegeneous

Linear : Homogeneous : considered Isotropic : if D varies linearly with E (otherwise, nonlinear) if or is the same at all points in the region being

r r if D and E are in the same direction

(otherwise, inhomogeneous)



Continuity equation
The principle of charge conservation: The time rate of decrease of charge within a given volume must be equal to the net outward current flow through the closed surface of the volume:

r I out = J .dS

: current coming out the closed surface : the time rate of decrease of charge within a given volume

dq in dt

r dq I out = J .dS = in S dt

r r r J .dS = .J .dv
S v

(divergence theorem)

dq in d = dt dt

.dv =

v .dv t

r r .J .dv = v dv v v t
r r .J = v t
CONTINUITY OF CURRENT EQUATION Remark: For steady current,

r r v = 0 , hence .J = 0 , showing that the total t

charge leaving a volume is the same as the total charge entering it (which leads to Kirchoffs current law).


Boundary conditions
In this section, we are going to obtain mathematical relations that describe the transitional properties of the electrostatic field from one region to another. Consider the electric field E existing in two different regions characterised by 1 = 0. r1 and 2 = 0. r2 , separated by and interface. The electric field E can be decomposed as:

E1 = E1t + E1n E 2 = E 2t + E 2 n E1t E1n

in the first region in the second region

tangential component of E1 (to the interface) normal component of E1 (to the interface)


w a b h


E2n 2 E2t 1 interface

un ut
d c



Let us consider first the boundary condition of the tangential component of the electric field. Starting form the Maxwells equation

r E.dl = 0 , where we construct a closed path abcda (a


rectangular between the two regions) with the length ab = cd =w and bc = da = h.

r E.dl =





r )E.dl = 0

h h h h + E 2n = (E 2t w) + E 2 n E1n =0 + ( E1t w) + E1n 2 2 2 2 = E 2t w E1t w = 0


E1t = E2t


r u n E 2 E1 = 0

Similarly, we consider the boundary condition of the normal component of the electric field. Starting form the Maxwells equation (Gausss law)

D.dS = Q


, where we construct a

closed surface (a pillbox/cylinder between the two regions) with the length h.


E2n 2

un ut

E2t 1





r D.dS = + + S top bottom side h.l = D1t D2t 2

Allowing h 0, gives:

r D.dS h.l + (D2 n S ) (D1n S ) 2

D.dS = (D


S ) (D1n S )

The total charge enclosed by the closed surface: where (S :

Qenclosed = S .S
u n . D2 D1 = S

D2 n D1n = S


the free charge density at the interface separating the two regions)

We shall consider the boundary conditions at an interface separating: 2 perfect dielectrics perfect dielectric and perfect conductors

DIELECTRIC DIELECTRIC Continuity of the tangential component of electric field E at the interface:

E1t = E2t


r u n E 2 E1 = 0

The free charge in any perfect dielectric is zero. Therefore, at the interface between two such dielectrics, S should be zero, where:

D1n = D2n


u n . D2 D1 = 0

From the results found above, it can be shown that:

tan 1 r1 = tan 2 r 2

Law of Refraction



2 interface


1 E1n



DIELECTRIC CONDUCTOR For a perfect conductor, . But J = .E and J , hence E = 0 . This causes v = 0 (a perfect conductor cannot contain an electrostatic field within it). If the region 1 is taken as a dielectric and the perfect conductor is the region 2, we have:

E1t = Et = 0

r E can only be external and normal to the

Conductors are characterised by the presence of free electrons, so it is expected that free charges would exist at the interface separating a dielectric and a conductor. Because

r D2 = 2 E 2 = 0 inside the conductor, we have then:

D1n = Dn = S


Chapter 6


In this chapter, we shall consider electrostatic problems where only electrostatic conditions (charge and potentials) at some boundaries are known and it is desired to find E and V throughout the region. Poissons and Laplaces equations are usually to solved this problems. I t willl also cover the concepts of resistance and capacitance.


POISSONs and LAPLACEs equations

Starting from the Gausss law (Maxwells equation) : and the relation field-potential : we obtain :

r r . V = v

r r r r .D = .E = v r r E = V ,

For the general case (for inhomogeneous medium), the equation above can be written as :

and the is constant in term of the position for homogeneous material, where :

r r . V = v , r v 2V =


which is the Poissons Equation. A special case of the Poissons Equation occurs when v = 0 , and the equation is reduced to :

r v 2V =


which is the Laplaces Equation. The symbol 2 is called the Laplace operator (see chapter 3). GENERAL PROCEDURE EQUATION OF SOLVING POISSONS OR LAPLACES

Identify the variable coordinate (on which the potential V depends). Chose the suitable coordinate system. Solve the Poissons or Laplaces equation (to get the general expression of the potential V in terms of the constants). Determine the constants from the boundary conditions of the problem.


II. Resistance - Capacitance

II.1. Resistance
(See chapter 5 (II)).

II.2. Capacitance
Capacitance is a measure of the amount of charge of a particular configuratoin of two (or more) conductors is able to retain per unit voltage applied between them (the capacitance describes the ability of the configuration to store electrostatic energy). Consider two conductors surrounded by a homogeneous dielectric of = 0 + r . The total charge on each conductor is Q, with conductor 1 carries a total charge of +Q and conductor 2 carries Q. V is the potential difference between the two conductors. The capacitance is defined as the ratio of the amount of positive charge to the resulting potential betweev the conductors :


Q Capacitance ( F ) V
1 Farad = 1 C/V

There are generally two procedures to find the capacitance : Assuming Q and calculate the electric field E (exe : using Gausss law). V can be derived from V = E.dl or E = V and apply C =

Q . V

Assuming V and calculate Q (exe : using Laplaces equation). Apply C =

Q . V

r E
+Q -Q


Chapter 7

Electric field characterized by E and D while magnetic field is characterized by H and B , where

r r H is the magnetic field intensity and B is the magnetic flux density. For linear material space, r r B = .H where is the permeability of the material, that will be discussed later in this chapter.

We have seen in the previous chapters that static charge gives electrostatic field. If the static charge is moving with a constant velocity, a static magnetic field (or magnetostatic field) is produced. We will consider a magnetostatic field in free-space. There are similarities and dissimilarities between electrostattic and magnetostatic fields. Below is the analogy between electrostatic and magnetostatic fields :

Basic laws

r qq F = 1 22 uR 4R r D.dS = Qenclosed

dB = .I dl u R 4R 2

r H .dl = I enclosed

Force law Source element Field intesity Flux density Relationship between fields Potentials

r r F = qE

r r r F = qv B
r qv = I .dl

r V (V/m) E = l r (C/m2) D= S r r D = .E
r r E = V

r I H = (A/m) l r (Wb/m2) B= S r r B = .H
r r r H = Vm if ( J = 0)
r r r B= A

r V = E.dl

= D.dS

= B.dS

Energy density Poissons equation

dV (C : capacitance) dt 1 r r w E = D.E 2 r2 V = v I =C

V =L

dI (L : inductance) dt 1 r r wM = B.H 2 r2r r A = .J



The magnetic field intensity dH produced at a point P, by the differential current element I.dl, i. is proportional to the product I. dl and the sine of the angle between the element and the line joining P the element. ii. and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between P and the element.


