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Colby C5 – Kohl’s

Acquisition of Apparel
Industry
Agenda
1. Introduction
2. Sample Development
3. Fitting Technique
4. Measurement Providing Consideration for Paper Pattern Making
5. Pattern Size and Type
6. Fabric
7. Cutting
8. Interfacing
9. Needle Accommodation
10. General Technique
11. Lab-Testing
12. Quality Assurance ( Mini QA Center / KWIQ Test )

Prepared by : Raymond Chong ( Global QA ) 1


1. Introduction
Kohl’s Corporation
Kohl's is one of the popular specialty department store chain
that targets middle income families.

The company operates 457 stores in 33 states of America.


Kohl's Corp. plans to open 28 stores in Southern California
within December 2002.

During fiscal 2002, Kohl’s has opened 75 new stores. In


fiscal 2003, Kohl’s plans to open approximately 80
additional stores.

Kohl’s tentatively plans to have 900 ~ 1,000 stores by 2005.

Prepared by : Raymond Chong ( Global QA ) 2


Colby International Limited
Colby is under Li&Fung Group starting by 2000, and
Global Supply Chain Management is our business. Working
in partnership with our customers, we cater for customers
need of competitive pricing, quality, on-time delivery, as
well as ethical sourcing. We manage the logistics of
producing and exporting private label consumer goods
across many producers and countries.

Kohl’s is one of the primary Colby customers, and Colby


have been Kohl’s exclusive global agency starting by 1996.

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Competent Product
( Kohl's )

Quality Assurance
( Colby )

Mini QA Center KWIQ Test Product Service

Technical Support Lab-Testing

Physical / Performance
Fitting / Technical
Fashion Design

Colorfastness
Regulatory

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Global QA Organization Chart
T o ta l W o rk fo rc e Q A = 1 0 2 p e rs o n s

G i lb e r t H o
G e n e ra l M a n a g e r
G lo b a l Q A

C a r r ie W u
O p e r a t i o n S u p e r v is o r
M a cu a / G u an g zh ou

M ic h a e l L a m G in a M a n g a s e r J u li e B a s c o n R a ym o nd C h o ng
S e n io r Q A A Q M / R e g io n a l Q A A Q M / R e g io n a l Q A G a r m e n t T e c h n ic ia n
H K / M a ca u / G uan gzh ou A s ia C e n t r a l A s ia / A m e r . G lo b a l Q A

E r ic W o n g / Q A S im o n W o n g / Q A
Q A / B a n g la d e s h Q A / B a h r a in H K O f f ic e T a iw a n O f f ic e K o r e a O f f ic e C e n t r a l A m e r ic a I n d ia

Q A / C a m b o d ia Q A / G u a t e m a la
L a b D ip L a b D ip L a b D ip L a b - D ip L a b D ip
Q A / I n d o n e s ia Q A / J o rd a n C o lo r is t C o lo r is t C o lo r is t C o lo r is t C o lo r is t

Q A / M a l a y s ia Q A / N ic a r a g a
P ro d u c t P ro d u c t P ro d u c t P ro d u c t P ro d u c t
Q A / P a k is t a n Q A / S a ip a n T e s t in g T e s t in g T e s t in g T e s t in g T e s t in g

Q A / S r i- L a n k a Q A / E l S a lv a d o r
S a m p le S a m p le S a m p le S a m p le S a m p le
Q A / B ru n e i Q A / H o n d u ra s A p p ro v a l A p p ro v a l A p p ro v a l A p p ro v a l A p p ro v a l

Q A / I n d ia Q A / M a c e d o n ia
T e c h n ic a l T e c h n ic a l T e c h n ic a l T e c h n ic a l T e c h n ic a l
S u p p o rt S u p p o rt S u p p o rt S u p p o rt S u p p o rt
Q A / M adagascar Q A / P h i li p p in e s

Q A / M a u r i t iu s Q A / T u rk e y

Q A / S in g a p o r e

Q A / T h a ila n d

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Product Service Global Quality Assurance
( Raymond Chong ) Global QA
( Training/ Follow-up/ Monitor )

Pakistan
Bangladesh
Turkey Sri-Lanka
Vietnam
C. AmericaIndiaPhilippines SingaporeKorea Taiwan
Thailand Kong Kong

Lab Dip Pre-screen Product Testing Review Sample Approval /


Technical Support
Global Colorists
Hong Kong Laboratory
( Johnny Lai ) ( ITS )
Sample Approval Pre-production Meeting Production Problem

Approved Rejected Local QA Manger /


( 3rd fit ) Global
Failed Approved
Technician
Taiwan Korea Singapore India

Hong Kong Taiwan Korea Singapore India

Singapore
Turkey IndiaBangladesh C. America
Korea
C. America Kong Kong
TaiwanPakistanThailand Vietnam PakistanThailandKong Kong
Korea C. America TaiwanPhilippines
SingaporeC. America
Sri-Lanka
Turkey India Bangladesh

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2. Sample Development
Since 1970’s - 1980’s, the buyers almost believed they could
finalize the sample development stage at their end, and send
all the stuffs including specification sheet, fit sample and
paper pattern ( or marker ) along. They deemed this way
would be easier to follow for the Far East offices as well as
the factories.

However, the buyers gradually found that this way is not


accurate as what they wanted eventually, and they have to
waste much more time during development to shipment in
store, which they found they will not be competitive in the fast
pace market.
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The reason is they assigned the freelance sample room for
making fit sample; even they have in-house sample room for
fitting approval. However, after the sample is fitted and
approved, and they have assigned the freelance pattern room
for making pattern / marker to save money, which the pattern /
marker was not plotted / printed properly. Most likely, the
factories found so many problems on their pattern / marker
such shape / silhouette and measurements etc. ...

Finally, the Far East offices had to hire some knowledge


experts for checking and follow up, but this way is not also
productivity as well, due to too much argument between head
quarter, Far East office and factories.

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Since 1990’s, the buyers had been much traveling to Far
East, and came across a deal with the Far East offices as well
as the factories, they realized the factories could make the
paper pattern themselves according to their fitting
expectation / requirement.

On the practice of this way, they found they could be shorten


the lead-time for development stage, and got what they
wanted in fashion design on time schedule for selling their
consumers as what they planned.

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During the normal practice from 1990’s, most of the buyers
would not send the paper pattern / marker for sampling as
well as production for Far East offices to follow.

The buyers only would send the specification sheets with


sketches ( from Technical Designer ) for following up, and
their Far East offices will have their factories for sampling to
create / make the paper pattern according to the information
from the buyers given.

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2A. Technical Designer
Career in fashion including Technical Designer in the wider
apparel industries become expanding markets, rapid
technological change and the internationalization of
production. Indeed, the fact that the industry is world wide,
means there are more and more interesting career opportunities
even for the people with technical expertise and marketing
skill.

The global industry needs professional marketing, production


and design personnel to function. Technical Designer, Garment
Technologist / Technician, Technical Development Manager,
CAD specialist, Designer and can be found all over the world.

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Technical Designer is not a new generation product in apparel
industry starting from 1990’s, and most of the famous private
labels such Limited Brands, Liz Claiborne, Jones New York,
Tommy Hilfiger, Donna Karan etc. …

They had have their own technical design team, which their
technical designers would work with the fashion designers
closely on technical area such issuing the specification design
sheets based on the life model figure, doing fitting, and give
technical advice on styling details, construction, workmanship
as well as measurements.

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This specialist is so important in apparel industry nowadays, as
we can see they can provide their expert knowledge for giving
details to their Far East offices / factories for sampling follow-
up, and also helping their fashion designer’s image to
implement in apparel market today, getting the right products in
the reasonable timing for selling the market.

The technical designer checking sample


fitting on mannequin form

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2B. Fitting Technologist /
Garment Technician
This position also is not a new generation product nowadays,
and we can almost found them in the Far East buying offices
/ agencies, or trading companies, and even in the factories.
This position is to execute all the requirements from
specification design sheets issued from technical designers
mentioned such construction, workmanship and
measurements. They will work closely with technical
designer to ensure the sample to be fitted properly, and make
sure the product will not be against the Regulation / Law to
get approval within the short period.

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This position right now is became more popular in apparel
industry in Far East as most of the production should be in
the developing countries, Hong Kong becomes a trading
center with strong technical support.

This garment technologist / technician could be even not just


work with oversea technical designers, and they could work
with the factories and the merchandising teams globally for
solving any problems to instead of wasting time for the
feedback from buyers / technical designers.

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Furthermore, some of customers still do not have their own
technical designer there such La Reduote, Alice Export
etc., they need more technical input from the garment
technologist / technician to provide the knowledge for
solving the uncertain problems.

Garment technologist / technician also has to make sure


that all garments are developed and produced to the
specified quality standards, taking into account factors
such as garment construction, durability, regulatory and
washability. So they will need an eye for detail, a logical
approach, excellent communication skills and the ability to
influence at all levels, not to mention a flair for fashion.

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3. Fitting Technique
3A. Choosing Fashion Design

Fashion Design

Every design is made up of lines -- Seams, skirt and sleeve


lengths, collars, pockets, belts, yokes, and buttonholes make
lines. Decorative features, such as tucks, pleats, and special
stitching, also make lines. The use of two or more colors or
textures gives an effect of lines. Fabric design, such as stripes
and plaids, is made up of lines.

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The outside lines form the silhouette or outline of a garment –
Good silhouette lines are related to the shape of the body. No part
of the body should seem out of proportion to other parts. These
are the four basic clothing silhouettes:

Hourglass
Inverted triangle
Triangle
Rectangle

Fashion silhouettes can create a more pleasing body shape.


They can counter certain body imbalances and create better
balance and proportion.

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Study your own figure / build and choose lines to help you look
the way you would like to look. Would you like to look taller and
more slender ?! Then choose these :

1. Designs or fabrics with vertical lines, because they carry the


eye up and down.
2. Outfits that are all one color, because this gives the effect of
a long, unbroken line.
3. Slim lines in ties, pants, skirts.

Would you like to look shorter and broader ?! Then choose these :

1. Designs or fabrics with horizontal lines.


2. Contrasting belts or jackets.
3. Full-cut pants, skirts.

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3B. Choosing Color

Color

Most preteens, teens and juniors can wear many different


colors, but usually two or three colors do " Something
Special " for you. One way to decide is to drape fabric of
different colors around your neck. Look into a well-lighted
mirror and watch the results. If possible, check this in
natural light.

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Your choice of color can do more than any other thing to
make
your outfit becoming to you. A color is a good choice if :

1. It brings out the best in your skin.


2. It is a pleasing contrast to your eyes and hair.
3. It flatters your figure / build.
4. It gives you a lift or happy feeling.

PS: Colby well understood how importance of Color, the


Prescreen process have been setup to have Global
Colorists. In order to make sure all lab-dip, bulk
swatches to be consistent in one tone.

