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Computer networking concepts- Basics 30231 Lecture (Created by Sukh Sandhu) Types of networking LAN - Local Area Network WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network WAN - Wide Area Network MAN - Metropolitan Area Network SAN - Storage Area Network, It can also refer with names like System Area Network, Server Area Network, or sometimes Small Area Network CAN - Campus Area Network, Controller Area Network, and often Cluster Area Network PAN - Personal Area Network DAN - Desk Area Network LAN - Local Area Network LAN connects networking devices with in short spam of area, i.e. small offices, home, internet cafes etc. LAN uses TCP/IP network protocol for communication between computers. It is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet. Since LAN is operated in short area so it can be control and administrate by single person or organization. WAN - Wide Area Network As word Wide implies, WAN, wide area network cover large distance for communication between computers. The Internet itself is the biggest example of Wide area network, WAN, which is covering the entire earth. WAN is distributed collection of geographically LANs. A network connecting device router connects LANs to WANs. WAN used network protocols like ATM, X.25, and Frame Relay for long distance connectivity. LAN Wireless - Local Area Network A LAN, local area network based on wireless network technology mostly referred as Wi-Fi. Unlike LAN, in WLAN no wires are used, but radio signals are the medium for communication. Wireless network cards are required to be installed in the systems for accessing any wireless network around. Mostly wireless cards connect to wireless routers for communication among computers or accessing WAN, internet. MAN - Metropolitan Area Network This kind of network is not mostly used but it has its own importance for some government bodies and organizations on larger scale. MAN, metropolitan area network falls in middle of LAN and WAN, It covers large span of physical area than LAN but smaller than WAN, such as a city. CAN - Campus Area Network Networking spanning with multiple LANs but smaller than a Metropolitan area network, MAN. This kind of network mostly used in relatively large universities or local business offices and buildings.

SAN - Storage Area Network SAM technology is used for data storage and it has no use for most of the organization but data oriented organizations. Storage area network connects servers to data storage devices by using Fiber channel technology. SAN - System Area Network SAN, system area networks are also known as cluster area network and it connects high performance computers with high speed connections in cluster configuration. PAN Personal area network (PAN) is a computer network designed for communication between computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants close to one person). The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet. Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA and Bluetooth Wireless Fidelity popularly known as Wi-Fi, developed on IEEE 802.11 standards, is widely used technology advancement in wireless communication. As the name indicates, WI-FI provides wireless access to applications and data across a radio network. WI-FI sets up numerous ways to build up a connection between the transmitter and the receiver such as DSSS, FHSS, IR Infrared and OFDM. Wi-Fi provides its users with the liberty of connecting to the Internet from any place such as their home, office or a public place without the hassles of plugging in the wires. Wi-Fi is quicker than the conventional modem for accessing information over a large network. With the help of different amplifiers, the users can easily change their location without disruption in their network access. Wi-Fi devices are compliant with each other to grant efficient access of information to the user. Wi-Fi location where the users can connect to the wireless network is called a Wi-Fi hotspot. Through the Wi-Fi hotspot, the users can even enhance their home business as accessing information through Wi-Fi is simple. Accessing a wireless network through a hotspot in some cases is cost-free while in some it may carry additional charges. Many standard Wi-Fi devices such as PCI, miniPCI, USB, Card bus and PC card, Express Card make the Wi-Fi experience convenient and pleasurable for the users. Distance from a wireless network can lessen the signal strength to quite an extent; some devices such as Ermanno Pietrosemoli and EsLaRed of Venezuela Distance are used for amplifying the signal strength of the network. These devices create an embedded system that corresponds with any other node on the Internet.

Limitation of Wifi Interference from other devices Wi-Fi transmits data at 2.4 GHz making susceptible to interfere Bluetooth enabled devices, mobile phones, cordless, Microwaves and other communication devices, closer the interfering devices are the poor communication will be and vice versa. Lacking high-quality media streaming Todays fastest Wi-Fi standards are pushed beyond their limit when trying to view high end media. High definition video and audios cannot be viewed flawlessly because of lower transfer rate; things can be much more worst if other clients are accessing the same access points. Even the fastest current Wi-Fi standards are pushed beyond their limit when trying to handle some of today's high-end media. High-definition audio and video files are timely-delivery-intensive, and typical wireless networks have neither the transfer speeds nor the consistency to transfer them flawlessly. This problem is further compounded if there are multiple devices connected to the same because the bandwidth must be divided between all of the equipment. WIFI technology supports two types, one is called infrastructure other one is Ad hoc In ad hoc Wi-Fi network can be connected without central device known as router or access point Ad hoc mode is always preferred over infrastructure mode, however ad hoc networks have following issues Wi-Fi devices configure on Ad hoc mode offers nominal security against network intruders. Ad hock Wife configured devices cannot disable SSID broadcast in contrast to infrastructure mode. Network attackers will not required much of effort to prevail in Ad hoc Network What is Wifi Repeater? Wireless networks are very famous among the people and different type of technologies or devices are used to enhance the working performance of the wireless devices. Wife that is generally called as the wireless LAN are very useful device of wireless technology but in some area its signals are limited and they do not work properly. So to enhance the range and the transmission of the signals of the wife a special type of device is used that is refer to as the wife repeater. It is an electronic device that is used to amplify the signals and can transmit it in the distant areas. That is used in the wife repeater to amplify the signals. The router theta is used in the setup of the wifi repeater should produce the healthy signals because it is the basic need of wifi repeater. Commonly the steps that are used to setup the repeater are given below 1. Wireless router should have power to broadcast the strong signal that has ability to amplify or rebroadcast again with help of wifi repeater. If it is not in the good condition then change it first. 2. Plug the power cable first in the wireless router then I the wall outlet of the electric power. Then plug one end of Ethernet cable in the back of the wifi repeater and other end with the wireless router. 3. After these connection turn on the wifi repeater and install its required software with the help of computer from given disk. After installing disconnects repeater from the both cables.