I .dl. sin R2 I .dl. sin = k. R2 I .dl. sin = 4R 2

k: constant of proportionality, k=1/4


r I .dl u R I .dl R = dH = 4R 2 4R 3

r I .dl u R I .dl R = dB = 4R 2 4R 3


unit of H is A/m uint of B is Wb/m2 or Tesla

Remark : The direction of dH can be determined by the Right Hand Rule with the rigth hand thumb pointing the direction of the current, the fingers encircling the wire in the direction of dH :


r R




If we define K : the surface current density (amperes/meter)

r r J : the volume current density (amperes/meter2)

we can write,

r r I .dl = K .dS = J .dv

Thus, in terms of the distributed current sources,

r I .dl u R H = L 4R 2 r r K .dS u R H = S 4R 2 r r J .dv u R H = v 4R 2

Exe : Line current

[for line, surface and volume current]

Consider a conductor with finite length AB, carrying a current I in the z direction. Using Biot-Savarts law, we define the magnetic field intensity at a point of observation P, placed at z=0.


z A A

r R

Biot-Savarts law :

r I .dl u R I .dl R dH = = 4R 2 4R 3


dl = dz.u z r R = u zu z


r dl R = .dz.u

and we have :

R3 =

sin 3


We write dz in term of d,

tan = z=

tan dz = .d sin 2
3 3 r B I . .dz.u sin B I . .u sin H = = .d 3 3 A A 4 4 sin 2 I B sin .d .u = 4 A

r I (cos B cos A )u H = 4
For a conuctor of infinite length,

A cos A 1 B 0 cos B 1

r I H= u 2




The line integral of the tangential component of H around a closed path is the same as the net current Ienc enclosed by the path (the circulation of H equals Ienc ) :

r (applied to determine H when the current distribution is symmetrical. Just like Gausss law, Amperes law
is a special case of Biot-Savarts law)

r H .dl = I enc

From the Stokes theorem, and we have Where:

r r r H .dl = H .dS L S r I enc = J .dS


r r r H = J
MAXWELL (the third of the Maxwells Equations to be derived) Remark :

r r r H 0

(magnetostatic filed is not conservative)


II.1. Infinite line current

Consider an infinite line current carrying a current I, placed at the z-axis. Due to the symmetry, the magnetic field H

is along u (since the magnetic field encircles the

current source following the right-hand rule), with H is the magnitude of H , depending only on the distance between the observation point and the line current. In other words, the magnitude H depends only on the coordinate of the cylindrical coordinate system.

r H = H .u

dl = .d .u
Amperes law :

r H .dl = I enc

infinite line current

amperian path, through P

H .u . .d .u = I H d = I

O y P

H 2 = I H = I 2 r I H = u 2


II.2. Infinite surface current

Consider an infinite surface current carrying a current K . The magnetic field H


along u x if the point of observation is above the surface and it is along u x if the the point of observation is below the surface (from the application of Biot-Savart), where H is the magnitude of H , depending only on the distance between the observation point and the surface current. In other words, the magnitude H depends only on the coordinate z of the cartesian coordinate system.

r H .u x H = H .u x

(z > 0) (z < 0)
z 2 infinite surface current

the surface current is along u y ,

r K = K y .u y

where the total current enclosed is ;

I enc = K y .b

a 1 y

r K


Amperes law :

r H .dl = I enc

r 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 H .dl = K .b 1 2 3 4 y 0( a) + ( H )(b) + 0(a) + ( H )(b) = K y .b 2.H .b = K y .b H=

1 r K y .u x H = 2 1 K y .u x 2 (z > 0) (z < 0)

1 Ky 2


Magnetic flux density

We define magnetic flux as : and the magnetic flux density as :

= B.dS

unit (Weber) or (Wb)

r r B = 0 .H

unit (Wb/m2) or (Tesla)

The magnetic flux line is the path to which B is tangential at every point in a magnetic field. The magnetic flux lines always close upon themselves, which means that it is impossible to have isolated poles (or magnetic charges) of magnetic field isolated magnetic charge does not exist. The total flux through a closed surface in a magnetic field must be zero, that is,

r B.dS = 0

Law of conservation of magnetic flux (Gausss law for magnetostatic field) Remark : Magnetostatic flux is conservative, but magnetostatic field is not. Electrostatic field is conservative, but electrostatic flux is not. Divergence theorem,

B.dS = (.B )dv

r r r
S v


r r .B = 0
MAXWELL (the forth of the Maxwells Equations to be derived) Magnetostatic fields have no source or sink (magnetostatic field lines are always continuous).


Summary :


Differential (or point) form r r .D = v

r r .B = 0
r r r E=0 r r r H = J

Integral form r D.dS = Qenclosed = v .dv

S v

Gausss law for electrostatic field Gausss law for magnetostatic field. Nonexistance of magnetic monopole. Faradays law. Conservativeness of electrostatic field. Amperes law.

r B.dS = 0

r E.dl = 0

H .dl = I


r = J .dS


Magnetic vector potential

We define the magnetic scalar potential, Vm as:

r r H = V m

(if J = 0 )

We know that the divergence of magnetic flux is zero, .B = 0 , and since the divergence of

r r r r r r the rotational (or curl) of any vector B is zero, . B = 0 , hence we define a vector r A , the magnetic vector potential as: r r r r B= A A : magnetic vector potential

Weve seen that (for line, surface and volume current), that:

r I .dl u R H = L 4R 2 r r K .dS u R H = S 4R 2 r r J .dv u R H = v 4R 2

We can define:


r I .dl u R r r B = 0 = A L 4R 2 r r K .dS u R r r B = 0 = A S 4R 2 r r J .dv u R r r B = 0 = A v 4R 2

r I .dl A = 0 L 4R r r K .dS A = 0 S 4R r r J .dv A = 0 v 4R

current) We have theorem).

(magnetic vector potential for line, surface and volume

= B.dS , and we can show that :


= A.dl





Chapter 8

MAGNETIC FORCES AND MATERIALS - INDUCTANCE In this chapter, we study the force a magnetic field exerts on charged particles, current elements and loops. We will also consider magnetic fields in material media, and discuss on the definition of inductance.


Magnetic Forces
I.1. Force on a charged particle
A magnetic field can only exert force on a moving charge. We define, Fm , the magnetic force experienced by a charge q moving with a velocity v in a magnetic field B , as:

r r r Fm = qv B
(Remark: Fm v


r r Fm B )

LORENTZ FORCE r r r Let Fe the electric force, Fe = qE e

The total force on a moving charge q in the presence of both electric and magnetic field,

r r r F = Fe + Fm

r r r r F = q( E + v B)

I.2. Force on a current element

As we have defined in the chapter 5, the convection current density is given by J = v v . Consider a current element I .dl of a current-carrying conductor, and since I .dl = K .dS = J .dv , we can write,


r r I .dl = v .v .dv r = dq.v r r I .dl = dq.v


to the magnetic field B ,

We determine the force on a current element I .dl of a current carrying conductor due

r r r dF = dq.v B
r r r dF = I .dl B


Remark: If the current I is through a closed path L or circuit,

(the current element I .dl doesnt exert force on the element itself. Its the field

r r r F = I .dl B

r r B (which is external) who exerts force on I .dl ).

For the case of surface and volume current:

r r r dF = K .dS B r r r dF = J .dv B I.3. Force between two current elements

r I 1 .dl1

r d (dF1 ) r R 21 r I 2 .dl 2


r r r r r d (dF1 ) : the force on element I 1 .dl1 due to dB 2 produced by I 2 .dl 2 ,

A magnetic field can only exert force on a moving charge. Laplace:

r r r d (dF1 ) = I 1 .dl1 dB 2 ,

r r r 0 I 2 dl 2 u R21 with Biot-Savarts: dB2 = 2 4R21

r r r r 0 I 1 dl1 ( I 2 dl 2 u R21 ) d (dF1 ) = 2 4R 21 r r r r 0 I1 I 2 dl1 (dl 2 u R21 ) F1 = 2 4 L1 L 2 R 21 r F1 = total force on current loop 1 due to current loop 2.
Note that,

r r F1 = F2



Magnetization in materials

Electron orbiting around the nucleus

Electron spin

These electronic motions produce internal magnetic fields B i that are similar to the magnetic field produced by a current loop. r r We define the magnetic moment for a current loop: m = I b S .u n S: the area of the loop Ib: the bound current

Circular current loop


The sum of magnetic moments is zero in a material if no magnetic field is applied on it. If an external magnetic field is applied, the magnetic moments more align themselves with the external magnetic field so that the net magnetic moment is not zero. Considering that there are N atoms in a given volume <v, we define the magnetization as

r M = lim
A medium is said to be magnetized if M 0 . We can show that: J b = M

k =1

v 0


r r K b = M u n , where;

J b : bound volume current density / magnetization volume current density.