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3C. Styling & Design

Styling & Design

The most important concern from fashion designers’ point of


view is their design, and we have to bear in mind to be “ NO
change “on the styling always, remember which related to
their IMAGE.

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Below is some groups of design lines : --

Country Group

Essential Group

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Studio Group

Classic Group

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3D. Fitting & Balance on Dress Form /
Mannequin & Life Model
The achievement of fitting purpose is to have a feeling for the
consumers of self-confidence, which comes from knowing that
your clothes are comfortable and attractive. So, you have to
stand on the consumers’ position for getting to ask yourself “
Will I buy this garment ?! “

So, a garment is, or is not fitted / balance will be influenced the


style looking, and the 1st feeling from the consumers when they
get the 1st fitting, and this will be decided to be success or
failure on this style as we can see if the consumer is willing to
buy this garment.

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Just by wearing your clothes, you
are modeling. You are always on
display, whether on the street, at
home, school, or play, or at the
parties or anywhere. You could
learn your posture to be self-
confidence, your walk are early in
life, and you can improve these
and enhance your appearance and
the way by your clothes look on
you. You can also gain poise in
the process.

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Poise is the ability to be bigger
than oneself, to forget self-
consciousness. Poise can make
you master a situation even
when things go against you.
Poise is balance. Try balancing
others' interests with your own,
talking about the things in
which they are interested. First,
of course, you need to be sure
of yourself. It helps to feel you
look your best -- neat and
suitably dressed.

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So, “ Poise “ is more important
on fitting than following any
rule, and calculating method of
measurements, and it involved
judgment, understanding and
taste. Most of the pattern makers
in apparel industry, they did not
understand / realize the fitting
purpose, just focus on
measurement requirement. So,
they would almost just said “
Sample is hit the measurements
you provided already “ …

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( I ) Body Figure understanding

You have to know the clothes for what kind of consumers you
will fit for as you will get more idea about the human body
figure
shape for different ages.

7. For infants to pre-teen – Body figure should be O, or H shape


8. For preteen to missy – Body figure should be V, or X shape
9. For missy to women – Body shape should be X, or O shape
10. For women – Body figure should be O, or A shape
11. For boy to men – Body figure should be H, or V shape
12. For elder men – Body shape should be O, or A shape

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For boy to men – Body figure should be H, or V shape
For elder men – Body shape should be O, or A shape

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For preteen to missy – Body figure should be V, or X shape
For missy to women – Body shape should be X, or O shape

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For infants to pre-teen – Body figure should be O, or H shape

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( I ) Below are the criteria for fitting purpose :--

A . Large / Small bust


B . Swayback / Collapse
C . Dart / Pleat placement
D . Sleeve length and width
E . Shoulders
1 .Broad / Narrow
2 .Square / Round
3 .Sloping
F . Large abdomen
G . Crotch length and shape
H . Hips

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Hiking Front / Lifting Up --
Woven and Knit :

Balance is off front and back.


This problem is always
occurred
on woven, knit & sweater
item. So, should give more
roomy on front panel by
length back at
back shoulder is the one of
solution.

Most likely, balance can be fixed by paper pattern alteration,


but sometime, measurements have to be adjusted / revised.

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The usual pattern correction will be as following :--
• To pick up across back by
certain amount ( e.g.
3/4” ) from CB to back
armhole consistently,
which will give
roominess for bust of
front panel.
• Armhole circumference
has to be adjusted by
scooping at the underarm
front and back.
• Shift shoulder seam front
forwards ( e.g. 3/8” ), in
order to drop the front
panel for giving more
roomy for the bust area.
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Sweater :

Usually, the hiking problem


would not be happen on sweater
item, as sweater is weaving
panel to instead of making
pattern, cut and sewn process.

However, it would happen on


the women’s style as the reason
is the yarn nature is twisted
before weaving panel, after the
garments have been washed.
The torque problem will be
coming caused the balance
problem.
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The correction to be done when the sweater is hiking on front :

• Back panel should be


knitted longer ( e.g. 3/8” )
than front on shoulder to
give more roominess for
front, which back
shoulder seam will be
front forwards.
• Armhole depth ( purple
color ) front and back
must be the same amount.

PS : Remember to have
Saddle width at underarm
front and back.
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Armhole and sleeve cap looks clean on red, and bunching
excess fabric on pink one.
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Bunching at armhole / sleeve cap :--

This is the usual problem on sweater item, though sweater is


not on cut & sewn process for making up.

However, the excess fabric can be reduced as illustrations


by increasing the saddle width at underarm of armhole of
body side, and underarm of sleeve side.

The saddle width should be adjusted according to the


different gender and different size. Below is guide :--

Men & Women – 1-1/4” to 1-1/2”


Missy, Petite & Junior – ¾” to 1”
Children – ½” to ¾”

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Armhole Gapping :--

Armhole looks good on mushroom, and gapping armhole on


black one.
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Stretch Side Zip Pant

Too much excess fabric at front crotch.


Due to front rise too angle, and no
hook at bottom of front rise saddle.
Proportion of Hip / Seat measurement
may be built improperly.

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Stretch Carpi

Drag-line at front crotch ( which we


call smiling ). Due to rise width too
narrow, back rise and inseam too
short. Also, front rise too short / tight.
Also, inseam is lean too much and
outseam too straight is also caused the
same problem.

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Beside of the problems too
narrow of Rise Width.

The leg panel is not placed at


Center will also cause the inseam
is pulling upwards with drag-line
/ hiking problem. To shift the
panel to be placed at center, and
that is we called the proper Grain-
Line is also so important on
fitting bottom style.

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Nylon Jacket

The interfacing is shrunk, and the


bond strength is not accommodated
with the self fabric caused the front
placket is pulling, wrinkling,
puckering, and does not look nice.

Also, Yarn Displacement, Tension


Puckering, Machine Puckering will
cause puckering wrinkling also.
PS :
For interlining, please refer to the topic of Interfacing for
getting more information
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Introduction

Seam Puckering refers to the gathering of a


seam either just after sewing or after laundering
causing an unacceptable seam appearance.
Seam puckering is more common on woven fabrics than knits;
and it is prominent on tightly woven fabrics. Puckering is
usually caused by one or more of the following conditions :--
Yarn Displacement (Structural Jamming)
Tension Puckering (Excessive Thread Tension)
Machine Puckering (Uneven ply feeding)

More details :--


http://www.amefird.com/seam_puckering_bulletin.htm

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Below are some styles with nice fit looking :--

Woven Silk Satin Top

A silk charmeuse blouse with


point collar and cuffs creates
a striking nice silhouette.
Proper fit size and softness,
and nothing is more sensuous
than the feel of fine silk satin
next to your skin.

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Nice Knit Top

Proper measurement
provided to accommodate
with body figure.

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V-Notch Sweater

Looks clean, neat and


fitted

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Turtle Neck Cashmere

Look clean and neat, and


comfort and nice design
with raglan.

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Dress Bottom

Look clean, neat and


comfort

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Skirt

Hanging Nice and Comfort

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Matte Jersey Wrap Dress

Looks clean, comfort and


will not wrinkle during
traveling

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Suits / Blazer

Classic pinstripe suit gets a


modern fit

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Long Coat

A luxurious blend of wool


and angora classic coat.
Five-button front closure

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3E. Measurements

This is the substantial issue during fitting, and as we can see


the measurements always have been changed / revised during
fitting stage, because if the style would be looking good or
not, the provided measurements are so important.

Initially, the measurement providing is not accurate always


as the technical design is just presumed what their
experience / history is. So, that’s why fitting is a must, and
during fitting the measurements will be adjust, adjust and
revise, until to have a proper fit.

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For example : --
Low Waist Jean

Initially, if the rise length


front and back are given
compatible, but the outseam
and inseam length giving is
based on normal waist style,
we will foresee the style
become dipping waist at CF
and CB then. The sample
will be looking odd and
funny.

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The initial inseam is given
30”, but outseam length is
given 39” as a Normal rise /
waist style for a Low rise /
waist jean style.

The side seam will be rose


up, which the balance is
completely wrong.

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PS : For above case, experienced Technical Designer will
either give the inseam length, or outseam length at the
preliminary stage. Let factory to calculate for another one
by themselves when drafting the paper pattern then.

Furthermore, sample hit the request measurement is easier


than hit a better-looking fit. So, it is necessary to adjust /
revise the measurement during fitting stage progress.

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However, after the sample has been fit approval to keep and
maintain the approved silhouette, the measurements are so
important to mark down for grading, and for production
implement and control use.

PS : The final measurements is almost the finished garment


measurement has to be, and this is the responsibility of
factories to test the bulk fabric shrinkage, and adjust into
their paper pattern / marker according to the final spec
before cutting.

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3F. Construction

The garment looks cheap or elegance is depended on how the


construction should be, and most likely, the buyers will not
consider this condition, which is designers’ concern, and
would effect their design image.

Sometime, construction will be ignored, or cannot be


implemented, because of costing issue, or mass production
procedure in Far East factories ( such as OPA ).

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The garment looks cheap or
elegance. It depends on the
sewing construction.

Learn more from below web sites :--


http://craftandfabriclinks.com/sewingbook/sewbook.htm
http://www.sewingweb.com/dictionary/
http://www.sewing.com/dictionary/index.shtml

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The amount of ease
calculated for Pattern Maker
patterns is moderate,
according to prevailing
fashion. Ease for basic
patterns ( Basic bodice, Skirt
and Pants ) is predetermined
and cannot be changed.
They are close-fitting
garments with only the
needed fitting ease added.

Pattern Maker

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If you want to add or decrease ease to these garments, cut
body, pants or skirt pieces vertically in two and move
parts apart from each other or on top of each other to get
the desired result. Don't add or decrease anything to side,
armscye or sleeve seams.

This is also the technique to be used, if you want to add


ease to a jacket to change it to an overcoat. Start from
maximum ease version jacket. Pants and skirt can be
enlarged also by adding space to ( only ) side seams.

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4. Measurements Providing
Consideration for
Paper Pattern Making

Paper patterns cannot be drawn exactly according to your body


measurements because you could not move in the finished
garment. Also fashion determines how much ease there is in
certain garments. Jackets, dresses and blouses, for example,
are rather tight fitting and body hugging nowadays. A few
years ago, jackets used to be boxy and straight.

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Technical Designer would provide proper measurements for
development / pattern making. The initial specification will be
adjusted / revised during fitting until to have a fit / proper fit.

The amount of ease calculated for Pattern Maker patterns is


moderate, according to prevailing fashion. Ease for basic
patterns ( Basic bodice, Skirt and Pants ) is predetermined and
cannot be changed. They are close-fitting garments with only
the needed fitting ease added.