4. Then place the repeater between your wireless router and computer out from the range it will amplify the signals. Test the repeater on different wireless networks at halfway access point. 5. How does Wifi Repeater Works? Wifi repeater is a device that is operate electronically and it function is only to amplify the signals of the wireless or the wifi devices in those areas where the signaling power of the wifi devices are quite weak. First of all wireless or the wifi repeater collects all the signals with the help of antenna from the local area network or the source of signals, commonly different types of radio devices are used for such purpose. After the collection of all the signals of the wifi media then expand them to the users that are connected with the wifi repeater device, but only local users can take benefit with the device in the particular area. Generally it increases the power of the radio waves and match them with higher level and are use to increase the infrastructure of the particular device. Instead of wifi repeater, repeaters are also applicable on the other devices such as radio etc.

Problems with Wifi Repeater: Every advance technology has some problems with their working and performance. Like others wifi repeaters also have some problems and if users neglect them they are unable to expand or amplify the signals of the wifi device. Some of the common problems of the wifi repeaters are as follows 1. Sometimes different types models of the systems are connected with it that has new or different infrastructure and the repeater does not support them. So in such conditions wifi repeater can not repeat or amplify the radio waves. 2. another common problem with the wifi repeater is that some times the signaling or the radio waves from the first source are very weak and the repeaters are fail to expand them or amplify them. So the signals from the source should be reliable for perfect expenditure. An IP address is a logical address for a network adapter. The IP address uniquely identifies computers on An IP address can be private - for use on a local area network (LAN) - or public - for use on the Internet o addresses can be determined statically (assigned to a computer by a system administrator) or dynamica network on demand). Two IP addressing standards are in use today. The IPv4 standard is most familar to people and supporte newer IPv6 standard is planned to replace it and starting to be deployed. IPv4 addresses consist of four bytes (32 bits). Each byte of an IP address is known as an octet. Octets can Various conventions exist for the numbering and use of IP addresses. Ethernet is a physical and data link layer technology for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was invented by engineer Robert Metcalfe. When first widely deployed in the 1980s, Ethernet supported a maximum theoretical data rate of 10 megabits per second (Mbps). Later, so-called "Fast Ethernet" standards increased this maximum data rate to 100 Mbps. Today, Gigabit Ethernet technology further extends peak performance up to 1000 Mbps.

Higher level network protocols like Internet Protocol (IP) use Ethernet as their transmission medium. Data travels over Ethernet inside protocol units called frames. The run length of individual Ethernet cables is limited to roughly 100 meters, but Ethernet networks can be easily extended to link entire schools or office buildings using network bridge devices. Common IP (IPv4) Addresses

10.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 192.168.0.1 192.168.1.1 192.168.2.1

Also Known As: IP number A network adapter interfaces a computer to a network. The term "adapter" was popularized originally by Ethernet add-in cards for PCs. Modern network adapter hardware exists in several forms. Besides traditional PCI Ethernet cards, some network adapters are PCMCIA devices (also know as "credit card" or "PC Card" adapters) or USB devices. Some wireless network adapter gear for laptop computers are integrated circuit chips pre-installed inside the computer. Windows and other operating systems support both wired and wireless network adapters through a piece of software called a "device driver." Network drivers allow application software to communicate with the adapter hardware. Network device drivers are often installed automatically when adapter hardware is first powered on. A few network adapters are purely software packages that simulate the functions of a network card. These so-called virtual adapters are especially common in virtual private networking (VPN).

What is TCP/IP? IP (Internet Protocol) is the primary network protocol used on the Internet, developed in the 1970s. On t Internet and many other networks, IP is often used together with the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) a referred to interchangeably as TCP/IP. IP supports unique addressing for computers on a network. Most networks use the Internet Protocol ver (IPv4) standard that features IP addresses four bytes (32 bits) in length. The newer Internet Protocol ver (IPv6) standard features addresses 16 bytes (128 bits) in length. Data on an Internet Protocol network is organized into packets. Each IP packet includes both a header (t specifies source, destination, and other information about the data) and the message data itself.

IP functions at layer 3 of the OSI model. It can therefore run on top of different data link interfaces inclu Ethernet and Wi-Fi. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are two distinct network protocols, technically speaking. TCP and IP are so commonly used together, however, that TCP/IP has become standard terminology to refer to either or both of the protocols. IP corresponds to the Network layer (Layer 3) in the OSI model, whereas TCP corresponds to the Transport layer (Layer 4) in OSI. In other words, the term TCP/IP refers to network communications where the TCP transport is used to deliver data across IP networks. The average person on the Internet works in a predominately TCP/IP environment. Web browsers, for example, use TCP/IP to communicate with Web servers. The protocol that allows the sharing of resource among cooperate computers across a network is known as TCP/IP. The protocol was developed by a bunch of researchers settled around the ARPAnet. It is beyond doubts that the ARPAnet is until now the best TCP/IP network. Interestingly, more than 130 vendors has equipments to support TCP/IP till June, 1987 and the protocol was utilized by thousands of networks. Internet Protocol Suite is the most accurate name for those protocols which are discussed here. TCP/IP are two protocols that belong to this suite. They are the most frequently used protocols and now it is became a ritual to combine the two name, the TCP and the IP, in order to refer to the family. Internet is a term that refers to the entire collection of networks. It has regional networks like NYsernet, Arpanet, local networks at research centers and educational institutions and indeed military networks. On behalf of Department of Defense, DDN (Defense Data Network), manages the subnets of them. All networks are inter-connected. If there are no policy or security restrictions on accessing a network hen the data can be shared between the users of all networks. The standards that an internet community adapts for its personal use are internet protocol documents. The family of protocols is TCP/IP. Few of them provide functions of low level that are required in many applications, including UDP, IP and TCP. Other protocols are dedicated to perform a restricted tasks such as sending emails, finding who is logged in on another system or transferring files between the computers. Only minicomputers or mainframes were the initial users of TCP/IP. The machines were self-governed and have their own disks. Here are some of the most conventional services performed by the TCP/IP. 1. File Transfer: The FTP (file transfer protocol) is a protocol that allows the user of one computer to send files to another computer. To ensure the security of the FTP data, a user name and a password is prescribed. It is a utility that can be used to access a file that is placed on another system any time. The protocol can be run to copy files to ones computer so the person can work on personal copy. 2. Remote Login: The TELNET (network terminal protocol) empowers a user to log in from any other computer system that is available on a network. It is started by a remote session in which a computer is specified to connect with. Anything the user type on one computer is sent to another until the session is finished. The talent program is developed to make the running computer invisible. Whatever is typed is sent to other system without any delay. It mostly functions like a dial up connection. The remote system will be authorized by the use