K b : bound surface current density.

r A= 0 4


J b dv' 0 + 4 R


K b dS ' : magnetic potential vector of a magnetic body R

due to J b throughout the body

due to K b on the surface of the body


Using the same reasoning as in the chapter 5, we find that:

r r r B = 0 (H + M )
where ;

r M = 0 : in free space r M 0 : in a material medium

Note: (for linear and isotropic materials)

We define, m : magnetic susceptibility (dimensionless) as

r r M = mH

r r B = 0 (1 + m ) H r = 0 r H r = H


= 0r r = =1+ m 0
: permeability of the material (H/m) r : relative permeability of the material


Classification of magnetic materials

or r = 1 Nonmagnetic materials : m = 0 Magnetic materials : m 0 or r 1 Remark: Free space is regarded as nonmagnetic.


Diamagnetics m < 0 r 1

Paramagnetics m > 0 r 1

Ferromagnetics m >> 0 r >> 1


Diamagnetics & Paramagnetics: For most practical purposes, we may assume that r 1 for paramagnetic and diamagnetic material. Thus, diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials may be regarded as linear and nonmagnetic. Example - Diamagnetic: bismuth, lead, copper, silicon, diamond Paramagnetic: air, platinum, tungsten, potassium Ferromagnetics: Materials whose atoms have relatively large permanent magnetic moment. Properties: 1. Capable of being magnetized very strongly by a magnetic field. 2. Retain a considerable amount of magnetization when removed from the field. 3. Lose ferromagnetic properties to become paramagnetic when the temperature raised above the curie temperature (depends on the material). 4. Nonlinear. The relation B = 0 r H doesnt hold for ferromagnetic material because r depends on B and cannot be represented by a single value.

B-H curve (magnetization curve)

B Permanent flux density Br Initial magnetization curve H Hc

-Hc Hysteresis loop -Br

Coercive field intensity

The closed curve: hysteresis loop (dependent on the materials) The area of the hysteresis loop: hysteresis loss (energy loss per unit volume during one cycle of the periodic magnetization of the ferromagnetic material)


Magnetic boundary conditions

The conditions that B (or H ) satisfy at the boundary between two different media. We use: Gausss law for magnetic fields, and Amperes circuit law,

r B.dS = 0 r H.dl = I enc


We show that: Boundary between 2 magnetic media 1 and 2

B1n = B2n
Continuity of the normal component


1H1n = 2H2n
Discontinuity of the normal component of H at the boundary

r of B at the boundary


2B1t = 1B2t


H1t = H2t
Continuity of the tangential component of H at the boundary

r component of B at the boundary

Discontinuity of the tangential


Inductors and inductance

Consider a closed loop, Co, carrying current I. It produces B , which causes a flux,

= B.dS (Wb)

C0 I S

If the circuit Co has N identical turns, we call the flux linkage, , as: We call the INDUCTANCE, L:

= N

The circuit is called INDUCTOR. Magnetic energy stored in an inductor, Wm:


(Weber/Ampere) or (Henry)

Wm =

1 2 LI 2


Consider 2 neighbouring closed loops, C1 and C2, bounding surface S1 and S2 respectively. I1 flows in C1, creating B1 . I2 flows in C2, creating B 2 .
I1 S1 S2 I2 C1 C2


1 = 11 + 12 : total flux passing through C1 2 = 22 + 21 : total flux passing through C2

11 = B1 .dS 1 : the flux passing through C1 due to C1.


12 = B 2 .dS 1 : the flux passing through C1 due to C2.


Self-Inductance We define the SELF-INDUCTANCE of loop C1 as the magnetic flux linkage per unit current in the loop itself:

L11 =



If C1 has N1 turns, 11 = N111 ,

where 11 : flux linkage of C1

Mutual-Inductance The MUTUAL INDUCTANCE between 2 circuits is the magnetic flux linkage with one circuit per unit current in the other:

M 12 =


MUTUAL INDUCTANCE between 1 and 2 12 : flux linkage between C1 and C2, due to C2.

If C1 has N1 turns, 12 = N112 ,

We show that;

M12 = M21

The total magnetic energy in the magnetic field:

Wm = W1 + W2 + W12 = W1 + W2 + W21 =
with: +1 a= -1 if their magnetic fields oppose each other if I1 and I2 flow such that the magnetic fields of the two circuits strengthen each other

1 1 2 2 L1 I 1 + L2 I 2 + a.M 12 .I 1 I 2 2 2



Magnetic energy
z Conducting sheet y x I

r B

Conducting sheet

Consider a volume covered with conducting sheets at the top and bottom surfaces. We have Since

L =

B.S .H .x.z = = I I I

Wm =

1 2 LI , hence: 2
W m = 1 L.I 2 2 1 = .H .x.z.I 2 1 = .H 2 .x.y.z 2 1 = .H 2 .v 2
W m v

The magnetostatic energy density, Wm (J/m3):

m = lim v 0

1 1 B2 2 m = H = BH = 2 2 2
W m = m .dv

The energy in a magnetostatic field in a linear medium

Remark (electrostatic): We =

r r 1 1 B.H .dv = .E 2 .dv 2 2


VII. Magnetic circuits

ANALOGY BETWEEN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUITS ELECTRIC Conductivity MAGNETIC Permeability Field intensity H Magnetic flux =

r r Current I = J .dS
Field intensity E Current density J =

Electromotive force (emf) V Resistance R

I = .E S

Flux density B =

r B.dS

Magnetomotive force (mmf)

= .H

r F = NI = H .dl

Reluctance =

l S

Conductance G = 1/R Ohms law

l: the mean length of the magnetic core S: the cross-sectional area Permeance = 1/ Ohms law = Kirchoffs law:

Kirchoffs law:

V l = I .S V = E.l = I .R R=

l .S

I =0 V R.I = 0

= 0 F = 0

I V R N turns F = NI



Chapter 9

We examine situations where electric and magnetic fields are dynamic (time-varying). In static: Electric and magnetic fields are independent of each other. Electric fields are due to static electric charges. Magnetic fields are due to: Motion of electric charges (uniform velocity) Magnetic poles (north and south) Electric and magnetic fields are interdependent. Electromagnetic (EM) fields are due to accelerated charges/time-varying currents. EM fields are represented by :

In dynamic:

r E ( x, y , z , t ) r H ( x, y , z , t )

Stationary charges Steady current Time-varying currents

electrostatic fields magnetostatic fields EM fields (or waves)


Faradays Law
A time-varying field produces an induced voltage electromotive force (emf) in a closed circuit, which causes a flow of current. The induced emf, Vemf, in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux linkage by the circuit,

Vemf =

d d = N dt dt


: the magnetic flux linkage

N: the number of turns in the circuit : the flux through each turn

The negative sign in Vemf = N

the closed loop in such a direction as to oppose the change in the linking magnetic flux.

d is an assertion that the induced emf will caused a current to flow in dt


For a circuit with a single turn (N=1),

Vemf =

d dt

The variation of flux with time may be caused by: 1) 2) 3)

having a stationary loop in a time-varying B .

r r having a time-varying loop area in a static B . r having a time-varying loop in a time-varying B .

r I.1. Stationary loop in time-varying B (transformer emf)

r Vemf = E.dl L r = B.dS

We have


r B Vemf = E.dl = .dS L S t

(transformer emf)

Invoking Stokes theorem:

E.dl = ( E )dS
r r r

r r B E= t

MAXWELLS EQUATION (for time-varying EM field) Remark: the time-varying E is not conservative, E 0 .

r I.2. Moving loop in static B (motional emf)