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If you want to add or decrease ease to these garments, cut
body, pants or skirt pieces vertically in two and move parts
apart from each other or on top of each other to get the desired
result. Don't add or decrease anything to side, armscye or
sleeve seams.

This is also the technique to be used, if you want to add ease to


a jacket to change it to an overcoat. Start from maximum ease
version jacket. Pants and skirt can be enlarged also by adding
space to ( only ) side seams.

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The basic bodice is to be used as a basis for your own
designs and you have to add the needed ease for fitting and
style yourself. Basic bodice is not to be used as is for any
garment. It will fit like " a second skin ".

The ladies' shirt also has a predetermined ease, which cannot


be changed. It is a garment similar to a men's dress shirt
with dropped sleeve caps. If you want to sew a more fitted
shirt, use blouse macro and leave darts unsewn.

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Other garment patterns have three ease choices: Minimum,
Normal and Maximum.

You should always make your first garment ( fit sample )


with normal ease based on the body figure measurements.
This is good for most cases. It contains enough wearing
ease as well as the ease needed for garment design.

Formula :--

Body figure measurements + Proper Ease


= Garment Measurements

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Here are some ideas of how to use other than normal ease.

Minimum ease:

Garments of very thin fabrics

Close-fitting garments and evening dresses

Garments made of elastic fabrics

Closely fitting sleeveless dresses

Underwear

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Maximum ease:

Garments of thick fabrics

Jackets of thick wool fabrics for outdoors use

Garments for leisure use

Loose-fitting garments like ( tunics, T-shirts,


sweaters etc. ) outer garments to be worn over
other garments

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You might want your garments to have more ease or less
ease than normally used. Once you are familiar with the
patterns the macros create, you can use maximum or
minimum according to your wishes. By testing different
eases, you will learn to use them for many purposes.

You should not change your actual body measurements in


order to increase or decrease ease. It won't work. You don't
know all the measurements, which have to be changed or
cannot change them as the program calculates some
measurements for you.

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4A. Ease Chart

Ease is normally described by giving ease at bust circumference.

There is also ease at other places such as at neck circumference,


back width, armscye depth, shoulder and sleeve length etc.

These eases are not given in the table hereunder but the
differences correspond to bust ease.

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Basic bodice : Bust +8 cm

Skirt : Waist +2 cm , Abdomen and hip +3 cm

Pants : Waist +0 cm , Abdomen and hip +4 cm

Pullover : Minimum, bust -2 cm,


Normal, bust +0 cm,
Maximum, bust +8 cm

Blouse : Minimum, bust +10 cm,


Normal, bust +12 cm,
Maximum, bust +14 cm

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Jacket : Minimum, bust +12 cm,
Normal, bust +14 cm,
Maximum, bust +16 cm

Dress : Minimum, bust +10 cm,


Normal, bust +12 cm,
Maximum, bust +14 cm

Shirt : Bust +16 cm

Minimum Head Stretch : Minimum, head +8cm

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4B. Shoulder Pads

Space for shoulder pads is


included in jacket and fitting
blouse patterns. Shirt, dress
and pullover are designed
without shoulder pads.

If you want to add shoulder pads to these garments, raise


shoulder tip / slope at front and back 1/2 - 3/4 inch ( 1 - 2 cm )
and lengthen shoulder 1/2 - 3/4 inch ( 1 - 2 cm ). Also, raise at
top of sleeve cap by same amount by which you raised
shoulder tip / slope.

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4C. Stretch Fabric

The fabric is stretchable, which is almost weaved with elasticity


yarn from DuPont LYCRA®, or spandex ( in the market ) and
which they can provide high degree of extensibility and quick
recovery.

However, the fabric can be extended and recovered well is


depend on the quality of the stretchable yarn, and that’s why
some of private labels are still willing to purchase the more
expensive stretchable yarn from DuPont LYCRA®. Because
there will have NO guarantee for good quality from purchasing
the spandex yarn in market. So, measurement providing will be
concealed judgment consideration.

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The stretch factor generally ranges from at least 30% to 50%,
or more with no more than 5% to 6% loss in recovery. So, the
measurements providing for stretch fabric is more important
adding judgment and understanding. Such stretch fabric is best
adapted to bodysuit, skiwear, athletic clothing, professional
types of active sportswear etc.

Stretch involved in various movements of the body parts is


reported in the New Encyclopedia of Textiles as below :--

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Back Flex : Across – 13% - 16%

Seat Flex : Across – 4% - 6%

Knee Flex : Vertical ( lengthwise ) – 35% - 45%


Horizontal ( circumference ) – 12% - 14%

Elbow Flex Vertical ( lengthwise ) – 35% - 40%


Horizontal ( circumference ) – 15% - 22%

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5. Pattern Size and Type

If you want the garments you sew to fit properly, you must
have the correct pattern size, and that depends on your
body Figure measurements and your figure / build type.
That is very important to have a fit garment.

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5A. Body Figure

Measure your body. Accurate measurements are vital. Have


someone help you. Take the measurements over the
undergarments you normally wear. Update this information as
you grow.

Live model for fitting garment must be kept with his / her
body figure shape to be stable. It is very difficult to fit the
proper garment on the live model for maternity, newborn and
infant style.

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Find your figure type. Your figure type is based on body
proportions and height. Check the back of pattern catalogs to
select the type you are most like.

Select your size. Your measurements and figure type lead


you to your pattern size. Your ready-to-wear size is not
necessarily the exact same as your pattern size.

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Females : Tie a string around your waist; where it settles is your
natural waistline. ( Young girls may have to bend sideways to
find it ).

1. Bust : Measure around fullest part.


2. High bust : Measure around widest part of back, under the
arms, and above fullest part of neckline.
3. Waist : Measure around natural waistline.
4. Hips : Measure around fullest part, about 7 inches from
waist. A second measure could be 9 inches from
waist.
5. Back waist length : Measure from prominent bone at back
neck base down to natural waistline.
6. Height : Measure without shoes, against a wall.

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Males : Tie a string around your waist; where it settles is your
natural waistline. Neck : Measure around neck at base.

1. Chest : Measure around fullest part.


2. Waist : Measure around waist along string.
3. Hips : Measure around fullest part, about 6 inches below
waist for boys, 7 inches for teenaged boys, and 8
inches for adult men.
4. Inseam : Measure inside leg to desired pants length.
5. Height : Measure without shoes, against wall.

Other measurements may be needed for males and females so


they can alter certain pattern styles.

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Size 3-6M : Newborn Body Measurements

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Size 12M : Infant Body Measurements

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Size 3T : Toddler ( Boy & Girl ) Body Measurements

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Size 6 : Girl & Boy Body Measurements

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Size 12 : Girl Body Measurements

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Size 12-1/2 Plus : Girl Body Measurements

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Size 12 Slim : Boy Body Measurements

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Size 12 : Boy Body Measurements

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Size 12-1/2 Husky : Boy Body Measurements

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Size 7/9 : Junior Body Measurements

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Size 22 ( 2X ) : Women Plus Body Measurements

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Size 10/12 : Petite Body Measurements

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Size 10/12 : Missy Body Measurements

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Size 40 : Men’s & Young Men’s Body Measurements

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5B. Grading

Once the silhouette have been taken accurately, that means the
fit is approved on the Base Size, then the next step is Grading
to have all size range for production to be the same proportion
/ fit in the different sizes.

Actually, Technical Designer has set the proper grade rule, and
the graded measurements will be automatically filled in, once
the accurate data of base size have been inputted.

However, factory has their responsibility to across check if any


grading given is not proportion, and advise Technical Designer
to revise proportionally.

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5C. How to Use Paper Pattern
( Marker )
Check the view you plan to make. Select the pattern pieces for
the view you are making, and return the other pieces to the
envelope.

Study your specification sheet. Find the diagrams that show


how to place a pattern on fabric for cutting. Circle the one you
plan to follow.

Your specification sheet has instructions on how to use your


pattern and specification sheet. These are only suggestions,
and you may make changes according to the fabric you are
using, your skills, and your leader or other persons helping
you.
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5D. Pattern ( Marker ) Layout
Place your fabric and pattern on a large, hard, smooth surface.
After your fabric has been preshrunk and straightened, fold it
with right sides together. The exception to this is when you
are more experienced and use fabric that requires matching,
then you fold right sides to the outside.

Lay pattern pieces on fabric following the layout you circled


on guide sheet. Place all pieces before pinning them.

Napped / raised fabrics, those with a definite up and down,


should be laid out with all the pieces in one direction.
Corduroy ( Woven ) / Velour ( Knit ) has an obvious nap you
can see and feel.
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Jacquard, double knits, gabardine, and some printing
fabrics should have pattern pieces laid in one direction
also, even though you cannot see a definite nap. Wool also
should have the pattern laid out as for napped fabric.

Pattern pieces to be cut on the fold should be placed with


the line of pattern, even with the fabric fold, and pinned.
On pieces not placed on the fold, notice the marking that
indicates straight of grain. Use a ruler or yardstick to
measure, and be sure both ends of marking are the same
distance from selvage, that what we call maintain the
grain-line ( Warp & Weft ).

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Pattern ( Marker ) pieces should remain smooth as you pin.
Place pins at right angles to the cutting edge where they are not
on the cutting line; pick up only a small amount of fabric.

Remarks :

Recent years, auto-marker machine is so popular in apparel


industry. Above is the making marker manually and this is
traditional way for making marker and cutting fabric practice in
the past.

For sweater, there is no paper pattern / marker, all the panels


are knitting calculating by the technical graphic paper from
either hand machine or auto-machine

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5E. Learning Pattern ( Marker ) Symbols

Cutting line A solid, dark outer line to follow in cutting out a


pattern piece.
Stitching line A broken line, usually located 5/8 inch away from the
cutting line indicating where the seam should be
made. The seam allowance is the distance between the
cutting line and the stitching line.
Grain arrow A straight line carrying an arrow at each end you use
to position pattern on the fabric. You place this line
parallel to the selvage or lengthwise grain.
Place on fold A grain line that indicates the edge of the pattern you
line should place on a fold of the fabric.

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Notches Single, double, or triple diamond shapes, often
identified with numbers or letters that match as you
sew pieces together.
Circles and marks that you match with their identical shapes,
squares or a line of change ( such as a seam, sleeve cap,
or beginning or ending of gathers ) in the
adjoining piece.
Lengthen and single or double lines that indicate the place
shorten lines where you can add or subtract length without
affecting the design of the garment.
Fold line indicates the line on which you turn the fabric
for hem or facing.

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Button and are often together and sometimes separate. They
buttonhole indicate placement of button, size, and buttonholes.
placements
Dart placement transfers shape markings onto fabric where you
make
a fold on the solid line and stitch on the broken
lines,
toward point.
Pocket the area where you attach the finished pocket.
placement
Hemline indicated by a solid line that you turn up for the
hem.