of a user name and a password that can be assigned by the creator of the dial up. The talent program will exit when the user log off the other computer. 3. Computer Mail: It enables users to send messages to other computers. Those who are interested in using not more than two computers will establish mail file on the machines. It is a system by the virtue of which one can add message to the mail file of another user. In the environment of microcomputers, it offers some problems as the micro is not suitable for receiving the computer mail. On sending such mail, the mail software is programmed to open a connection to the computer whose address is described, which is turned off or not running the mail system. The computer mail is not supported by the micro-computers, but these services are present in all implementations of TCP/IP. It is interesting to see that these traditional applications are still playing significant role in networks based on TCP/IP. It is observed that the passage of time has changed the way of using networks. The large, self-sufficient computer systems are les popular now. They are now replaced. A number of computers like mainframes, minicomputers, workstations and microcomputers are a part of todays installations. Such computers are configured for performing exclusive tasks. A number of people are still interested in remaining confined to just one computer system. For specialized services, the system will call on the net. The server/client model of networking services was thus initiated. A server is the one that is responsible for providing certain services to all systems on a certain network where client is a computer system that asks for the service and makes use of it. The functions of a server and of client can be performed by the same computer. There is no need to have two operating systems. Here are the kinds of servers typically present in a modern computer setup. Note that these computer services can all be provided within the framework of TCP/IP. Types and functions of servers are already provided. These protocols are an affective part of the internet suite. The definitions of protocols are not defined as their support is widely available on their commercial installation. However, these protocols are the most effective part of the internet suite. We have listed only a number of simple services provided by the TCP/IP. In case you want to know about extensive functions performed by the TCP/IP, do inform us in the comment section. We hope that the post has helped you in building up an idea on what is TCP/IP and what are its functions. The history of servers moves parallel to the history of computer networks. The computer networks allow multi systems to communicate with each other at the same time and its evolution was expected to assign some computers with some serving role where all other computers that are in direct interaction with the human users, perform as clients. Servers have grown along with the development and growth of networks. To do the job of serving, servers and associated software are manufactured The origin of server is to serve - technically means that the specific computer is serving all those computers that are present in its network. It facilitates them by making queue of the printing command of several computers at a time and also acts like a file server for those applications that are accessed by the online terminals. Today the role of server is similar to that of microcomputers of the past which are now substituted. For this role many servers are appointed but this allocation does not limit the role of a

server as many other roles can be assigned to the server simultaneously. For instance we can take the example of a small office where a desktop computer can serve all other computers present within the office while simultaneously serving as a workstation for some employee. Typically servers are of four types: FTP servers, proxy servers, online game servers and web servers. Server networking model or client is used by many systems together with email services and web sites. Peer to peer networking, a substitute model, makes all computers to work like servers and clients simultaneously. You can better understand a server by these examples. Name servers gives information about internet host names, FTP servers keep hold on FTP sites and provide files to does users who request for it, mail servers are responsible for delivering e-mails, web servers are bound to send web pages where list servers are programmed to administrate mailing lists. Servers are physically like other computers where their hardware configuration is specifically optimized to make them most appropriate for their role. In many servers the hardware installed is alike the hardware of any other normal computer but the software run in the server is far more different form the software that are installed in other computers. Additional processing, storage capacity and memory are commonly configured in the network servers to improve its capacity to handle clients other computers on the network The underlying hardware or software for a system that drives the server is called a server platform. Instead of operating system, the term server platform is used. Application Servers Application servers have lions share in computer territory between database servers and the end user, where servers are often connected to the two. They are often referred as middleware Middleware is that software which establishes a connection between two separate applications that are otherwise apart. A number of middleware products can link a database system to a Web server. It enables users to request data from database by the help of those forms that are displayed on Web browser and based on the users profile and request, allowing the Web server to return dynamic Web pages. List Servers To improve the management of mailing lists list servers are used despite of what is there type. Whether they are interactive debates open to the public or one-way lists that deliver newsletters, announcements or advertising. Chat Servers This server enables a number of people to share information in the environment of an internet newsgroup that offer real time discussion capabilities. It is used to refer to a number of different features of computer. To immediately respond to the input real-time operating systems are used. IRC Servers Internet Relay Chat is comprised of various independent networks of servers that allow users to connect to each other via an IRC network. It is an option for those who are seeking real time competence. Fax Servers Those organizations that want to reduce the incoming and outgoing telephone resources; a fax server is an ideal solution. However, there is a need to fax the actual document.

Groupware Servers It is software that is designed to make the users able to work together, regardless of their location, through Internet or a corporate Intranet and to work together in a virtual environment. Mail Servers Mail server is as important as web server s and mail servers to send and store mails on the corporate networks through LANs and WANs and across the internet. Telnet Servers By the help of it users log on to a host computer and perform work as if they are working on isolated computer. News Servers They work as source of distribution and delivery for hundreds of available public news groups accessible over the USENET news network. USENET is global bulletin board system that can be approached via internet or via a variety of online services Proxy Servers These servers work in-between a client programme (commonly a Web browser) and an external server (another server on web) to filter requests, improve performance, and share connections. The role played by the server in a network is very significant. An out of order server can halt the interconnectivity of all computers on its network. The rise in the usage of internet in homes and office users along with the increase in corporate computer networks are responsible for boosting the development of server. Servers are used in todays computers and we do not know what will be there developed form and of course what will be the choice of the upcoming generation. Let us wait and see how will be these serving computers molded in near future