When a conducting loop is moving in a static B , an emf is induced in the loop. We have:

r r Fm = q.v B

(the force on a charge moving with uniform velocity v in a magnetic field B ) We define the motional electric field as:

Em =

Fm r r =v B q


We define the motional emf (or flux-cutting emf) induced in a conducting loop, moving with uniform velocity v in static B field,

r r Vemf = E m .dl = v B dl


r E m .dl = E m .dS L S r r r r r v B .dl = v B .dS


r r r r Em = v B

r I.3. Moving loop in time-varying B

Combining the transformer emf and the motional emf, gives the total emf:

r r r B Vemf = E.dl = .dS + v B .dl L S t L

Using Stokes:

r r r r B r E= + v B t


Displacement current
For static EM fields, we recall that,

r r r H = J ..(1)
r r

But . H = 0 = .J ..(2) (the divergence of the curl of any vector field is zero) And the continuity of current equation imposes that,

r r

(not equal to zero for time-varying)

r r .J = v 0 (3) t

This shows the incompatibility of the equation (2) and (3) for TIME-VARYING EM field. We must modify equation (1) to agree with (3)


Consider H = J + J d

( J d : to be determined)

r r r r r r . H = 0 = .J + .J d r r r .J d = .J = v t r r = .D t r r D = . t
Jd r J

r D Jd = t

( )

: displacement current density : conduction current density


r r r r D H =J + t
MAXWELLS EQUATION (for time-varying field H ).

We can now define the displacement current;

Displacement current

r r D I d = J .dS = .dS S S t


Maxwells equation

r r .D = v

r D.dS = v .dv
s v

r r .B = 0
r r r B E= t

B.dS = 0

r r r r D H =J + t

E.dl = t B.dS

r r r D L H .dl = S J + t .dS



Time-varying potentials
For static EM fields: Electric scalar potentials: Magnetic vector potentials: We start from: Faradays law:

V =

v .dv v 4R r r .J .dv A = v 4R

r r r B= A

(for both static and time-varying)

r r r B E= t r r = A t r r A = t r r r A r =0 E + t r r A r E+ = V t

Where, Remark:

r r r A E = V t
we can define B and E for time-varying if A and V given.

r r We have .D = v (for both static and time-varying) and


r r D , E=

r r r r r . A .E = v = 2V t r r r 2V + . A = v t

( )

( )


r r r B= A r r r r D H =J + t r r r A E = V t

for time-varying, with

r r B = H r r D = E


We can write:

r r r r r r r A = B = H r r D = J + t r r E = J + t r r r A = J + V t t r 2 r r V A = J 2 t t
r r r r r r r r A = . A 2 A

applying the vector identity, where: hence, We let:

( )

r r2r r r r r r V 2 A A . A = J + + 2 t t

( )

r r V . A = t


r2 2V V 2 = v t r 2 r r r A 2 A 2 = J t


r r . A = 0 for static

It can be shown that the solutions of the last 2 equations are:

V =

[ v ].dv

4R r r J .dv A = v 4R

: retarded electric potential


: retarded magnetic vector potential


Remark: Notation of

r v ( x, y , z , t ), J ( x, y , z , t ) is replaced by:

[ v ]


[Jr ]

means that, the time t in their expressions

t' = t

R v

: retarded time


: the velocity of the wave propagation


r R = r r'

: distance between the source point r and the observation point r

V. Time-harmonic fields
Time-harmonic quantities: quantities that vary periodically or sinusoidally with time. Sinusoids are easily expressed in phasors.

Recall (phasors)

-given phasor z is a complex number,

z = x + jy = r = r.e j = r (cos + j sin ) j = 1 ( z ) = x ( z ) = y r = z = x2 + y2 y x z = r 2 z* = x jy = r

= tan 1

square root: complex conjugate: Given Addition: Subtraction: Multiplication: Division:

z1 = x1 + jy1 = r1 1 z 2 = x 2 + jy 2 = r2 2

z1 + z 2 = ( x1 + x 2 ) + j ( y1 + y 2 ) z1 z 2 = ( x1 x 2 ) + j ( y1 y 2 ) z1 .z 2 = r1 .r2 (1 + 2 ) z1 r1 = (1 2 ) z 2 r2


We let:

= t + , hence,
e( z ) = e r.e j = e r.e jt .e j = r cos(t + ) m( z ) = m r.e j = r sin (t + )


I (t ) = I 0 cos(t + ) = e I 0 e j e jt

I ' (t ) = I 0 sin (t + ) = m I 0 e j e jt
We define the phasor current (form),

I S = I 0 e j = I 0 , hence:

I (t ) = e I S e jt

= I 0 cos(t + )
(Instantaneous form)

Given and Hence,

r A( x, y , z , t ) : time-harmonic field, r AS ( x, y, z ) : the phasor form of A ,

Notice that

r A = e AS .e jt r A = e AS .e jt = e j . AS .e jt , showing that, t t r A j . AS t r AS A.dt j


ejt :



r .DS = vS r .B S = 0 r E S = j B S r H S = J S + j D S


.dS = vS .dv
s S


.dS = 0

.dl = j BS .dS


.dl = J S + j DS .dS


Chapter 10


Maxwells fundamental concepts of electromagnetic theory have been established in the previous chapters, allowing us to derive the electric and magnetic wave equations in this chapter. The principles of electromagnetic plane waves are based on the relationships between electricity and magnetism. A changing magnetic field will induce an electric field, and a changing electric field will induce magnetic field. The front of wave is sometimes referred to as an equiphase surface. A plane wave has a plane wavefront, a cylindrical wave has a cylindrical wavefront, and a spherical wave has a spherical. A major goal of this chapter is to solve Maxwells equations and EM motion using some approximations in the following media: 1. Free space 2. Lossless dielectrics 3. Lossy dielectrics (very low-loss) 4. Good conductors

I. Waves equation in source-free region

In radiation problems, the solution of the electric and magnetic fields (Maxwells Equations) starts by specifying the current or the charge distributions on the source and the radiated fields are then calculated. We start with the point form of Maxwells equations as listed below:

r r r B E= t r r r D H = with the constitutive relationships as given by: t r r .D = v r r .B = 0

For sinusoidal time function, Maxwells can be written as:

r r D = E r r B = H J = E

= 0 .. r = 0 . r

r r r r E = jB = jH r r r r H = J + jD = ( + j )E r r .D = v r r .B = 0
Taking the curl of the curl of E , we have: In the other hand, we have a vector identity:

r r r E = j H r r r r r r r r E = .E 2 E

( )

By member identification of the above, we may write:

r r r r r j H = .E 2 E

) ( )


In propagation problems, electromagnetic fields are studied under the assumption the space of propagation is source free. Another way of looking at it is to assume that the sources are sufficiently far away from the propagation region of interest. Assume now that the region containing the wave is source-free, where there is no charge distribution to give birth to any field, or v = 0 . From the application of Gausss law, this situation leads to the fact that the divergence of E is also zero: .D = v = 0 = .E (for a linear, homogeneous and isotropic region) The previous equation hence yields:

r r

r r


r r j H = 2 E r r j ( + j ) = 2 E

r r r 2 E = j ( + j )E

: constant of propagation (complex number) : attenuation constant (Nepers/m) : phase constant (rad/m)

= + j 2 = j ( + j )
r r r 2 E = 2 E r r r 2 H = 2 H

Thus we have: and similarly, Remark:

r r r r 2 E = 2 E = j ( + j )E r r 2 = jE + ( j ) E r r E E = + j t t r r 2 E E + 2 = t t
The time-domain wave equations can be written as :

r r r2 r E 2E E = + 2 t t r r r2 r H 2H H = + t t 2

r 2 r r 2 2 2 Note that, in Cartesian; = . = 2 + 2 + 2 x y z


II. Electromagnetic Power and Poynting Theorem

The dimensions of E and H are V/m and A/m respectively. Hence the vector E H has VA/m2 as dimension, which is power density W/m2. The cross product E H results in a vector along the direction of propagation that is the direction of the energy flow. The vector E H is known as the power density vector or Poynting Vector,

r r r ( z, t ) = E H
POYNTING VECTOR (Power density vector) which is directed along the direction of the electromagnetic energy flow.