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6. Fabric
6A. Texture, Fibers & Fibers
A fiber is the beginning of all fabrics. It is a fine, hair-like
strand twisted with other fibers to form a yarn. The yarns are
then woven into fabric. Natural fibers are those found in
nature.
The four main ones are cotton, flax ( linen ), wool, and silk.
Each has its own characteristics. No one fiber is perfect. Some
characteristics are good; others are not.

To get more ideas from below web sites :--


http://www.territoryahead.com/customer_service/fabglossary.asp
http://www.victor-perrin.fr/e/glossary/glossary_textil_a.htm
http://www.sierratradingpost.com/StaticText/glossary.asp
http://www.drummonds.co.uk/glossary/index.phtml?submit=list&letter=a
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Man-made or synthetic fibers are products of science and
technology. They number several hundred, and new fibers
are constantly being produced. It is impossible to remember
the performance characteristics of each synthetic fiber. Law,
into generic classes or families, has grouped the synthetic
fibers. Each of these families has its own pattern of behavior
in wear and care. New families are added as they are developed.

Blends are a group of fabrics that strive to combine the best


characteristics of natural and man-made fibers. Many fabrics
used in sewing are a blend of polyester and cotton. No single
fiber or blend can meet all needs.

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Sweater is made up by knitting from “ Yarn “, and the
yarn actually is the same blended twisting a group from
fibers.

There will not hundreds, thousands of yarns for sweater


product nowadays to have different effects pre-twist,
heather, marl, slub etc. …

No one of the yarn is perfect. Some characteristics are


good; others are not.

PS :
Sweater factory will just press what measurement they
want by using the wooden board that cause another big
problem – Shrinkage.
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( I ) Shrinkage

This is another topic which most of the end consumer concern,


that is Shrinkage.

To understand what actually causes fiber / fabric to shrink, we


must first examine a fiber, a wool fiber for example, under a
high power microscope. The examination under the
microscope reveals that the fiber has scales ( similar to fish
scales ) on its surface, which lift in the presence of moisture. If
the fabric or garment is subjected to mechanical action when
the scales are in the raised state, the scales on the fibers
interact with each other resulting in a " ratchet action ". This
ratchet action occurs in one direction only. Therefore, the
shrinkage that occurs is permanent.

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In cotton knits fabric, shrinkage is the consolidation of the
knit structure. Most shrinkage takes place in the dryer.
Commercial Wash and Dry equipment can accelerate
shrinkage in less time ( rate of shrinkage ) than home laundry
equipment.

Ultimately all processes will promote the same degree of


shrinkage. It just takes longer at home. Make sure that the
after wash dimensions correspond with your requirements.
Industry standard for variance from specified shrinkage is +
or - 5%. As we said before - test, test, test. The garment wash
process is sometimes blamed for results outside the washer's
control.

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The most frequently encountered are torque or skew, identified
by the twisting or displacement of lengthwise seams. This
usually occurs in long pants, skirts, and dresses. Torque is
created in the yarn formation, knitting, and fabric finishing
process. It is a condition that is considered “ normal and
accepted “ in the industry. No one yet knows how to eliminate
torque and, therefore, fabric manufacturer that we know of
warrants against it in totality.

This is what developed of KWIQ ( Kohl’s Wash to Insure


Quality ) Test, which will be compulsory to implement starting
from Fall ‘2003 onwards.

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There is several methods in the apparel industry to improve
shrinkage for the fabric / yarn.

For woven fabric :--


There is some kind of chemical which we call “ Resin “ can
be shrink-proofing, or compact the yarn before weaving
fabric, that what we call “ Compact Yarn “.

For knit fabric ( especially circular knit ):--


The fabric should be improved by “ Compacting, Steam and
Heat Setting “.

For yarn of sweater :--


The only way is to release the twisting energy, and pre-shrink
by steam before knitting.
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- Riken Resin RG-85C
Developed as a cellulose-reactive resin with high chlorine
fastness. Excellent in anti-creasing and shrink-proofing,
produces less formalin residue on substrate and less
deterioration in whiteness, it is widely applicable not only in
areas that require high chlorine fastness.

- Riken Resin RG-17


Developed as a cellulose-reactive resin with high chlorine
fastness. Excellent in anti-creasing and shrink-proofing,
produces less formalin residue on substrate and less
deterioration in whiteness, it is widely applicable not only in
areas that require high chlorine fastness.

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Side view of comparison of compact yarn and conventional yarn

Also, the comparison after weaving to be fabric.

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Compact yarn looks clean
and neat

Conventional yarn look


fraying

Even it does not look


fussy when the spinning
yarn have been
transferred to the cone.

As maximum number of fibers become parallel and uniform


after passing through the condensing zone the hairiness value
is reduced about 20-25% than that of normal spinning.

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The difference outcome of conventional yarn and compact yarn

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The compacting yarn progress from spinning

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Increase in yarn strength &
elongation

Due to better-controlled and uniform fibers in yarn the


strength and elongation of yarn is increased by 20% than
that of conventional ring spun yarn, even on low twist
e.g. If conventional NE 40/1 is spun on 4.40 T.M, the
compact NE 40/1 have better strength on 3.90 T.M with
the same cotton from Pakistan.

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For Compact Calendaring of Circular Knitted Fabrics

- Tube compactor is designed to control the effective


shrinkage and high dimensional stability of knitted fabrics
such as single jersey and double jersey fabrics.

- It is mechanically possible to adjust the shrinkage ratio up


to 18% depends on type of fabrics.

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Tube Compacting Machine

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For Steam Setting of Circular Knitted Fabrics

- DNS steam setting machine is designed for spreading and


setting of fabric width.
- It corrects twisted condition of knitting loops, and widen fabric
width by pressing fabric surface and softened through steam
spray on the fabric.
- Crease marks can be minimized by non-woven fabric on the
roller surface.
- At the steam setting section, upper and lower roller will be
heated. So, it gives good effect on fabric.
- The Machine comprises of over feeding section, steam section,
folding section and electronic control panel.

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Steam Setting Machine

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For Heat Setting Knitted Fabrics

- DNH type heat setting machine is designed to process the circular


knitted fabric being composed of synthetic and blended yarns.
- The Machine comprises of the over feeding section, heating,
cooling section, press roller and folding section.
- It is possible to reduce the heat difference between the inside and
outside of the heating chamber as there is direct heating system by
means of gas or thermo-oil.
- The Machine make more easy to control the thick knitted fabric to
get the required width by using the strong hot wind.
- The Machine equipped with a digital control system to control
accurately the main speed and over feed. As a result, it is possible
to solve the problems like the loop twist.
- The Machine can be controlled easily by centralized control
system
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Heat Setting Machine

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Shrinkage Tester - Fabric
The shrinkage tester principle
was developed to test for
dimensional stability and other
fabric properties that require a
washing and drying process. It is
typically used in companies
involved in knitting, weaving,
dyeing and finishing, garment
manufacture and retail.
Rapidly predicts dimensional change (shrinkage) of textile
fabrics when they have been subjected to washing and tumble
drying. Can determine spirality, print durability, and
colorfastness changes of fabric.

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( II ) Fabric Finishes

A fabric finish is a treatment that changes fabric behavior


and appearance. The finish may be temporary or permanent.

Regular or basic finishes ( such as coating, resin, napping,


brushing, shearing, softener or calendaring ) make fabric
suitable to sell. Functional or special finishes contribute a
special feature to the fabric. Permanent press, stain
resistance, and water repellency are functional finishes.

One of another importance as end consumer concern is the


Hand-feel, so Softener is the one of the treatment that most
popular to be used on fabric finishing.

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-Riken Softener AS-280

Highly concentrated amino denatured silicone, to be diluted


before use, to give excellent softening effects on fiber. It is a
silicone-based softener that produces a drier hand with better
whiteness and less water repellency than conventional amino
denatured silicone.

- Riken Softener AS-350

Amino denatured silicone to give excellent softening effects


on fiber, in particular through exhaustion.

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Silk :--

Silk is a protein yarn, which is weaker when wet, and dark or


bright colors which have a high risk of fading.
fading

If we wanted the silk can be Machine Washable, that the silk


yarn must be treated ( salt-shrunk, resin-treated – for woven,
and fiber-dispersed – for knit ) before.

The one process we called Resin Treated, that is a Fiber that


has been treated with a Synthetic Film-forming Polymer
( resin ) . This may be done to make the fiber firmer, heavier,
more stable, to add Wrinkle Resistance, to reduce Shrinkage
or to create Surface Effect such as Embossing or Glazing.

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6B. Fabric Construction

Fabric may be constructed by three basics methods : knitting,


weaving, and the interlocking of fibers by felting or bonding.
Lace making and netting are two less frequently used methods
of producing cloth.

( I ) Woven Fabrics

There are several weaves of fabric. The plain weave is the most
basic of all weaves, with one weft yarn going over and under
one warp yarn. Many fabrics are produced in the plain weave.

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( II ) Non-woven Fabrics

These type fabrics are formed when heat, moisture, and


pressure are applied to fibers, forcing them to interlock.
Sometimes chemicals are used to maintain this process. Many
interfacings, fleece, and felt are examples of this process.

( III ) Knitted Fabrics

Knitted fabrics are made from one continuous thread. Knitting


consists of rows of interlocking loops done by hand or
machine. Knit fabrics are comfortable and wrinkle-resistant,
but they snag. They give or stretch as you wear them. They
must be stretched as you sew them so they keep this " give ".

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Remember the following points about finishes when
selecting fabrics :

1. Finishes may be applied for beauty or service.


2. Finishes may be durable or non-durable.
3. Each finishes means added cost.
4. Proper care prolongs finish life.

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( IV ) Permanent Care Labeling

Permanent care labeling went into effect in 1972. A label


giving directions for care must be permanently attached in a
designated place to almost all ready-to-wear garments.

For home sewing fabrics, care instructions are printed on


coded labels that correspond to the code number on the bolt
end. Nine labels have been developed for this use. When a
salesperson gives you a label, sew it into the garment you
make so you and others will always know how to care for it. In
most stores, you have to ask for the label.

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Get more idea, visit below site
http://www.ftc.gov/
http://www.americanlawlabel.com/home.htm

PS : Fabric Buying Tips

When it comes to fabric, the beginner usually picks on the


basis of " I like it; I'll buy it ! ". The expert, like you are going
to be, relies on more knowledge. A wise fabric choice will
make your project a success, while a poor choice of fabric can
cause you headaches from start to finish. Bolt end will provide
such information as fiber content, fabric width, cost, and care
instructions.

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6C. Consumption
Fabric consumption is one of criteria of costing calculation
when placing order, and the designer consider dropping or
changing the style.