OSI LAYER MODEL Transferring of data between different communication devices is divided into logical layers called OSI layers, these layers are seven in number. OSI model stands for Open Systems Interconnection, it was designed by Xerox Corporation and Intel in 1984 and later ISO (International Standard Organization) standardized it. OSI is logical framework for standards for computer networks and data communication. OSI model is used as set standards for computer networking world wide. Major networking protocols are specifically designed keeping OSI model in view. These layers are as follow Physical layer Data Link layer Network layer Transport layer Session layer Presentation layer Application layer These layers helps dividing different tasks of communication and transferring data with in the network into subtasks, thats how one completes cycle of communications between network(s) is completed. Each layer completes its tasks independently. These layers are also divided into upper and lower layers. Physical Layer: Layer 1 As name is suggests, Physical layer handles all sorts of physical aspects including, networking cables, networking cards/adaptors and other physical devices require for networking. It defines bit steam on physical media. It is responsible for providing interfaces between networks and network

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communication devices. Physical layer also handles mechanical, electrical and optical aspects on the network. Following are the protocols which works with physical layers are IEEE 802, IEEE 802.2 and ISDN. For network devices are hubs, repeaters, amplifiers, and oscilloscope. Data Link Layer: Layer 2 Communication links and its procedures are handled data link layers ,Frames packets Handle detection and correction of packets transmitted errors. Protocols: Logical Link Control Data flow control and error correction Handle SAPs & link control 802.1 OSI Model, 802.2 Logical Link Control Media Access Control communicates with the network adapter card controls the type of media being used: 802.3 CSMA/CD (Ethernet), 802.4 Token Bus (ARCnet), 802.5 Token Ring, 802.12 , Demand Priority Network Devices: Bridge / Switch, ISDN Router, Intelligent Hub, NIC ,Advanced Cable Tester Network Layer: Layer 3 Network layer is of great importance when it comes to talk about communication between networking devices. This layer helps in determining the data being transferred between different network devices. Network layer also translate logical address into actual physical address for example, converting computer name in to MAC address. The layer is held responsible for controlling the core processes of networking, for example, routing, managing network and its problem, addressing etc. Router/Switches are the hardware which work on network layers, if sending devices are unable to break down data into packets similar to receiving devices then network layer comes in and breakdown the data into smaller unites and then re-assemble the data at receiving end.As we read earlier it handles the core processes of networking, network layer routes data in form of packets according to network address. It is responsible to send all the data to specific destination with in the network.Protocols used are RIP, ARP, ICMP,OSI, OSPE and IPX. Network devices which are used at network layer are Routers, Frame Relay device and ATM switches. Transport Layer: Layer 4 Transport layer handles the delivery of data packets at their respective ends and destinations. It is also responsible for identifying errors and duplication of data through out with in the network. Once data is transferred to their respective ends successfully it provides acknowledgement about it and resends the data on receiving errors during transferring. Transport layer keep the connection alive during the data transmission and also handles error during the course of transferring of data with in the network.Protocols which are used on this layer are SPX, NETBOIS, TCP, NELINK and ATPGateway and Cable tester etc are network devices. Session Layer: Layer 5 Session layer is designed to manage established sessions between two different nodes (users) with in the network. Session layer is also responsible to establish connection then identifies who and how much data is to be sent how much time is required for it. Session layers keeps the connection alive, incase if it is disconnection during the transfer, it re connects and continues the session.

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Example of session layers can be Login system or time taking in file transferring between two different users is one session. Session layers also keep the reports and upper layer errors are also recorded. Protocols in session layers Mail Slots, NetBIOS, Names Pipes and RPC where as gateways are used as network devices. Presentation Layer: Layer 6 Presentation layers works as interfacing layer between different formats. It present data into similar format and update the difference of formats among two different systems. It also provide interface between application data to network data format. It is used for protocol conversions, encryptions, decryptions and data compressions. Cryptography is done with in presentation layer. Application Layer: Layer 7 this is upfront layer that helps in interfacing for communication and data transfer with in the network. It also provides support services like transfer services, handles network access, e-mailing, error management and user application support. Protocols that can be used in this layer are FTP ( file transfer protocol), DNS, SNMP, SMTP (emailing), FINGER, TELNET, TFTP, BOOTP SMB etc where as gateway are used for network devices. What is networking switch - Network Switch There are many networking devices arte used to carry on the working and the performance of the network. Similarly another networking device takes part in this race that is called as network switch. Basically it is defined as the networking device that able to join or connect the different fragments of the network and continues networking by forming a bridge between them is called as the network switching. It is also called as the switching hub. Networking switches are generally not applicable on the passive networks. Due to the ability of the forming a bridge between the networking components they are also referred to as the network bridge. How Network Switch Works? A particular switch can perform different functions such as connecting the network segments or monitoring the networking traffic or also can pass the IP traffic. As we all know that the basic function of the switch is to connect the networking parts so, when they installed properly they are able deal with all the parts of network such as hubs, printers or another networking device that is required to do the communication between two places. So, the function of the networking switch is quite similar to that of the routing device. Network switches are use to transfer the data in the form of data packets between the two different networking devices present in the LAN network. The main advantage of the using the network switch instead of router is that it can organize a network between more then 200 devices. During transformation network switch also monitors the network traffic and manage the network brilliantly. There are different types of layer take part in the networking through switches that perform the particular function of transferring the data.