Poynting Theorem
Poynting theorem is an expression of the electromagnetic power balance that includes the relationship between the generated, transmitted, stored and dissipated electromagnetic powers. We start with a vector identity that involves the divergence of the Poynting Vector;

r r r r r r r r r . E H = H . E E. H r r r B r r D = H . t E. J + t r r r B r D r r E.J E = H . t t
where J is the conduction current. We know that,

r r r r H .B 1 r B 1 H r = H + B t 2 2 t 2 t

r r B = H and the medium is assumed independent of time,

r r r r H .B 1 r H 1 H r = H + H t 2 2 t 2 t r r r H r B =H =H t t
similarly, we obtain :

r r r E.D r D =E t t 2


Substituting equations ;

r r r r r r r H .B E . D r r E.J . E H = t 2 t 2

Integrating the equation over a closed volume in which we would like to examine the power balance equation ;

r r r r r r r r r H .B E .D dv + dv + E.J .dv . E H dv = V V t 2 V t 2 V

Using divergence theorem ;

r r E H dS = t

r r H .B V 2 dv + t

r r r r E .D dv + E.J .dv V 2 V

r r E H dS :

the power density ( z, t ) = E H entering the surface S enclosing the volume of interest V.

r r E .D V 2 dv


r r H .B V 2 dv : electric and magnetic energies

r r r r H .B E.D dv + dv V 2 V 2

: the rate of increase of the electric and magnetic energies stored within the volume V.

r r E.J .dv

: power dissipated (ohmic losses) within the volume V.

Time-average Poynting Vector

The Poynting Vector ( z, t ) = E H describes the intantaneous power density associated with the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Frompractical viewpoint it is more appropriate to discuss time-average rather than the instantaneous Poynting Vector. For periodic functions, such as sinusoidal excitation, it is necessary to integrate over a time interval equal to one period, hence ;

ave ( z ) =

1 T

r ( z, t ).dt



Solution of Uniform, Time-Harmonic Plane Wave Motion

A uniform plane wave is a wave whose magnitude and phase are both constant over a set of planes. By approximation, a spherical wave in free space is a uniform plane wave as observed at a far distance. Note that, a wave whose amplitude (not phase) varies within a plane normal to the direction of propagation is said to be plane but non-uniform. Let consider a uniform plane wave moving in z-direction. The wave front will then be in the plane orthogonal to z-direction, which is xy-plane. Since the wave is uniform, the electric and magnetic field have no variation in the plane orthogonal to z-direction or in other words, the vectors of electric and magnetic fields do not depend on x and y. Hence:

E E H H =0 = = = y x y x
Under these conditions (where the wave is plane, uniform and directed along z), other consequences resulted: 1. EZ = HZ = 0 There are no electric and magnetic field components along z-direction (or along the direction of the wave movement). 2.

(E, H , direction of propagation ) direct

The directions of E , H and direction of wave follow the right hand rule. Without losing the generality, the case is simplified further by fixing the direction of E to be along x, and, or automatically, H will be along y. In this case, the laplacian of vector E in Cartesian is written as:

r2 2 2 2 2 + 2 + 2 E = y z x 2 2 2 = 2 + 2 + 2 x y z

.(E x + E y + E z ) .(E x + 0 + 0 ) 2 2 2 Ex Ex Ex + + = z 2 y 2 x 2 2 Ex z 2

2 E 2 E + 2 E = t t The wave equations are then reduced from 2 2 H = H + H t t 2

2 Ex E x 2 Ex = + t z 2 t 2 to: 2H y H y 2H y = + t z 2 t 2


III.1. Uniform plane wave in free space

Free space is considered lossless, with = 0, = 0 and = 0.

The wave equations are then reduced to:

2 Ex = 0 0 z 2 2 H y = 0 0 2 z

2 Ex t 2 2H y t 2

With no loss in generality, the first differential equation gives a solution in the form of:

E x ( z , t ) = E0 e = E0 e

j t 0 0 z

) )
where 0 = 0 0

j t 0 0 z

= E0 e j (t 0 z )
Remark to be made is that, E x ( z , t ) given above is the complex notation of the electric field magnitude. The real time notation is:

E x ( z , t ) = E 0 cos(t 0 z )
where E0 is the amplitude of the field and is the angular frequency. The plot of electric field magnitude against coordinate z at several fixed times shows that the wave is moving towards positive z, or we say that the wave is propagating along z.

From the first Maxwells equation, E = j0 H and we know that the only component of the electric field in this case is along x which depends only on coordinate z. The equation is then reduced to:

E = j 0 H E x = j 0 H y z j 0 E0 e j (t 0 z ) = j 0 H y


The magnitude of the magnetic field can then be derived:

Hy = = =

j 0

j 0

E0 e j (t 0 z )

0 0 E0 e j (t z ) 0 0 E0 e j (t z ) 0


Hy =

0 E 0 x

Basic Properties uniform plane wave in free space: The phase constant in free space: The attenuation constant in free space:

0 = 0 0 radians per meter

0 = 0 Nepers per meter

To find the phase velocity of the wave, we analyse the movement of a point of the curve of the field magnitude defined by a constant value of the cosine:

cos(t 0 z ) = K

t 0 z = K t K z= 0 0
The phase velocity is the variation in time of the position of the point represented by z, thus:

vp =

dz = dt 0

With 0 = 0 0 , the phase velocity of a wave in free space is:

vp =

0 0

= c = 3 10 8 meters per second

c is called the velocity of light in vacuum/air. The phase constant in free space can also be written in term of c, where:

0 =


The intrinsic wave impedance in free space:

0 =

0 = 120 = 377 ohms 0


0 H = 0 H 0
j z

As the wave propagates along z, the phase e 0 changes by the amount of 0 z . The distance z that the wave must travel so that the phase changes by 2 radians is called the wavelength:

0 = 2

0 0

vp f

c meters f

III.2. Uniform plane wave in lossless dielectric

For lossless materials, the conductivity, permittivity and permeability are given by: = 0, = 0.r and = 0. r leading us to the following results:


: attenuation constant

= = 0 0 r r =
= 0 r r = = 0 r 0 r

r r

: phase constant

: intrinsic wave impedance

vp =

c 1 = = r r

: phase velocity

vp f

: wavelength


III.3. Uniform plane wave in lossy media

The conductivity of lossy materials is not zero 0. The presence of a loss in the medium introduces wave dispersion by conductivity. Dispersion makes a general solution in the time domain impossible except by Fourier expansion methods. Thus, only solutions for the frequency domain (or steady state) will be given. The wave equations:

r r r r 2 E = j ( + j )E = 2 E r r r r 2 H = j ( + j )H = 2 H
2 Ex = j ( + j )E x = 2 E x 2 z 2H y = j ( + j )H y = 2 H y 2 z
E x ( z , t ) = E0 e z e jt = E0 e z jz e jt
H y ( z , t ) = H 0 e z e j (t z )

For uniform plane wave in z-direction:

The complex solutions:

= E0 e z e j (t z )

The real time solutions:

E x ( z, t ) = E0e z cos( j z )

H y ( z , t ) = H 0 e z cos( j z )

Low Loss Dielectric The Loss Tangent of the material is defined as:

tan =

For very small conductivity, << (or when tan is smaller than 0.1), an approximation can be done, resulting simplified expressions of the following quantities:

tan = 2 =

vp =

1 1 + j = 1 + j tan 2 2 1



Good Conductors Good conductors have very high conductivity, >> , allowing the following approximation to be made:

j ( + j )

j j j j
= j 1 j 1 1 j j 2 2 (1 + j ) f

= = f
The Skin Depth is the length a given wave travels in a given conductor so that the magnitude of the field is reduced by the factor of e 1 (around 0.368), which means at z = 1/ = : the skin depth. Thus,

And by approximation,

j + j


= (1 + j ) = (1 + j )


= (1 + j )R S

where RS is the Skin Effect (or the Surface Resistance of the conductor),

RS =


Electromagnetic Theory KJE442



r r r r r r r r r r r r A = 3i + 5 j and B = 4i + 2 j , find the values of A + B , A B , B A r r and sketch the results. ( i is a unit vector along x-axis and j is a unit vector along y-axis in
Given 2 vectors the positive direction)


Show that

r r r r r r r r A = 4i + 2 j k and B = 2i 2 j + 4k are perpendicular to each other.