For sweater, there is no fabric consumption, as sweater is


knitting up by yarn. So, how weight of the yarn to be used is the
most concern when calculating the costing.

PS : Below are only estimates. You may need to add at least


1/4 yard for nap or unidirectional fabrics, fabrics that require
pattern matching ( such as stripe / plaids ), or large or long
pattern pieces.

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Fabric Conversion Chart
Fabric Width 35-36" 39" 41" 44-45" 50" 52- 58-
54" 60"

Number of Yards 1-3/4 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-3/8 1-1/4 1-1/8 1

Needed
2 1-3/4 1-3/4 1-5/8 1-1/2 1-3/8 1-1/4

2-1/4 2 2 1-3/4 1-5/8 1-1/2 1-3/8

2-1/2 2-1/4 2-1/4 2-1/8 1-3/4 1-3/4 1-5/8

2-7/8 2-1/2 2-1/2 2-1/4 2 1-7/8 1-3/4

3-1/8 2-3/4 2-3/4 2-1/2 2-1/4 2 1-7/8

3-3/8 3 2-7/8 2-3/4 2-3/8 2-1/4 2

3-3/4 3-1/4 3-1/8 2-7/8 2-5/8 2-3/8 2-1/4

4-1/4 3-1/2 3-3/8 3-1/8 2-3/4 2-5/8 2-3/8

4-1/2 3-3/4 3-5/8 3-3/8 3 2-3/4 2-5/8

4-3/4 4 3-7/8 3-5/8 3-1/4 2-7/8 2-3/4

5 4-1/4 4-1/8 3-7/8 3-3/8 3-1/8 2-7/8

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Fractions of Yards Fraction of a Inches
Yard
1/16 2-1/4"
1/8 4-1/2"
1/4 9"
1/3 12"
3/8 13-1/2"
1/2 18"
5/8 22-1/2"
2/3 24"
3/4 27"
7/8 31-1/2"
1 36"

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( I ) Straighten Fabric

Before you cut a garment, you should straighten the ends of


the fabric if they are not even. You can do this one of two
ways:

1. Pull a crosswise thread near the end and cut along the
pulled line.
2. Clip through selvage and tear across the width. You will
have to press out the ruffles caused by tearing.

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( II ) Off-Grain Fabric

After you straighten the fabric as illustrated, some will not


line up square at the ends of the fabric. Pull until you can line
the folded fabric even with the side and end of a table. You
are trying to pull the crooked threads straight.

Some fabrics have a finish that does not allow the fabric to
be straightened in this manner, and these fabrics will never
line up squarely at the ends and selvages. This will result in a
slightly off-grain garment.

That you should return the fabric to the mill for re-finishing
to be proper grain.

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7. Cutting
Use your good cutting shears. Do not use pinking shears,
because it is difficult to be accurate. Use long, even strokes as
you cut. Do not lift the fabric from the table while you cut; keep
it flat on the table.

Notches on the edges of a pattern show you how the pieces fit
together. Cut a little notch away from the pattern instead of
toward it. When two notches are together, cut as a double one.
Leave the pattern pinned to the fabric until you are ready to use
the pieces.

Transfer pattern symbols by using one of the marking tools


suggested in this manual.

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7A. Preshrink Fabric

The first thing you should do to the fabric you are going to
sew is put it in the washer. Take your new fabric and launder
it according to the care instructions and the way you plan to
treat your finished garment. This takes care of any shrinkage
that might occur. Of great importance to you, the home sewer,
is the fact that many fabrics will stitch better and with fewer
skipped stitches if they are laundered before sewing.

Some fabrics are not washable, and you should follow label
instructions for their care. Wool may be preshrunk by various
methods, but not in the washer. Some other dry-cleanable
fabrics need no preshrinking before using them.

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7B. Fabric Direction –
Napped / Printing

The direction of the stitching is important. To prevent stretching,


stitch in the direction shown by the arrows in the drawing.

The stitching should not show after you do further construction.


You may omit stay stitching on edges that are straight or nearly
straight.

PS : For all kinds of stretchable / knit fabric, you must spread it


overnight ( almost 8 hours at least ) prior to cutting for letting it
relaxing / recovering.

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8. Interfacing

Interfacing is a layer of fabric or construction material you


place between the garment fabric and facing for body and
shaping. Interfacing helps create better-looking, longer-lasting
garments.

Most popular one in the market is following :--

Freudenberg / Vilene

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It shapes, stabilizes, supports, gives body, reinforces, and
prevents stretching in detail areas. Interfacing also gives
definition to a detail area, cushions seams, and softens edges.
Without interfacing, clothes become limp after cleaning and
wearing.

The pattern will give you guidelines and the pattern piece to
use. Generally, detail areas -- collars, cuffs, pockets, necklines,
bands, and opening edges, such as button/buttonhole areas –
need extra shaping and support.

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8A. Choosing Interfacing

To help you select interfacing, drape it over your hand with


the outer fabric to see if it is too crisp or too soft. Interfacing
must be similar to the weight of your outer fabric, not heavier.
Fusible interfacing should be slightly lighter than outer fabric.
Interfacing must do the following :

1. have care instructions similar to your outer fabric.


2. be compatible with the sewing guide instructions.
3. suit the need of the area to be interfaced, stiffened, shaped,
or supported.

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8B. Types of Interfacing

Two major types of interfacing are based on the way they are
applied. These are fusible and sew-ins. Woven interfacing has
grain. Follow the pattern layout for cutting.

Non-woven interfacing may or may not have grain. Those


without grain ( check manufacturer's instructions ) may be laid
out in any direction.

Fusible interfacings are available in woven, non-woven, knit,


and weft or warp insertion; sew-ins is available in woven or
non-woven.

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ARMO PRESS SOFT SATIN WEAVE
Contents: 50% polyester, 50% Contents: 78% viscose, 22%
cotton polyester

SOSHEER ivory
ARMO RITE Contents: 100% polyester
Contents: 100% polyester

ARMO WEFT white and black TOUCH O' GOLD white, black
Contents: 60% polyester, 40% Contents: 100% rayon
rayon

FORM-FLEX ALL WHISPER WEFT


PURPOSE Contents: 60% polyester,
Contents: 100% cotton 40% rayon

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Knits ( fusible only ) are made of nylon tricot. They are
stable in the lengthwise direction and have considerable
crosswise stretch.

Weft or warp insertions ( fusible only ) are made by


combination knitting and woven construction. They provide
stability, stretch, and drape all in one.

Specialty interfacing is another major category of


interfacings available as tapes, fleeces, strips, and bands.

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8C. Fusing Methods - Interfacing

Fusible -- To trim ½ inch ( 1.3 cm ) from fusible interfacing


seam allowance. Place adhesive side of interfacing on wrong
side of the garment section. Fuse with a steam iron and a press
cloth, following manufacturer's direction.

Sew-in or standard -- Trim narrow, outside corners of


interfacing diagonally near the seam line to prevent bulky,
knobby corners. Pin standard interfacing to wrong side of
garment section, and stitch ½ inch ( 1.3 cm ) from edges. Trim
it close to stitching.

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8D. Placement - Interfacing

Check manufacturer's recommendations / specification sheet


for placement of a fusible interfacing. It may be applied to
facing areas rather than garment. Sew-ins is usually applied
to underneath garment side rather than to facing.

Fusible should be placed on the whole front panels for the


suit / jacket style usually for supporting.

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Jacket :--

3. Facing
4. Pocket Opening
5. Back Shoulder
6. Sleeve Vent

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Vest :--

3. Facing
4. Armhole Front and Back
5. Armhole Facing
6. Back Neck
7. Back Neck Facing

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8E. Preparing for Use - Interfacing

Nearly all interfacings, even fusible, should be preshrunk


before using. Wet thoroughly in lukewarm ( not hot ) water.
Do not wring or twist, but lay flat to dry.

PS : Be Caution !!! Test fusible on a scrap of fabric to see the


effect before you apply. Some interfacings are not suited to
certain fabrics -- the only way to be sure is to test.

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9. Needle Accommodation

When choosing a sewing machine needle, you should consider


the type and weight of fabric in your project, the type of thread
you're using, and the kind of sewing you will be doing.

Some needles have special eyes to accommodate larger


threads, others are sturdy enough to stitch heavy fabrics such
as denim, and others are best suited to delicate heirloom
sewing on fine fabrics such as batiste.

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In sewing machine needles, higher numbers identify larger
needles, so a size 110 denim needle is larger than a size 90
denim needle. Generally the larger the needle, the heavier the
fabric for which it's appropriate. Use smaller sizes with more
delicate fabrics and larger sizes with heavier fabrics.

For double needles, the first number indicates the distance


between the two needles, followed by the size of each needle.
For example, a 2.0 mm/75 double needle has two size-75
needles that are 2.0 mm apart.

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The following guide provides information on needle types,
sizes, and appropriate uses.

For more information check out the following:


Sew Easy Embellishments by Nancy Zieman,
Essential Sewing Guide by Nancy Zieman
Published by © 1998, Nancy's Notions, Ltd.

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Needle Size Description Uses
Topstitching 80, 90, 100 Extra-large eye, large Sewing heavier thread;
groove accommodates
topstitching thread
Double 1.6 mm/80 Two Universal Needles on embroidery with delicate
a crossbar, slightly and metallic threads
rounded points, and large
scarves
Stretch 2.0 mm/80 Medium ballpoint; long flat 1.6 mm/80 and 2.0 mm/80
shank lets needle work for pintucks, delicate
close to bobbin; decreases heirloom sewing
skipped stitches
Double Stretch 3.0 mm/90 Two Stretch Needles on a 3.0 mm/90 for hems,
crossbar; ballpoint pintucks
prevents skipped stitches
on knits
Self-Threading 4.0 mm/90 Slit in side of eye for 4.0 mm/90 for decorative
threading ease; weaker hems, surface
than conventional needles embellishments
Denim / Sharp 6.0 mm/100 Very sharp point to ease 6.0 mm/100 for surface
penetration of dense embellishments
fabrics
Spring Denim / Sharp 8.0 mm/100 Sharp point for penetrating 8.0 mm/100 for adding
dense fabric, attached texture to fabric
spring allows free-form
sewing

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Needle Size Description Uses
Machine Embroidery 75, 90 Slightly rounded point, Size 75 for sewing
long eye, and deep front lightweight knits such as
groove; protects delicate tricot, interlock, silk jersey,
embroidery threads; lycra, and Ultrasuede®;
avoids fraying and size 90 for sewing lycra,
breaking Ultrasuede, and synthetic
furs with knit backings
Spring Machine 2.5 mm/75 Same features as Machine Pintucking; embroidery on
Embroidery Embroidery Needle with an knits, silk jersey, lycra,
attached spring Ultrasuede®
Double Machine 4.0 mm/75 Two Machine Embroidery Simplifies needle threading
Embroidery Needles on a crossbar;
protects embroidery
threads from fraying and
breaking
Machine Quilting 90 Specially tapered point; Sewing denim, heavy
better stitch quality and corduroy, dense wool,
control canvas, heavy poplin or
twill
Spring Machine Quilting 90, 100, 110 Same features as Machine Free-motion embroidery
Quilting Needle with an
attached spring
Metafile 100 Fine shaft, sharp point, Sewing Knits and woven;
and large elongated eye; for use with decorative
specialized scarf threads
eliminates skipped stitches

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Needle Size Description Uses
Double Metafile 75, 90 Two Metafile Needles on Free-motion embroidery
a crossbar using decorative threads

Metallic 75, 90 Large eye for easy Surface embellishments


threading and to made with decorative
accommodate heavier threads
threads; large groove
prevents shredding of
threads
Universal 2.0 mm/75 Slightly rounded point, Machine quilting; sewing
long needle scarf; all- through layers of crossed
purpose needle for seams in quilting and
sewing woven, knits patchwork
Wing 3.0 mm/75 Wide, wing-shaped Free-form quilting
blades on each side
create holes in fabric that
look like entredeux trim
Leather 75, 90 Wedge shape, knife-edge Sewing with metallic and
cutting point; not suited other decorative threads
for synthetic suede or
leather because slit made
by needle eventually tears

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10. General Technique

( I ) Facings

Facings need not be frustrating. Here are some tricks that


make them simple to do and make them look nice.