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Types of Network Switch: There are different types of network switch based upon the form and the configuration. On the basis of their form they are categorized into rack mounted, chassis or catalyst switch etc. And on the basis of configuration they are differentiated into managed, unmanaged, smart or enterprise managed switches. Managed Switches: A type of network switch in which different types of methods are used to manage the different parts of the network and can able to upgrade the working and the performance of the switch with the help of common methods of management is called as the managed network switch. Unmanaged Network Switch: Basically these networking switches are designed for those customers that are not able to spend more money because those are less expensive. A type of network switch in which interface is not involved is called as unmanaged network switches. They are designed for the direct use. Smart Switches: Basically the smart network switches are the important types of managed switches in which the specific management features are discussed. Typically these switches re used for the networking devices such as VLANs. They also increase the working ability of the parts connected by the switches Advantages of Network Switch: Due to the reliable and the easy working of the network switches to manage the network by joining the different segments of the network. Some of the particular advantages of the network switching are given below 1. Network switches are very beneficial for the expenditure of the network and can also helpful in decreasing the load from the systems individually 2. They are also helpful for the in maintaining and enhancing the performance of the network using switches 3. In the networking data is transmitted in the form of the data packets and in these cases there are more chances of collision between the packets but network switches are also able to avoid the collision between the data grams

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Hubs Vs Switches - Difference between hubs and switches An important device that is required to build a connection between different systems to run them like a single network is called as the networking hubs. Basically all the working of the hubs is carried out with the help of access points of multiple natures. The main function of the networking hub is to deliver the data over the connected network in the form of the electrical signals and all the systems that are connected with the hub device are benefited with the required information or data that is amplified. Introduction to Switches: Another important networking device that takes part in the transmission of data is called as the networking switches. Typically they are defined as the networking device that is used to form the bridge or the connection between the different or the specific segments of the network to carry on the working and maintain the performance is referred to as the network switch. Generally they provide no advantage to the passive networks. Due to the ability of forming a bridge between the fragments network switches are also called as the networking bridge. General Comparison between Networking Hubs and Switches: Features Hubs Switches On the basis of networking Network switches also have some different Types performance and the construction, types that are really helpful in maintaining the generally networking hubs are performance and the working of the connected categorized into different types. networks. Major types of switches are given Some of them are as follows below 1. Active hubs 1. Managed switches 2. Intelligent hubs 2. Unmanaged switches 3. Passive hubs 3. Smart switches Function The function of the hub is generally Network switches can also perform the work depends upon the configuration and similar to hubs but they can different in some the installation of the networking aspects. The function that is similar to the hubs devices with it. Networking hubs can is that switches also help in connecting the perform different duties of different parts of network. but the features that connecting and managing the are different from the networking hubs are as networking devices such as printers. follows There are different ports present in 1. Switches are also able to monitor the the device through which the whole networking traffic and manage the systems are connected. Traditional parts of the network well hubs can only support the 4 or 5 2. They are also able to check and monitor ports but the modern hub can the passing IP addresses from them provide the 16 or 24 ports to the 3. They are also able to perform the routing users for the expenditure of the properties like router. network Advantages Some important advantages of the Network switches also have some advantages.

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networking hubs are as follows 1. Hubs are generally less expensive as compared to different types of other devices used for the same purposes 2. It is very convenient to build the home network with the help of hubs 3. Hubs can provide the opportunity to the users to use their old and the useless thing with the help of networking hubs 4. networking hubs arte generally helpful in expand the networking area well

These advantages are as follows 1. Network switches are used to increase the bandwidth of the network 2. Switches are also reduce the work load on the network 3. As we know that data packets are involved in the transmission of the data, so network switches also reduce the collision between them 4. network switches are also very helpful in increasing the performance of the whole network by decreasing the load on the individual computers

Protocol Analysis & Analyzer - What is protocol analysis - Protocol analysis techniques In computer networking there are different types of rules which are used for data transmission from one device to another device on the network such as WiFi or Ethernet, these rules are called as protocols. There are two main types of protocols which are used to spread information on internet such as TCP and also used for transmission of data in the form of data packets that are called as data gram such as IP. These two protocols are completely responsible for great networking in the field of information technology Protocol Analysis: In the field of computer networking a method which is used for different processes and device to decode the data that transmit in the form of packets from start towards end or we can say that from head to tail which is also abbreviated as headers and trailers, such process is referred as protocol analysis. It also deals with the informative data which is present in the data gram. These packets transfer data from one device to another with the help of protocols i.e. internet protocol (IP) or transmission control protocol (TCP). Protocol analysis is only applied when the data packets are going to transfer from one networking device to another device. The program or a device on which protocol analysis depends is called as protocol analyzer. Basically the architecture of protocol analysis is based upon layering of different network protocols and different communication devices. In the protocol analysis the data which is present on one layer is communicate with other data present on the same layer and after the communication process they can transfer from one system to another networked system. Protocol analysis also plays its vital role in monitoring the traffic of networking during transmission. Protocol Analysis Techniques: There are different techniques of protocol analysis which are used for decoding in the best possible way.

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1. Protocol analysis can analyze the basic information present in the header of the data packets present in the protocol. It can divide the information into parts by using the highlight techniques. 2. Some times for more data protocol analysis is used different kinds of techniques such as diagnostic techniques. In this technique it can analyze the data by using the process of hypothesis. Some times protocol analysis can identity the advanced problems of networking by using multiple layers, such protocol is called as expert analysis. And the device which is responsible for protocol analysis is known as protocol analyzer. Protocol Analyzer: A special type of device which is required to carry protocol analysis and also used for analyzing the data which is present in the data packets at a very high networking speed are known as protocol analyzer. Some times protocol analyzer used different types of multiple layers to decode the data present in the data packets; it is also used to rebuild the data packets at advanced or higher level. Types of Protocol Analyzers: Protocol analyzer divides into two different types on the basis of their working in transferring data, these two types are Portable protocol analyzers and distributed protocol analyzers. Portable Protocol Analyzers: A type of device or software which is used to collect the data from network and perform the task of data analysis and also help in monitoring the network traffic is called as portable protocol analyzers. They are very costly as compared to other devices. Distributed Protocol Analyzers: A type of protocol analyzer which is used to check the whole network centrally is known as distributed protocol analyzers. It consists of two main parts i.e. monitoring probe and consol. Monitoring probe is a device or a program which is required to deals different segments of network and Consol is that part which is required to check the network centrally. How to set up TCP / IP network A rule which is developed for transferring the data from one device to another is called as protocol. When internet was designed there was no protocol used for this purpose. But in 1970s two protocols were established which are used for data transferring from one device to another. These two protocols are TCP and IP. TCP stands for transmission control protocol and it is often used for transferring data from one device to another device and IP stands for internet protocol and it is also used for the same purpose as TCP. Basically these two protocols are the base of internet protocol suite. Both are involved in data transferring from one device to another, but internet protocol IP deals the data at initial level and divide the data in the form of small data packets and TCP deals the data at higher level of transmission.. IP deals the data at lower level transmission where as TCP works at advanced level transmission. The packets of data are also called as data grams. These both protocols work as a single unit in the internet networking How it Works? The working of these TCP or IP protocols is based on their composition. These protocols consists of different layers which are present in their model and there working is completely depends upon