Give the cylindrical and spherical coordinates of the point whose cartesian coordinates are x = 3, y = 4, z = 5 and show it on a sketch. Given A = 2u x + 4u y and B = 6u y + 4u z . Find the smaller angle between A and B . Write points M, N and vectors A , B and C in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems.

IV) V)


Demonstrate the relation

r r r r r r r r r A B C = A.C B A.B C , and deduce the relation r r r r r r r r r A B C = C. A B C.B A .

( ) ( )

) ( ) ( )


Given a vector R (see figure), determine the unit vector

r u R of R .

r R

P (,,0)

Tutorial 1



on the spherical shell of radius a (see figure). What results when = 0 and = ?
Use the spherical system to find the area of the strip of

IX) X)

Develop the equation for the volume of a sphere of radius a from the differential volume. Use the cylindrical coordinate system to find the area of the curved surface of a right circular 0 0 cylinder where radius = 2 m, height = 5 m and 30 120 (see figure). z 2m


= 2/3 x 30 y

Tutorial 1


I) A total charge of 15 x 10-6 coulombs is uniformly distributed on a line of 5 cm length. Find the line charge density. Find the total charge contained in a cylinder (of length 30 cm and of radius 10 cm) if the volume charge density is III)


= 100 e z

1 2

c/m3. on sphere of radius 10 cm.

Given a surface of density Find the total charge.

S = 10 5 c/m2, uniformly distributed


State Coulombs Law of force between any two point charges. Point charges of 3 x 103 C are situated at each of the three corners of a square whose side is 0.2 m. Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the vacant corner-point of the square. Determine the resultant force on charge q3 shown below. Given: q1 = - 4 x 10-6 C q2 = 3 x 10-6 C q3 = - 2 x 10-6 C d13 = 0.08 m d23 = 0.12 m


q3 d13 q1 45


q2 x


The force on a point charge situated 10 cm away from another point charge of the same magnitude is 1 Newton. Determine the magnitude of the charge. Charge is distributed uniformly along a circular line with density L. Develop the expression of E at point P, h meters from the origin.


P h



Find the electric field E and the force on a point charge of 50 C at (0,0,5) due to a charge of 500 C that is uniformly distributed over the circular disk 5 m, at z = 0.


Tutorial 2

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY KJE442 IX) Given a uniform distribution of electric surface charge S on the surface of a disk, at a<<b as shown in figure.


r Determine E at point P. r Deduce E at point P. r What is E 0 at origin?

H a P b


Given surface S as shown in figure, find the surface area if the radius of the sphere is R, in terms of 1, 2, 1 and 2. A surface charge density of

S =

1 sin R

Surface S

is found to be distributed on surface S. Given that 2 sin A = 1 cos(2 A) , determine the total charge Q carried by surface S. What would be the total charge QT if surface S was the total surface of the sphere in question? 2 1

1 2


Shaded surface S in shown in figure. Find the total surface area of surface S. Electric surface charge of density S = . cos is found distributed over surface S. Determine the total charge Q carried by surface S. What would be the total charge QT if surface S was the total surface of the cylinder in question?

Surface S

2 1

Tutorial 2

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY KJE442 XII) Two point charges q1 and q2 are placed at points A and B respectively, in a free space, as shown in Figure 1. Given the distance between A and B is d, answer the following questions: a) Determine the Coulombs force exerted on charge q1 at point A, as a function of q1, q2, d and

ux .

b) Deduce the force exerted on charge q2.

Another charge Q is now placed at the origin of the system as shown in Figure 1. c) If q1 = q2 = q, determine the expression of Q as a function of q, so that the system is in equilibrium (so that the total force at every charge is zero). d) Determine the total absolute electric potential at point C due to all the charges at equilibrium.


Figure 1 shows a line charge of constant density parallel to x-axis at y = a.

and of length 2a. The line charge is put


If dl is a vector differential length of the line charge, write dl in Cartesian coordinate system.

b) c)

Write vector R in Cartesian coordinate system. Show that the electric field intensity at point P due to the line charge is as below:


a. l 2 0 k 2 2a 2 + h 2


a.u y

where k2 = a2 + h2 Given:

(u (u


+m u.du

2 3/ 2

= m =


+ m2

u 2 + m2 1

Figure 1

3/ 2

u 2 + m2
Tutorial 2

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY KJE442 Referring to Figure 2, a square loop of charge of sides 2a is centered at the origin with the same line density l . d) From the results found in c), deduce the electric field intensity at point P due to the square loop. What would be the electric field at the origin?


Figure 2

Tutorial 2



Consider an infinite line source of strength L Coulombs per meter. Find the electric field intensity at a distance from the line. Find the potential at that point. Consider a sphere of radius R carrying a constant surface charge density on its surface. Find the expression of the electric flux density inside and out side the sphere. Suppose that a charged sphere of charge Q and of radius a is placed concentric with and insulated from a larger conducting sphere of radius b, which is uncharged. Find the for : a) r < a b) r > b c) a < r < b



r D field


Suppose that we have 2 concentric spheres of radii a and b, where b > a, and that the inner sphere has a positive charge of Q. a) Sketch the flux pattern and calculate D for r < a, a < r < b, r > b for a charge of Q on the outer sphere. b) Repeat for a charge of +Q on the outer sphere.


A positive charge of 100 x 10-6 C is uniformly distributed throughout a spherical surface 30 cm in diameter. Calculate and plot the variation of the electric field intensity E and the absolute potential V as a function of the radius r from the center of the sphere to a distance of 1 meter.


The electric field from a charged sphere of 10 cm radius is 20 kV m-1 at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the sphere. Assuming uniform charge distribution on the surface of the sphere, find: a) the D field. b) The total charge on the sphere.


Find the potential difference between 2 parallel line charges of L and - L separated a distance d. [Assume a radius a from each line, and integrate only from a to d-a] The voltage difference between two parallel wires is 1000 V. The radius of each wire is 1 mm, and the separation is 1 m. a) Find L (Cm-1) on each wire. b) Find the


r E field between wires along a straight line joining the two.


A volume charge distribution of density

v =

k C/m3 is found in the region between 3 r

two concentric spheres of radius a and b as shown in figure, where k is a constant. a) Determine the total charge in the region. b) Using gausss law, determine the electric flux density for r < a, a < r < b and r >b.

Tutorial 3



A surface charge distribution S is carried by a plane disk of radius R centred at the origin, in xy-plane, as shown in Figure. The non-uniform surface charge density is given by:

S =

2 2

C/m2, where K is a constant.

A closed surface S encloses the total charge (i) (ii) State and explain Gausss law. What is the unit of the constant K?

Electric Flux Lines

Surface S


d M 2 x2 Given: dx

1 2


1 2 2

where M is a constant. Find the total


charge carried by the disk. What is the total electric flux passing through the closed surface S?


r2 A spherical distribution of charge v = 0 1 2 C/m3 exists in the region 0 r b . b

Using Gausss law, determine the electric field intensity E in the region; i) ii)

0rb r >b

Tutorial 3

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY - KJE442 TUTORIAL 4 I) The difference of potential at 20 m from a point charge and the potential at 30 m from the same charge is 50 V. Find the value of the point charge, and at what r is the potential equal to 25 V? Find E , D , and v for the following potential difference: a) V = 10 x2 b) V = 2 sin c) V = (5/r ) cos The ratio b/a for a particular coaxial cable is 3. Find the potential between conductors if the radial electric field is 3000 Vm-1 at the surface of the inner conductor of 1 cm radius. The electric field between two coaxial cylinders is 500 V/m at the inside surface of the outer conductor. Find the potential difference between conductors if the radii are 2 cm and 5 cm.