Grade to reduce thickness in the garment. Trim facing


allowance to 1/8 inch and garment seam allowance to ¼ inch.
Trim corners closer so they will turn well.

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( II ) Seams

Your fabric type determines whether seam allowances will


need a finish and which method will be required; but do not
worry - it can be easy and fast to do.

For most knits and a few firmly woven fabrics that do not
ravel, a seam finish is usually not needed. Most other woven
fabrics will need a seam finish to keep edges from fraying.

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These are some of the seams and seam finishes you may use.
There are other possibilities.

Pinked You can pink seam edges when the fabric frays very little.
Be sure you cut only along the edge, leaving most of the
seam. Be careful and do not snip the wrong place !!! Do this
only after you are sure the garment fits.
Pinked and Pink and stitch close to each seam edge on fabrics that need
Stitched a little extra protection. You may need to loosen tension as
you sew on this single thickness of fabric.
Turned and For lightweight fabric, turn under 1/8 inch, and stitch close
stitched to edge.

Zigzag For any ravel fabrics, particularly heavyweight versions,


zigzag the edge. Practice on a scrap to find a good zigzag
setting that will not pucker edges.

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Straight For knits and other fabrics that may curl, such as swimwear
stitched fabrics, jerseys, or stretch terry, stitch about ¼ inch from
edge.
Double Make a second row of stitching about 1/8 inch from seam
stitched line. Trim close to stitching. This is a good, easy finish for
sheer fabric. On some fabrics, the second stitch line can be a
zigzag.
Selvage Selvages may be left on pieces that can be cut on the straight
line. Snip the selvage in a few places so it will not pucker.
This is a nice durable finish on any fabric.
Welt Press seam to one side. Trim under seam to ¼ inch. Topstitch
¼ inch from the seam-line, catching in the untrimmed seam
allowance. This is good for heavy fabrics where a flat finish
is desirable.

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French seam Place wrong sides of fabric together and stitch ¼ inch from
edge. Trim 1/8 inch. Press seam flat and fold right sides
together and crease.
Stitch 3/16 This encases raw edges and is good for undergarments and
inch from sheer fabrics.
edge
Flat fell Place seam with wrong sides together and stitch a 5/8-inch
seam. Press both seam edges in one direction. Trim under
seam close to stitching. Turn under edge of top seam
allowance. Topstitch close to edge. This durable, tailored
finish is great for shirts, some blouses, some robes, and other
garments.

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Clip or notch curves so they will be smooth, or simply cut
closer to remove excess fabric from curves. Clip outward
curves. Notch inward curves to reduce bulk.

Under stitch to keep facing from rolling out and showing.


Do this after grading, trimming, and clipping to reduce bulk.
Open out facing and turn seam allowances toward facing.
Stitch on facing, close to seam, through all thickness. Tack
facings on the inside to seams or darts.

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( III ) Darts

Darts help shape the fabric to you. Taper darts to a smooth,


pucker less point. Fold dart on centerline. Pin together on wrong
side. Stitch on marking from wide part, tapering to nothing at
the point. Tie threads at dart point. Cut thread ends ½ to 1 inch
from the knot.

Another type of dart, found in some garments without a


waistline, is wider at the center and tapers to a point at both
ends. You stitch this dart from the center toward each point.
Overlap stitching about 1 inch in the center of the dart.

The general rules for direction to press darts are as follows :


1. horizontal darts -- press fold of dart down
2. vertical darts -- press fold of dart toward center of garment.
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( IV ) Collars
Collars are focal points and should look well made. Follow your
pattern guide sheet for construction regarding stitching, trimming,
pressing, and interfacing. These additional tips may help you.

1 Keep the shape true. You may mark seam lines so you can stitch in exactly
the right place.
2 Stitch collar to prevent under collar from showing. You may trim the under
collar a scant 1/8 inch along outside edges ( not neck edge ). Pin it to upper
collar with outer edges even and stitch, easing upper collar to under collar.
This is called bubbling a collar!
3 Sharp corners. Take one or two stitches diagonally across corners to make
them easier to turn. Trim corners diagonally.
4 Smooth corners. Clip or notch curves to eliminate bulk. Grade seam
allowance. Another method is simply to trim close to stitching of curved area.
5 Hide under collar. Under stitch the seam at the outer edge. Under stitching
should be on under collar close to seam; catch the graded seam allowance.
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( V ) Zippers

Zippers need not be as threatening as they sometimes seem.


Zippers come in different weights, lengths, and colors and
may have metal or synthetic coils. Choose the color and
weight suitable for your fabric.

The most popular in the market is following :--

•YKK

•Talon

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Choose the zipper application suited to the zipper location
and type of garment.

Lapped : This is the most satisfactory method for most zipper


openings. It covers the zipper well when properly done.
This may be used at center back and is always used for a
side opening. It should be about 3/8 inch to ½ inch wide.
It is also called placket.
Centered Though this does not cover the zipper as well as the
or slot : lapped application does, it may sometimes be used for a
center back or center front opening. Never use it at a side
opening. It should be about ¼ inch wide on each side.
Trouser : Boys and girls may choose this application for front of
pants. Width of lap varies according to pattern ( also
called fly zipper ).

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Invisible : A special type of zipper is available for limited use.
Robes and other lounging garment may utilize this
zipper. Since it is used very little in ready-to-wear, it
may tend to make other garments look homemade.
You may use the directions that come with the zipper
or consult other references for its insertion. Some
pattern guide sheets also give fairly detailed
instructions.

Have trouble topstitching straight ?!


Use masking tape or other tape as a guide for a straight
topstitch line.

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( VI ) Sleeves

Sleeves can be easy, believe it or not. They just take a little


know-how.

( a ) Set-In Sleeves

A set-in sleeve should have a


smooth cap with no puckers or
tucked places. Distribute ease
so there is none for about 1
inch at tip of cap.

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Make one or two ease lines by machine on or within the
seamline. You will probably develop your own preference about
the number of ease lines and their placements after you have had
experience setting in sleeves.

Pull the ease lines slightly, and then roll seamline over fingers as
you pin the sleeve in the garment. Stitch with sleeve up and
garment next to feed dog. A second line of stitching ¼ inch
inside the first can be used to reinforce underarm between
notches, or it can be used around the entire sleeve seam. Trim
seam underarm or all around.

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( b ) Raglan Sleeve

The raglan set is modified


from set-in sleeve, which is
the styling design.

Finished the underarm


seam of sleeve and side
seam body .

Then, stitch with sleeve up and garment next to feed dog


match the notches. Trim seam of armhole / underarm or all
around.

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( VII ) Hems

Hems should be as
inconspicuous as
possible and not
detract from outside
appearances.

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( a ) Skirt Hem

Mark the hemline of skirts. Put on the garment with the shoes
you normally will wear with it. Have someone use a hem
marker or yardstick and put a row of pins where the button
fold of the hem will come. Stand still while your hem is being
marked.

Examine marked line to see if it is even. If not, measure again


and move the pins to form an even line. Fold hem back along
the marked line, and pin. Hand bastes or pin near the fold.
Press lightly on fold, not pressing on basting pins.

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Mark hem width and then trim to an even depth. The weight
of fabric and amount of flare determine the hem width.

Grade seams from hem fold and raw edge. Reduce fullness in
flared skirts. Baste stitch by machine about ¼ inch from the
edge; begin and end at each seam line. Pull bobbin thread to
ease hem and make it fit flat against skirt.

Shrink out fullness in hem. Place brown paper between hem


and outer fabric. Finish hem edge according to fabric and
type of garment. Proceed with a finish and hand stitching.

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( b ) Trouser Hem

To hem un-cuffed trousers, you may follow this procedure :

Measure desired length from inseam and/or waistband seam.


Mark with chalk or other marking tool. Draw a diagonal line
( line 1 ) across the bottom of the pants leg on both sides.
Pants may be ½ inch longer in back than front. Line 1 will be
your fold line for the new hem. Measure 2 ½ to 3 inches
down, and draw a line parallel with the first. This will be your
cutting line.

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Mark the second leg from the first one rather than measuring
twice ( unless you have one leg shorter than the other ). This
saves time and is usually more accurate.

Cut off excess fabric below line 2. Fold hem and press. If hem
seems too narrow to fit back into trouser leg, steam and stretch
the top of hem to make it fit. Add hem finish, and hand stitch.

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( c ) Hem Finishes

Turned Under and Stitched


( Clean Finished )

Use for light- to medium-


weight fabrics. Press under
¼ inch of hem edge and
then machine stitch about
1/8 inch from edge. This is
a durable, widely used
finish.

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Fuse a Hem

With new heat-sensitive fusible webs - Hem Tape ( such as


stitch witchery, can be purchased from Vilene ), pressing
replaces hand and machine stitching. These work well on a
variety of fabrics -- but not all. Test on a scrap of material to
see how it will look and feel.

1. Press hem, easing fullness, if needed.


2. Finish raw edge, if needed.
3. Place narrow strip of web just below edge.
4. Press, following package directions.

PS : There are several ways to finish a hem edge.

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( d ) Hem Tape

Heavy, ravel fabrics should not be turned under


at the edge. You may use hem tape. Place tape to
lie half on and half off hem edge. Machine stitch
close to edge of tape. Don't forget to shrink the
tape before you do this.