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the layer composition. In this composition, layers are present of three types such as link layer, internet layer, transport layer and application layer and these layers are responsible for their operations of data transferring from one device to another device. When the operating system assign the duty for TCP/IP to performing the data transferring task between two computers, then these two protocols divide the data into different fragments. Firstly internet protocol (IP) changes the data into data gram at lower level and then transfer it from this layer to upper higher layer where TCP deals the data transferring at higher or advanced level. After changing the data it will transfer to next computer. 1. Setting Up TCP/IP: There are different steps or ways to configure the TCP/IP network on the operating system. The ways are different for different operating system like Win 98, Win 2000 or Win XP etc, these all have different steps. The main postulates of configuration are as follows First of all install the operating system and then go to My Network Places; here you will see different icons like Dial up connections but click on Local Area connection and follow the menu. 2. Select internet protocol from the properties of local area connection and then click the properties of TCP/IP and follow the menu appear. 3. Select the radio button from the left of the menu of properties of TCP/IP from this you can get the IP automatically. At the bottom of the same window should check DNS server address also and then press the advanced button at the bottom of same window for moving towards advanced settings of TCP/IP. 4. When the new window opens click DNS button to configure DNS suffix and then check the WINS address by clicking the WINS tab if it has been filled already then proceeds towards next window but if is not filled then press the Add button and follow the instructions. 5. When you confirmed that the WINS menu has been filled then click Ok to close the window of TCP/IP Advanced settings you will return to the previous menu of Internet Protocol then again press the OK button at the bottom to save the changes. 6. Press the Ok button also in the window of Local Area connection to save the changes. Now your computer is ready to work with TCP/IP. Digital Communication Communication is basically interaction among people or sharing information. As we all know that we have mainly two types of communication. 1. Analog communication 2. Digital communication Digital communications means transferring data from one place to another. It is done by physical path or physical connection. In digital communication digital values are taken as discrete set. It is bit complicated as compare to analog communication and its also fast and appropriate in modern situations. Here we have some central examples of digital communication Online Games: E-Mails (Electro Sending short messages from one mobile phone to another. SMS (Short Message Service)

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It is a method of sending and receiving messages from one computer to another. Elements of Communication Systems

Transmitter Modulation: Modulation converts message signal or bits into amplitude, phase, or frequency of a sinusoidal carrier (Am, FM, QPSK). Modulation may make the transmitted signal robust to channel impairments. Amplitude modulation: The first method is Amplitude modulation. The amplitude modulation wave is created by multiplying the amplitude of sinusoid carrier with the message signal. S(t) = m (t) c(t) Phase Modulation: In digital PM, the delivery service point transfer hastily, rather than continuously back and forth. Frequency Modulation: FM is a distinction of angle modulation. Both PM and FM signals are theoretically the same, the only dissimilarity being in the first case phase is modulation directly by the message signal and in FM case, the message signal first integrated and then used in place of phase. Coding: coding is the procedure in which digital data is converted into digital signals. We suppose that data in the form of text, numbers and graphical images, audio and video. Channel A communication channel is a path over which information can be pass on. This channel can be a physical path or radio waves and satellites. In this, the information is represented by individual data bits. 1. Attenuation: Attenuation means loss of energy. When a signal passes through a medium it loses some of its energy in overcoming the resistance of the medium. 2. Noise: Noise is random motion of electrons in a wire which creates an extra signal not originally send by transmitter. 3. Distortion: Distortion means that signal changes its original form or change. Receiver Detection (Demodulation + Decoding): Decoding is the process of converting digital signals back into the digital data. Filtering (Equalization): Filtering means taking out the best result. What are Gateways- How Computer Gateway Works? The world of information technology is far ahead than what human beings perceived about it in last century. There is no end to this world of interconnection. The world has shrunk. Distance is no more distance. There is no need to travel thousands of miles. You can get access to any destination right at your home. Yes the chance of discovery has reduces as nothing left undiscovered, we have already turned all stones. It is impossible to look at our lives without putting in it the image of some personal computers, a laptop and of course a smart phone.

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All this abridging of distances and development of knowledge is primarily based on the internet. The internet has no doubt revolutionized our lives and will certainly transform the world into (near future) smaller destination. The internet can connect the user of Antarctica to any one from the continent of Asia. Time and place is no more a hurdle. But the world of internet is not as simple as I or you imagine it. Infect none of us ever bother to imagine what internet it. It is widely accessible and all we do is to take benefit of the invention or the idea without knowing what and how it is. I am going to discuss gateways in this post because I want to enlighten you on the subject of internet trafficking and data sharing, although it is not possible to encompass the whole idea of internet into a single post. Let us start from the start. A junction that allows one to enter into a network or used as an exit to go out of the network is known as gateway. The node on internet, the stopping point, is called a host node or gateway. A gateway node is that computer which is used to control and manage traffic and bandwidth on your companys network or at your ISP (internet service provider) or network. Mostly, ISPs themselves provide gateway to the users in their homes that connects them to the internet. Simply, a gateway is an entrance a point to access a network other than yours. It is an inter operatings system that has a capacity to serve several networks at a time. It can either be in the form of software or hardware. The function of gateway node is of firewall or proxy server in the enterprise network. A router could be a device or computer software that informs you about the data sent to the network next to the next computer. Sounds complex! Let me explain further. It is a common practice to attach a gateway to the router. A router is usually associated with more than two networks. For data, it is used to decide the upcoming destination which depends on its understanding of the condition of the other networks. The question still prevails, why gateways use routers. Well, a router uses headers and forwarding tables to sort out the destination where data or packets should be sent and gives path by the help of which the information can be sent in and out of the gateway. There are two sides of a gateway: a hub or switch is used to connect the LAN side to your private network where the WAN is connects to a cable. Its basic function is to make a route of the traffic from to the internet and from the internet to the computer. It is used to make a portal between two or more networks that are physically and logically different from each other. A gateway can be made by any computer that is quipped with two NIC cards. The configuration of public side is commonly composed of ISP gateway IP address, subnet mask, DNS server, IP address and host name. One more thing, you must have to activate the PPPoE in your gateway if your ISP uses PPoE. You have to activate DHCP to configure the private side of the gateway. There are some settings that must be a part of all those computers that are a part of some network, without which computers can neither become member of certain network or able to communicate through it. The activation of DHCP will automatically enable all computers on your network to accept the settings from the DHCP server. You must also ensure that the installation of TCP/IP protocol on each and every computer is appropriate. Carry out a reboot after configuring all computers.