Find the potential function for the region between the parallel circular disks (see figure). Neglect fringing.


VI) Find the potential function and the electric field intensity for the region between two concentric right circular cylinders, where V = 0 at = 1 mm and V = 150 Volts at = 20 mm. Neglect fringing.


V = 150 Volts


Solve Laplaces equation for region between coaxial cones, as shown in figure. A potential V1 is assumed at 1, and V = 0 at 2.

2 V1 1


Tutorial 4

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY - KJE442 TUTORIAL 5 I) Find the relative permittivity of the dielectric material used in a parallel-plate capacitor if : a) C = 40 nF, d = 0.1 mm, and S = 0.15 m2 b) d = 0.2 mm, E = 500 kV/m, and S = 10 C/m2 Find the capacitance of : a) 20 cm of coaxial cables having an inner conductor 1 mm in diameter, an outer conductor having an inside diameter of 2.5 mm, and a polyethylene dielectric. b) A conducting sphere 1 cm in diameter, covered with a layer of polyethylene 1 cm thick, in free space. c) A conducting sphere 1 cm in diameter, covered with a layer of polyethylene 1 cm thick, and surrounded by a concentric conducting sphere in 3 cm radius. A parallel-plate capacitor contains three dielectric layers.Let R1 = 1, d1 = 0.2 mm, R1 = 2, d2 = 0.3 mm, R3 = 3, d3 = 0.4 mm, and S = 20 cm2. Find C. Figure shows two conductors, conductor 1 and 2, carrying a total charge of +Q and Q respectively. Use Gausss law to find the expression of electric field intensity anywhere between the conductors. Deduce the potential difference between the conductors. Find the capacitance of the combination of the conductors. z Conductor 1 +Q =0




h z Conductor 1 V = V1 =0 0 =a =b Conductor 2 -Q


=a =b

Two conductors are maintained at V1 and V2 as shown in Figure. Using Laplaces equation, determine the potential function anywhere in between the conductors. Deduce the electric flux density anywhere between the conductors. Find the capacitance of the combination of the conductors.

Conductor 2 V = V2

Tutorial 5



Figure a shows two (2) identical parallel conducting plates 1 and 2, separated by a dielectric of permittivity , and maintained at the potential level V1 and V2 respectively. S is the surface area of the plates, and d is the distance between the plates. (i) Using Laplaces equation, find the potential function in the dielectric, as a function of V1, V2, and d. (Neglect the fringing effect). v (ii) What is the electric flux density D in the dielectric? (iii) Deduce the total charge found on one of the surface of the plate. (iv) Find the expression of the capacitance between the plates. z
Plate 1


V2 V1

Plate 2

Figure a

A parallel plate capacitor is shown in Figure b, where two (2) dielectric layers of permittivity 1 and 2 separate the parallel plates. (i) Show that the total capacitance CT of a two parallel-connected capacitors of capacitance C1 and C2 is CT = C1 + C2. (ii) Determine the capacitance of the capacitor in Figure b if a = 1 cm, b = 2 cm, c = 1 cm, d = 1 cm, r1 = 2 and r2 = 4.
Conducting plate

Figure b 1 2
Conducting plate a b

Tutorial 5

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY - KJE442 TUTORIAL 6 I) Find H at point P, due to a finite straight-line constant current I (see figure). Discuss for the case of an infinitely long straight-line current. I



r H due to an infinitely long straight-line current using Amperes law. r Find H on the axis of a circular loop of radius a.

Specialize the result to the center of the loop.

IV) A circular loop constant current I of radius a is shown in Figure. Using Biot-Savarts law, determine the magnetic field intensity at point P as a function of the angle . What must be the value of so that |H| can be maximum? What would be |H| if tends to infinity? P

a I
V) A thin cylindrical hollow conductor of radius a, infinite in length carries a current I. Find all points.

r H at

Tutorial 6



A solid cylindrical cable of radius a carries a constant current I as shown in Figure 3Alpha. The current distribution over the cross sectional surface is not uniform and the surface current density is J = K .e

.u , where K and n are constants,

and is the radial coordinate. Using Amperes law, determine the magnetic field intensity inside and outside the conductor.

e x 1 Given: x.e .dx = x



r Determine H for a solid cylindrical conductor

of radius a, where the current I is uniformly distributed over the cross section.

a b c

Find H at all points, for an infinite cylindrical coaxial cable.


Determine the magnetic flux density inside a closely wound toroidal coil with an air core having N turns and carrying a current I. The toroid has a mean radius b, and the radius of each turn is a.

I a

b z

Tutorial 6


IX) Two narrow circular coils A and B have a common axis and are placed 10 cm apart as shown in Figure. Coil A has 2 turns of radius 2 cm, with a current of 0.5 A passing through it. Coil B is of radius 5 cm, and has 10 turn. If the magnetic field at the center of the coil A is to be zero, what should be the current passing through coil B?

Coil A

2 turns 2 cm

10 cm Coil B 10 turns

5 cm

Tutorial 6


TUTORIAL 7 I) Evaluate the inductance of an infinitely long solenoid with air-core having n closely wound turns per unit length and carrying a current I. (Using approximations, show that the magnetic field can be considered zero outside the solenoid to simplify the calculations). Based on question 1, evaluate the inductance of a solenoid of 2500 turns wound uniformly over a length of 0.5 m on a cylindrical tube 4 cm in diameter. The medium is air inside the solenoid is air. Assume that N turns of wire are tightly wound on a toroidal frame of rectangular cross-section with dimensions as shown in figure. The medium is air. Find its self inductance. h



a z

Develop expressions for flux density and inductance of a toroid of circular cross section. (Assume the mean radius R of the toroid is much bigger than the radius r of each turn of wire. Hence, by approximation, the magnetic flux density can be assumed constant along radial coordinate inside the toroid) IV) A solenoid (air-core) has 2000 turns of copper wire wound on a former of 1 meter length and 4 cm diameter. It is placed coaxially within another solenoid with the same length and number of turns but with a diameter of 7 cm. Determine the mutual inductance between the two solenoids. Two (2) coaxial loops 1 and 2 lie in parallel planes separated by a distance h, having radii a and b, with a<<b and a<<h (see Figure b). (i) Using the approximations a<<b and a<<h, find the flux through the loop 1 due to a current I in the loop 2. (ii) Determine the mutual inductance of the loops.


Loop 1 (radius a)

Loop 2 (radius b)

h Figure b

Tutorial 7



Figure shows a coaxial cable of infinite length with inner conductor having a radius a and outer conductor of internal radius b. The relative permeability of the dielectric in between the conductors is assume equal to 1. Each conductor carries a current I in opposite direction. (a) Using Amperes law show that the magnetic field intensity H is zero at any point outside the coaxial cable. Using Amperes law, determine the expression of the magnetic field intensity H at a point in between the inner and outer conductor of the coaxial cable. Find the magnetic flux between the conductors in a length d (the flux crossing the radial surface S). Hence, or otherwise, derive the self-inductance per unit length of the coaxial cable (not including the internal inductance of the inner conductor).