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( f ) Topstitched

This quick-method hem is acceptable for use on some hems.


Press hem to wrong side, easing in any fullness. From
right side, stitch near edge and again ¼ inch away. You can
use
this even on curved hems. You may use this type for wider
hems, except for those that are curved.

Use your fine needle and single thread. The part of the stitch
that catches the outside of the garment should be very small
and about ½ inch apart.

Do not pull stitches tight, or a puckered line will show. Hide


knot under hem or at a side seam as you start; fasten end of
thread with a few over-and-over stitches on hem side.
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( g ) Stay stitching

The purpose of stay stitching is to prevent stretching of fabric


in handling and construction. Stay stitching is a line of machine
stitching ( 10 to 12 stitches per inch ) ½ inch from the cut edge.

Stitch with matching thread through a single thickness of fabric.


You need not reverse stitch to fasten. You may need to loosen
your machine tension while sewing through just one thickness
so your fabric will not pucker.

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10A. Sewing Machine

You probably have been anxious to learn


to use the sewing machine. This is an
expensive piece of equipment, so you
must learn to care for the machine as you
learn to use it. There are many brands and
models of machines. Learn to control your
machine and make it work for you. Get
someone to help you learn to use your
sewing machine when you first start
sewing.

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10B. Serger / Overlocking Machine

More and more sewers are becoming owners of this fast and
exciting sewing invention. A serger, in regard to the sewing
machine, is often compared with the microwave to the oven.
It does many things, and does many things fast, but doesn't
take the place of the basic machine. A serger uses three, four,
or five threads instead of the two threads used by a regular
sewing machine. Because of the extra threads, the serger
looks more complicated, but you will be delighted how easy
it is to operate. Give it a try. In no time, you'll make
sensational serged projects.

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How Sergers Differ from Conventional
Machines

Although there are many ways to use a serger,


they cannot do everything. For example,
topstitching and buttonholes cannot be done
with a serger, and you may not wish to insert
a zipper with a serger. Other ways sergers differ
from conventional machines include the
following :

Sergers are faster. They stitch 1,300 to 1,700


stitches per minute, while a conventional
machine sews 900 to 1,000 per minute.

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Sergers have a longer presser foot and feed dogs that hold
fabrics firmly and evenly. Fabrics will not shift and pucker.

Sergers will not jam if sewing without fabric. They have two
to five spools of thread, one for each needle and / or looper.

1. Sergers do not have bobbins; instead, they have loopers.


2. Sergers have two sets of knives that trim the seam
allowance before the seam is finished.
3. Sergers use a knitting process to form stitches.

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10C. Blind Stitch Machine
Blind stitch machine for hemming

1. Mark new length by


having someone measure from
floor.
2. Mark a line to cut away excess
fabric.
8. Press new hem; grade seams
turned up in hem.
4. Finish hem edge to prevent Blind Stitch Machine
raveling.
5. Pin in place; then blind stitch.

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10D. Hand Knitting Machine
Sweater is made up by knitting machine
( either hand knit, or auto machine )
using 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, or 14 gauge.

Most of the difficult design jacquard


pattern on the sweater item can be made
by the technique of hand knitting
machine.

The simple pattern, or basic stitch like


jersey, full needle can be produced by
auto machine.

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Different type of hand knitting machine in the market

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10E. Embroidery Machine

Embroidery is one of the


decoration on a garment that it
made the clothes special, which
is the one of the fashion design.

Usually, embroidery will be done


On the block cut piece, and it will be trimmed again based on
the paper pattern, in order to make sure the embroidery
placement is placed properly on the garment that what the
buyer expected.

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10F. Clothing Repairs

Repairing clothes pays off in better appearance and savings


for the factory. Now, as always, the stitch-in-time means
fewer clothing replacements and more money for other
needs.

The sewing machine and some mending aids save time and
energy, but handwork is also an important part of repairing
clothes.

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Repair a Loose Hem

What looks more neglected than a sagging hem ?! You can


repair a hem easily.

1. First, remove only broken or loose stitches; secure


thread ends.
2. Pin hem back in place.
3. Use matching thread.
4. Re-stitch the open sections, beginning and ending at a
seam, if possible. ( Stitch from hem side, not the
garment side. )
5. Remove pins and press.

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Remove a Hem Crease

When you let out a hem, check to see that the original hem
fold has not left a line or crease. If it has, try one of the
following:

1. Sponge crease with a solution of equal parts of white


vinegar and water; press. You may test this on a small area.
2. Press with aluminum foil " Sandwich ". Place on your
ironing board in this order: aluminum foil, hem, aluminum
foil; press with a hot, dry iron.
3. Use a spot remover on the crease; conceal it with a line of
topstitching, decorative stitching, or trim.

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Fuse a Hem

With new heat-sensitive fusible webs ( such as stitch


witchery, can be purchased from Vilene ), pressing
replaces hand and machine stitching. These work well on a
variety of fabrics -- but not all. Test on a scrap of material
to see how it will look and feel.

1. Press hem, easing fullness, if needed.


2. Finish raw edge, if needed.
3. Place narrow strip of web just below edge.
4. Press, following package directions.

PS : There are several ways to finish a hem edge.

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10G. Buttons / Snap

( I ) Button :

There are many colors, sizes,


shapes, and weights of buttons,
and they are made of different
materials. Some people like to
collect unusual buttons. Keep a
container of extra buttons you
can use to replace ones that are
lost from your clothes.

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( a ) Types of Buttons

Ball
Shank
Two-Hole
Four-Hole
Covered

These types of buttons can be


chosen for items for which you
make machine buttonholes,
except one. Use the ball button
only with button loops, since it
would not stay fastened well
with a regular buttonhole.

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( b ) Button Location

1. Pin the garment so it


looks as if it is buttoned.
2. Place a straight pin through
the outer edge of a horizontal
buttonhole or though the
center of a vertical
buttonhole.
3. Unpin the garment, leaving
the standing pin in the
underneath fabric.

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( II ) Snap :

There are many colors, sizes, shapes, and weights of snap,


and they are made of different materials. Some people like
to collect unusual snaps to make the clothes special.

The most popular in the market is following :--


Universal / YKK

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10H. Clothing Repairs

Repairing clothes pays off in better appearance and savings


for the factory. Now, as always, the stitch-in-time means
fewer clothing replacements and more money for other
needs. The sewing machine and some mending aids save
time and energy, but handwork is also an important part of
repairing clothes.

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( I ) Repair a Loose Hem

What looks more neglected than a sagging hem ?! You can


repair a hem easily.

1. First, remove only broken or loose stitches; secure


thread ends.
2. Pin hem back in place.
3. Use matching thread.
4. Re-stitch the open sections, beginning and ending at a
seam, if possible. ( Stitch from hem side, not the
garment side. )
5. Remove pins and press.

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( II ) Remove a Hem Crease

When you let out a hem, check to see that the original hem
fold has not left a line or crease. If it has, try one of the
following:

1. Sponge crease with a solution of equal parts of white


vinegar and water; press. You may test this on a small area.
2. Press with aluminum foil " sandwich ". Place on your
ironing board in this order: aluminum foil, hem, aluminum
foil; press with a hot, dry iron.
3. Use a spot remover on the crease; conceal it with a line of
topstitching, decorative stitching, or trim.

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10J. Pressing Pointers
Pressing Is Important

Pressing well is as important as stitching


well. An article not pressed well will
surely look " Homemade ". Good pressing
equipment is as important as good sewing
machine and shears and pins. You may
start with a few basic pieces. There are
some pieces you can make yourself. The
pieces you need depend on the kind and
amount of sewing you do.

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Ironing board -- This needs a smooth, clean
cover.
The board should be lightly padded. A piece of
plywood with a light pad and clean muslin cover
can be a good substitute.

Iron -- irons that can be used dry or with steam are preferable.
Clean the sole plate or bottom of the iron as often as needed.

Press cloth -- Many fabrics need this protection from the iron so
they will not burn or become shiny. A piece of clean muslin or
old sheet may be used as well as a clean diaper or cotton
handkerchief. Launder these frequently.

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Dowel rod -- Use this to press open seams of tie belts or
other tubes of fabric before you turn them.

Water container -- You may want to keep a clean plastic


detergent bottle by your ironing board. Use it to fill the iron
and to dampen your press cloth for some fabrics. Use
distilled water if the water is not soft.

Pressing ham -- Press darts and other curved sections of


your garment on this.

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Seam roll -- Prevents marks on the outside of garments when
seams are pressed open. It is useful for pressing sleeves.

Needle board -- Allows napped fabrics, such as corduroy or


velveteen, to be pressed without matting them. A substitute
can be a fluffy towel pinned tightly over your ironing board.
A stiff brush can raise the nap sometimes when it has been
flattened.

Press mitt -- This fits over the end of the ironing board. It
allows you to press some hard-to-reach areas.

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Paper strips -- Slide strips of heavy paper underneath seam
edges, hems, or darts as you press some fabrics. This
prevents shiny seams or press marks. You can cut these strips
from a paper grocery bag.

Clapper / beater / pounding / block -- You may flatten seams,


hems, or edges by getting the area steamy and hitting with
this. Forcing the steam out quickly flattens the fabrics when
needed. A brick wrapped in flannel can be a substitute.

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Point presser -- Use to press sharp, pointed collars and other
areas. This has a clapper as part of it.

Start your sewing with pressing. The pattern and fabric may
need to be pressed before you cut out a garment, because both
should stay flat. The amount of heat and moisture and need
for press clothe depends on the fabric.

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10K. Folding Clothes
A. Folding Dress Pants –

By holding the bottom of each


pants leg put the seams together,
making sure the inside seams are
touching. Hold the bottom of the
legs and put under your
chin. Bring the waist of
the pants up and fold in
half, or hold on to each
end and bring hands
together.

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B. Folding Pants –
Casual Bottom / Jean

Front is facing to up, and


fold the side seam to side
seam, to be back facing
up.

Hem to be folding
upwards with 1/3 total
length, and fold upward
to waistband.

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C. Folding Shirts

First button every other button and the cuffs, if applicable. To


find the top of the shirt, put your hand inside the top of each
sleeve. Shake out the shirt holding onto the top of it. Lay shirt
face down on a table with the collar to the left. Pull the sleeves
out to the sides un-creasing the body as much as possible.

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Bring the body of the shirt close to the edge of the table.
Put the index finger side of the left hand side next to the
collar ( right side of shirt ), fingers pointing to the shirt tail,
and fold over right side of shirt.

Fold the right sleeve lining it up lengthwise with the shirt.


Repeat for left side of shirt. Bring the tail end of the shirt
up to the collar to fold in half lengthwise, or fold in thirds
by bringing the tail end up one third, and then fold again in
a half.