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When all computers on your network are rebooted then a blinking under the network icon on the task bar will be visible. In case everything has gone perfect then you can access not only internet but also share data on your network and use printer. To monitor the uncertified traffic on your network, it can also configure a firewall. Out of numerous paths, a gateway is just a single way to express ourselves in the World Wide Web. To transfer data back and forth while entering various networks is only possible by the virtue of a gateway. For running more than two networks on single computer software are available. To have a gateway on ones computer is very beneficial. 3 Tier Architecture Three layer architecture is a kind of system which imposes separation between these parts: 1. Client Tier or user interface 2. Middle Tier or business logic 3. Data Storage Tier Any piece of software can be subdivided into the following region: 1. Browser or GUI Application = Business logic = Business Rules, it deals with data validation and task-specific performance. 2. Web Server or Application Server = Presentation logic = User Interface, showing data to the user, allowing input from the user. 3. Database Server = Database Communication, making SQL queries and completing them via the related API. What is a Layer? A layer is a fraction of code that can be used again and which performs particular function. In the network environment, a layer is typically a set of connections as a project that symbolizes this particular purpose. This particular layer works with other layers to carry out some particular aim. Single tier structure If you have the code dealing with presentation logic (production of HTML documents), business logic (the making of rules) and data access logic (the production and completing of DML statements) into a single module then you are having a single tier structure. All processing was done in single computer and all the resources was also attached to single computer this means that on that computer the load was high. Double tier structure If you divide the code that deals with the communication with physical database to separate component it is called 2 tier architecture. Three tier structure If you divide further the presentation logic and business logic into separate components then you can have 3 tier architecture. In this structure there is not any direct communication between the presentation and data access layers everything must pass through business layer which is in the middle. As soon as the architecture is implemented the benefits the benefits can be noticed as more code can be shared rather than being duplicated. Many components in the presentation layer share the same parts in the business layer and all parts in the business layer share the same parts in the data access layer. Advantages of 3 tier architecture

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The advantage of a 3-tier system is that the contents of any of the tiers/layers can be replaced without making any resultant changes in any of the others. For example: A change from one DBMS to other will only involve a change to the part in the data access layer. A change in the Use Interface (from desktop to the web, will need only some changes in the components of the presentation layer. The benefit of writing the presentation and business layered architecture in different languages is that it is an advantage of the presentation and business layers is that it is feasible to use different developer teams to work on each. It means that only PHP skills are required for data access layer and business layer, and HTML, CSS and XLS skills for presentation layers. It is easier to find a developer with skills in one of these rather having a kind of developer having all of the skills. Another main advantage of using XML/XLS in the presentation layer is that it the output can be changed from HTML to WML or PDF or any other format using a different XLS style sheet. XLS files can be used to change XML documents into a number of formats and not only HTML. It has better wait balancing system because the entire work load is divided. Security polices can be imposed without effecting the clients.

What Is Mobile Broadband? The term "mobile broadband" refers to high-speed wireless Internet connection services designed to be used from arbitrary locations. Beside phones, these network technologies are appearing in laptop computers, automobiles and public transportation. Definition: Wireless access points (APs or WAPs) are specially configured nodes on wireless local area networks (WLANs). Access points act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals. Access points used in home or small business networks are generally small, dedicated hardware devices featuring a built-in network adapter, antenna, and radio transmitter. Access points support Wi-Fi wireless communication standards. Although very small WLANs can function without access points in so-called "ad hoc" or peer-topeer mode, access points support "infrastructure" mode. This mode bridges WLANs with a wired Ethernet LAN and also scales the network to support more clients. Older and base model access points allowed a maximum of only 10 or 20 clients; many newer access points support up to 255 clients. What is Ad-Hoc Mode in Wireless Networking? Answer: On wireless computer networks, ad-hoc mode is a method for wireless devices to directly communicate with each other. Operating in ad-hoc mode allows all wireless devices within range of each other to discover and communicate in peer-to-peer fashion without involving central access points (including those built in to broadband wireless routers). To set up an ad-hoc wireless network, each wireless adapter must be configured for ad-hoc mode versus the alternative infrastructure mode. In addition, all wireless adapters on the ad-hoc network must use the same SSID and the same channel number.