Inner conductor Radius = a

Dielectric r = 1

Outer conductor

S d

Tutorial 7

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY - KJE442 TUTORIAL 8 I) Given a magnetic induction, B = 10 velocity a) in the x-direction b) in the y-direction c) in the z-direction d) in the xy-plane at 450 to the axis. II) The force experienced by a test charge q for three different velocities at a point in a region characterized by electric and magnetic fields are given by:

u x Weber/m2, find the force on an electron whose

F1 = q E 0 u x + (E 0 v 0 B0 )u y F2 F3
0 0 0 x 0

[ ] = q[(E + v B )u + E u ] = q[E u + E u ]
y 0 x 0 y

for for for

r r

v1 = v 0 u x v2 = v0 u y v3 = v0 u z

where, v0, E0, B0, are constants. Find E and B at the point. III) A test charge q, moving with a velocity v = u x + u y , experiences no force in a region of electric and magnetic fields. If the magnetic flux density is B = u x 2u z Weber/m2, find E . IV)

r magnetic field B = x. sin (t + )u z (T).

The circuit shown in figure is situated in a

Determine the voltage induced in the circuit.

r B
x R w


Two metal bars slide over a pair of conducting rails in a uniform magnetic field

r B = B x u x + B z u z with constant velocities v1 = v x u x and v 2 = v x u x . Determine the

induced voltage in the circuit.


r B


Tutorial 8

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY - KJE442 VI) A time-varying magnetic field is given by

z b

r B = 10 x cos(2t )u y . Find the induced emf

around a rectangular loop in the x-z plane as shown in Figure.

r B


A rectangular loop of wire three (3) sides fixed and the fourth side movable is situated in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B = 1.5 u y + u z , refer to Figure 4b. The movable side consists of a conducting bar moving with a velocity 10 m/s in the y-direction. Find the emf induced in the loop. z

r B

r v
x Movable side VIII) A time varying magnetic field intensity is given by:

H = 10. 2 . sin(5t ).u z

i) ii) Find the induced emf around a circular loop within radius a on x-y plane. Refer to Figure Q4a. If radius a is 10 mm and the loop has resistance R = 10 , determine the current induced in the loop and its direction. z

Tutorial 8



Consider the metal bar and slider arrangement shown in Figure. The slide starts at the top and fall under the influence of gravity. The length b of the bars is equal to 1 meter and the spacing a between bars is equal to 0.2 meter. A uniform magnetic field with a magnetic flux density vector B equal to 20 Wb/m2 is passing between the bars. i) The acceleration due to the gravitational force is Determine the velocity v(t ) of the slide. ii) Calculate the voltage V(t) generated as the slide falls from the top until it leaves the bars and breaks contact. Assuming the initial position of the slide is at z0 = 0 and time t0 = 0, determine the time when the slide breaks contact with the bars. Plot the voltage V versus time t.

g (t ) = 9.8.u z







z0 = 0

a z0 = -b

Tutorial 8


TUTORIAL 9 I) Given a magnetic field in free space where there is neither charge nor current density (v = J = 0),

r B = . sin (t nx )u x + a.n. y. cos(t nx )u y

with a, n, and are constants. a) Use a Maxwell equation to derive the time-dependent electric field E . b) Determine the Poynting vector. II) An electromagnetic wave propagates through a lossless insulator with a velocity 1.8 x 1010 cm/s. Calculate the electric and magnetic properties of the insulator if its intrinsic impedance is 260 . The wavelength of a 600 MHz wave propagating through a non-magnetic dielectrics is 20 cm. What is the dielectric constant of the material? A 3 GHz uniform plane wave propagates through rexolite in the positive z direction. The E field at z = 0 is 1000 V/m. a) Calculate the rms value and phase of E at z = 4 cm. b) Determine the total wave attenuation (in dB) over a distance of 6 wavelengths. (Given, for rexolite, r = 2.54 and tan = 0.005) V) A sinusoidal electric intensity of amplitude 250 V/m and frequency 1 GHz exists in a lossy dielectric medium that has a relative permittivity of 2.5 and a loss tangent of 0.001. Find the average power dissipated in the medium per cubic meter. Determine the skin depth at 1 GHz of a conductor if the conductivity is 5 x 105 mho/m. Assume its relative permittivity equal to 1. The differential form of Maxwells Equations for harmonic electromagnetic field are given by:




E = j B .D = v

H = E + j D .B = 0
a) Starting from the Maxwells Equations for harmonic fields and using a vector identity:

E = E + .E , show that the electric wave equation for the sourcefree case (charge density, v = 0) can be written as:

( )

E = j ( + j )E
Deduce the electric wave equation for the case where the propagating medium is free space.

Tutorial 9



Assuming wave propagation along +x, and fixing the electric field along +y, the solution of the wave equation is given by

E = E 0 .e x e jx e jt u y
A uniform plane wave is propagating in +x-direction in free space as shown in Figure Q5b. At interface A (at x = 0), the wave enters a lossy dielectric medium of r = 81 and r = 1. The wave phase constant in the free space is found to be 20 rad/m. The magnitude of the wave at Interface A is measured to be 10 mV/m. i) ii) iii) Determine the frequency of the plane wave. Determine the phase velocity and wavelength of the plane wave in the lossy dielectric. If the magnitude of the electric field at 10 m from the Interface A is 9.5 mV/m, determine the attenuation constant in the lossy dielectric and the conductivity of the lossy dielectric. Interface A

Free space

Lossy dielectric r = 81 r = 1

Plane wave x

x=0 |E|(x=0) = 10 mV/m VIII) Given an electromagnetic wave of magnetic field intensity:

x = 10 m |E|(x=10) = 9.5 mV/m

H = H 0 . exp ( z ). exp j 2 10 6 t .u y
(a) (b) (c) Determine the expression of the electric field intensity of the wave. Determine the Poynting Vector. If the wave is propagating in a lossless material with = 20 and = 0, (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (d) determine the attenuation constant . find the phase constant . find the phase velocity vp. find the wavelength . determine the intrinsic wave impedance of the material, .

If the wave is propagating in a lossy dielectric with conductivity = 10-15 S/m, permittivity = 2.20 and permeability = 0, (i) (ii) (iii) determine the loss tangent of the material. determine the attenuation constant of the material. find the distance the wave travels in the material such that the magnitude of the electric field intensity is reduced by half.

Tutorial 9


r .D = v

D.dS = .dv
s v v

r .B = 0
r B E= t
r D H =J + t

B.dS = 0

B .dS L S t D .dS H .dl = J + L S t

E.dl =

Constants: Permittivity of free-space: Permeability of free-space:

0 = 8.854 x 10-12 F/m = (36 x 109)-1 F/m 0 = 4 x 10-7 H/m


u x , u y , u z are unit vectors along x, y and z directions respectively.

r V V V V = u x + y u y + z u z x r r A Ay Az + A = x + y z x r r A A y A y Ax Ax Az uy + A= z u z u x + y x z z x y r 2V 2V 2V 2V = 2 + 2 + 2 x y z
dl = dx.u x + dy.u y + dz.u z

dS = x y dx.dy.u z dv =


u , u , u z are unit vectors along , and z directions respectively.

r 1 V V V V = u + u + z u z rr 1 (.A ) + 1 A + Az A = z r r 1 Az A 1 (A ) 1 A A Az A= u + u + z z 2 2 r 1 V 1 V V + + 2V = 2 2 z 2

u z

dl = d .u + .d .u + dz.u z

dS = .d .dz.u d .dz.u

.d .d .u z dv = .d .d .dz
Spherical :

u r , u , u are unit vectors along r, and directions respectively.

r 1 V V 1 V V = u r + u + r sin u r r r 1 2 r A 1 ( A sin ) + 1 A = 2 r . Ar + r sin r sin r r r r 1 ( A sin ) A 1 1 Ar (rA ) 1 (rA ) Ar A= u r + u + r sin r r r r sin 2 r 1 2 V 1 1 V V 2V = 2 sin + 2 r + 2 2 r sin 2 r r r r sin

dl = dr.u r + r.d .u + r sin .d .u

dS = r 2 sin .d .d .u r r sin .dr.d .u r.dr.d .u

dv = r 2 . sin .dr.d .d