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D. Hanging Clothes ( Shirts and Dresses )

Put the hand inside each sleeve or


armhole and slide the hanger
in. Button any top button to
prevent the garment from sliding
off. Line up either the tag on the
shirt with the hanger hook or
the shoulder seams with the
hanger arms.

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E. Hanging Pants

Crease the pants the same way


as when folding pants. Lay the
pants flat on a table with the
pant legs out in front of you.
Slide the hanger under the pant
legs, almost to the crotch, and
raise up off of the table.

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10L. Stain Removal
Stains or spots on clothing
must be found or identified
by a sighted person. The
stain should be marked
with a safety pin, or if the
spot is large surround the
spot with safety pins. Use
a pre-wash or stain
treatment and let it soak
for a few minutes.

Cold Spotting Table

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11. Lab-Testing

Lab-Testing

The word quality is often used to signify the degree of


excellence of a product or service. There are many
definitions of quality, expressed in many ways by various
institutions and authors. However, the universally accepted
analogy for quality is that it is simply meeting customer
requirements. So, testing is a part of Quality, and some
typical definitions of quality are listed below :

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• The totality of features and characteristics of a
product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy
stated or implied needs, and if any of them will
against Federal Regulation / Law.
• The total composite product and service
characteristics of marketing, engineering,
manufacture and maintenance through which the
product and service in use will meet the
expectation by the customer set.
• Fitness for purpose or use.
• Conformance to requirements.
requirements

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( I ) Performance Test ( incl. colorfastness ) :--

For fabrics to conform to standards testing is required and


includes routine monitoring of production quality. A sample
is taken from each batch that is produced for a customer, and
is monitored through carrying out the key tests that are
required for that fabric. This ensures that a fabric quality is
consistent through production.

Product evaluation especially with new products requires


that the test results are used to assess the properties of a
fabric to determine its strengths and weaknesses within its
composition as required for its stated end use.

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( II ) Regulatory / Physical Test :--

Investigation of results and complaints requires testing to


ensure that any problems are investigated to avoid to be
against Federal Regulation / Law. This can be through
checking results or re-testing to ensure that testing had
been carried out correctly, or to determine what the
problem is so that the appropriate action can be taken.

The properties of textile materials are inherently variable.


For that reason it is inevitable that there will be slight
variation in the results gained by different operators
using the same measuring equipment.

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The variables of a laboratory include methods of
sampling, moisture relationships, calibrating equipment,
the use of statistics, and more importantly the validity
and reproducibility of test results.

For this reason a group of tests are carried out on


individual fabrics and the results are recorded and
analyzed. Testing ensures that there is not too much
variation from batch to batch with the help of test
methods and standards.

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11A. Laboratory ( ITS / MTL )
ITS – Intertek Testing Services

ITS is the one assigned by


Kohl’s doing lab-test for all
soft-lines ( apparel ) and
softhome ( home textile )
including fabric test, trims test,
garment test and KWIQ test.

PS : Please refer what kind of


items to be compulsory for
garment test, other than that,
fabric test is mandatory.

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MTL –
Merchandise Testing
Laboratory

MTL is the one of the


laboratory assigned by
Kohl’s doing lab-test for
Hardline.

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Garment Test Items for Fall ‘2003

Items Test
Childrenwear ( 0-8 years ) -- ( Fabric + Garment )
Lightweight garments of fabric less than 2.6 ( Fabric + Garment )
oz/sq. yd. --
Color blocked garments -- ( Fabric + Garment )
Garment of high loft / brushed fabrics -- ( Fabric + Garment )
Sweaters -- ( Garment only )
Wrinkle free/ resinated/ washed or wet ( Garment only )
processed garments --
Down filled garments -- ( Fabric + Garment )
Leather & Suede garments -- ( Garment only )
Cold weather -- ( Garment only )

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11B. Chemical Compound
 Flammability – Class 1, California Bulletin 116 / 117
 Lead Content
 Cadmium Content
 Nickel Content
 Formaldehyde
 TCMTB
2-(Thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole

PS : Getting more information, please visit below web sites :--


http://www.cpsc.gov/
http://www.prop65news.com/
http://www.calprop65.com/
http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65.html/
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Lead Content :--

It should be contained inside the Paint, and Coating Surface.


This kind of chemical compound is not allowed any State of
America.

Cadmium Content :--

It should be contained inside the Pigment ( dye stuff ), Plastic


and Synthetics. This kind of chemical compound can cause
cancer, and it have been listed in State of California, and
limited to be used.

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Nickel Content :--

It should be contained inside Metal Alloys, Cast Irons,


Electroplating Materials. This kind of chemical compound is
also listed in State of California to be used limitedly.

Formaldehyde :--

It should contained inside Resin Treatment ( for shrinkage /


finishing ), Coating Surface and Glue. This kind of chemical
compound can also cause cancer, listed in State of California.

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TCMTB :-- 2-(Thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole

TCMTB is the ONLY one of the fungicide treatment allowed


for leather / suede product in the state of California, which can
prevent the mold to be grown during shipping from Far East to
States. Due to different temperature / moisture in between.

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11C. Child Safety

• Small Part Security – Choking hazard


• Drawstring – Choking hazard, avoid to be on neck, head,
and bottom of waist.
• Bungee cord – Choking hazard, must tack down at middle
of center
• Sharp Edge / Sharp Point – Skin harm
• Flammability – Sleepwear ( Snug fit ) catches fire easily,
measurements adhered.

PS : Get more information from below web site :--


http://www.cpsc.gov/
http://www.safekids.org/

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11D. Non-YKK Zipper Approval
Kohl’s allowed to use
Non-YKK zipper for
production, but subject
to meet all requirements
as Kohl’s set ( see
beside table ).

PS :
YKK zipper is the
ONLY one zipper that
using for production no
need for testing.

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11E. Grouping Test – Cool Weather
Kohl’s offers a big favor allowing for grouping test when doing
cool weather accessories.
• Regulatory / Performance Test – Whenever is applicable for
the 1st group.
• Performance Test – Will be on biggest item - Scarf.
PS : Other group(s) with same styling / construction and
fabrication will be doing colorfastness testing only.

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12. Quality Assurance

Quality :--

Quality has always been important to the end item users,


whether an individual or a company, but only since recent
couple ten years quality is increasingly being recognized as an
important business strategy. Importance of quality is very well
recognized in the capital goods industries, however, in the
apparel industry where fashion dictates the market place and
where there are multitude of variables in terms of raw
materials, manufacturing processes, universally recognized.

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But then again, there are a few success stories built on
quality in this industry such as Liz Claiborne, Jone New
York, Levi’s, Jockey and even Kohl’s to just name a few.
Also, producing better / higher quality apparel is one of the
chief strategies that the apparel industries in the developed
countries are using to fight-off increasing waves of imports
from developing countries.

Quality commitment is a matter of survival in a highly


competitive world, and rapid pace era. Both productivity and
customer satisfaction demand it.

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Quality can be defined as a combination of various
characteristics or properties of a product, which make that
product usable, and attention to quality is increasingly
viewed as a means to increase productivity through more
effective use of people, materials and methods.

Quality also can be defined in terms of a products’


conformance to the design, specifications, standards, etc.
Also, quality is a reflection of customer opinion on the
value, he / she sees in your product compared to that of your
competitors.

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Quality is a customer / end consumer determination. In the
phrase Quality Assurance , the word of Quality means The
Best for Certain Requirement. These requirements are the
actual use and Selling price of the product.

Below table shows the nine dimensions of quality with their


Meanings :

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Performance Primary product characteristics, such as the brightness of
the picture
Features Secondary characteristics, added features, such as
remote control
Conformance Meeting specification or industry standards, workmanship
Reliability Consistency of performance over time, average time for
the unit to fail
Durability Useful life, includes repair
Service Resolution of problem and complaints. Ease of repair
Response Human-to-human interface, such as the courtesy of the
dealer
Aesthetics Sensory characteristics, such as exterior finish
Reputation Past performance and other intangibles, such as being
ranked first

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12A. Mini QA Center
 Help the factory to help  Prevent Quality issue at
themselves - Factory QA the last minute.
Training.
 Set up Mini QA Center
inside the factory to
 Safe-guard standard and
conduct quality on-time delivery.
monitoring on behalf of
Colby & Kohl’s.  Reduce Colby QC/QA
 Create the sense of travelling time and
Quality concept between expenses.
Factory Management &
workers.

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Mini QA Center Organization Chart

F a c t o r y Q A C h ie f

F a b r ic & D y e L o t S e w in g
I n s p e c t io n Q A

A c c e s s o ry I n - lin e R o v in g
I n s p e c t io n Q A

W a s h in g F in a l S t a t io n
T e s t in g Q A Q A

P r e s s in g A Q L
P a c k in g Q A F in a l A u d it

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Mini QA Center Procedures
Quality Assurance Procedure

Production Flow QA function

Raw Material Fabric Inspection (4 Point System)


Accessory Inspection

Cutting Spreading & Cutting

Washing QA Measurement & Outlook Appearance

In-line QA
Sewing Line Final QA
AQL QA

Pressing & Packing Pressing & Packing QA

Fty Final Audit Check Packed Qty


Final Inspection

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Countries that started with Mini QA Center

Central America Middle & East Asia


• Guatemala • Indonesia
• Honduras • Thailand
• Nicaragua • Sri Lanka
• El Salvador • Philippines
China • Pakistan
• Shanghai
• Guangzhou

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12B. KWIQ Test
Kohl’s Wash Test to Insure Quality

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KWIQ Test Report

Colby QA, or ITS will


be rating the KWIQ test
sample by issuing the
KWIQ test report.

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For a clothing product to be useful / competitive, it must be :--

3. Free from defects such as stains, weaving or knitting defects, open


seams, loose / hanging / untrimmed threads, misaligned buttons
and buttonholes, defective zippers etc.
4. Perform satisfactorily in normal use, meaning that the product
must be able to withstand normal refurbishing without color loss
or shrinkage, seams must not come apart etc.
5. Fitted properly for labeled size subject to the specification
requirement.
6. Meet the requirement which is set from the Regulation / Law.

Not only that the clothing should be able to satisfy psychological


needs in terms of aesthetics, overall appearance, and fashion.

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Below shows what is a quality garment :

C. Physical Needs

1. Right fit and size


2. Comfort and function
3. Durability
4. Good color quality
a. Color fastness
b. Color co-ordination
c. Shade consistence

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B. Psychological Needs

1. Aesthetics
a. Appearance & look
b. Balance and color etc.
2. Fashion trends
3. Market need and consumer’s behavior
4. Self esteem / confidence
5. Conformity

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C. Customers’ satisfaction guarantee

1. Product value
2. Customer’s services
3. Exchange / return policy

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D. Regulation / Law Requirement

1. Consumer’s right
2. Consumer’s health
3. Product Safety

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Thank You

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