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An ad-hoc network tends to feature a small group of devices all in very close proximity to each other. Performance suffers as the number of devices grows, and a large ad-hoc network quickly becomes difficult to manage. Ad-hoc networks cannot bridge to wired LANs or to the Internet without installing a special-purpose gateway. Ad hoc networks make sense when needing to build a small, all-wireless LAN quickly and spend the minimum amount of money on equipment. Ad hoc networks also work well as a temporary fallback mechanism if normally-available infrastructure mode gear (access points or routers) stop functioning. Routers are physical devices that join multiple wired or wireless networks together. Technically, a wired or wireless router is a Layer 3 gateway, meaning that the wired/wireless router connects networks (as gateways do), and that the router operates at the network layer of the OSI model. Home networkers often use an Internet Protocol (IP) wired or wireless router, IP being the most common OSI network layer protocol. An IP router such as a DSL or cable modem broadband router joins the home's local area network (LAN) to the wide-area network (WAN) of the Internet. By maintaining configuration information in a piece of storage called the routing table, wired or wireless routers also have the ability to filter traffic, either incoming or outgoing, based on the IP addresses of senders and receivers. Some routers allow the home networker to update the routing table from a Web browser interface. Broadband routers combine the functions of a router with those of a network switch and a firewall in a single unit. A network adapter interfaces a computer to a network. The term "adapter" was popularized originally by Ethernet add-in cards for PCs. Modern network adapter hardware exists in several forms. Besides traditional PCI Ethernet cards, some network adapters are PCMCIA devices (also know as "credit card" or "PC Card" adapters) or USB devices. Some wireless network adapter gear for laptop computers are integrated circuit chips pre-installed inside the computer. Windows and other operating systems support both wired and wireless network adapters through a piece of software called a "device driver." Network drivers allow application software to communicate with the adapter hardware. Network device drivers are often installed automatically when adapter hardware is first powered on. A few network adapters are purely software packages that simulate the functions of a network card. These so-called virtual adapters are especially common in virtual private networking (VPN). Also Known As: NIC, LAN card An SSID is the name of a wireless local area network (WLAN). All wireless devices on a WLAN must employ the same SSID in order to communicate with each other. The SSID on wireless clients can be set either manually, by entering the SSID into the client network settings, or automatically, by leaving the SSID unspecified or blank. A network administrator often uses a public SSID, that is set on the access point and broadcast to all wireless devices in range. Some newer wireless access points disable the automatic SSID broadcast feature in an attempt to improve network security. SSIDs are case sensitive text strings. The SSID is a sequence of alphanumeric characters (letters or numbers). SSIDs have a maximum length of 32 characters. A network gateway is an internetworking system capable of joining together two networks that use different base protocols. A network gateway can be implemented completely in software,

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completely in hardware, or as a combination of both. Depending on the types of protocols they support, network gateways can operate at any level of the OSI model. Because a network gateway, by definition, appears at the edge of a network, related capabilities like firewalls tend to be integrated with it. On home networks, a broadband router typically serves as the network gateway although ordinary computers can also be configured to perform equivalent functions. What Is a Network Name? Answer: A network name is a text string that devices use to reference a particular computer network. These strings are, strictly speaking, separate from the names of individual devices and the addresses they use to identify each other. Several different forms of network naming exist. SSID Wi-Fi networks support a type of network name called SSID. Wi-Fi access points and clients are each always assigned an SSID to help identify each other. When a person speaks of wireless network names, they typically are referring to SSIDs. OSI model 7. Application Layer NNTP SIP SSI DNS FTP Gopher HTTP NFS NTP SMPP SMTP DHCP SNMP Telnet Netconf (more) 6. Presentation Layer MIME XDR TLS SSL 5. Session Layer Named Pipes NetBIOS SAP L2TP PPTP 4. Transport Layer TCP UDP SCTP DCCP SPX 3. Network Layer IP (IPv4, IPv6) ICMP IPsec IGMP IPX AppleTalk 2. Data Link Layer ATM SDLC HDLC ARP CSLIP SLIP PLIP IEEE 802.3 Frame Relay ITU-T G.hn DLL PPP X.25 1. Physical Layer EIA/TIA-232 EIA/TIA-449 ITU-T V-Series I.430 I.431 POTS PDH SONET/SDH PON OTN DSL IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.15 IEEE 802.16 IEEE 1394 ITU-T G.hn PHY USB Bluetooth Blue OSI Model

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Function Network process to application Data representation, encryption and decryption, convert 6. Presentation Host Data machine dependent data to machine independent data layers 5. Session Interhost communication Segments 4. Transport End-to-end connections and reliability, flow control Packet 3. Network Path determination and logical addressing Media Frame 2. Data Link Physical addressing layers Bit 1. Physical Media, signal and binary transmission Definition: A VPN utilizes public telecommunications networks to conduct private data communications. Most VPN implementations use the Internet as the public infrastructure and a variety of specialized protocols to support private communications through the Internet. VPN follows a client and server approach. VPN clients authenticate users, encrypt data, and otherwise manage sessions with VPN servers utilizing a technique called tunneling. VPN clients and VPN servers are typically used in these three scenarios: 1. to support remote access to an intranet, 2. to support connections between multiple intranets within the same organization, and 3. to join networks between two organizations, forming an extranet. The main benefit of a VPN is the lower cost needed to support this technology compared to alternatives like traditional leased lines or remote access servers. VPN users typically interact with simple graphical client programs. These applications support creating tunnels, setting configuration parameters, and connecting to and disconnecting from the VPN server. VPN solutions utilize several different network protocols including PPTP, L2TP, IPsec, and SOCKS. VPN servers can also connect directly to other VPN servers. A VPN server-to-server connection extends the intranet or extranet to span multiple networks. Many vendors have developed VPN hardware and software products. Some of these do not interoperate due to the immaturity of some VPN standards. A network protocol defines rules and conventions for communication between network devices. Protocols for computer networking all generally use packet switching techniques to send and receive messages in the form of packets. Network protocols include mechanisms for devices to identify and make connections with each other, as well as formatting rules that specify how data is packaged into messages sent and received. Some protocols also support message acknowledgement and data compression designed for reliable and/or high-performance network communication. Hundreds of different computer network protocols have been developed each designed for specific purposes and environments. Internet Protocols The Internet Protocol family contains a set of related (and among the most widely used network protocols. Besides Internet Protocol (IP) itself, higher-level protocols like TCP, UDP, HTTP, and FTP all integrate with IP to provide additional capabilities. Similarly, lower-level Internet Protocols like ARP and ICMP also co-exist with IP. These higher level protocols interact more closely with

Data unit Layer 7. Application

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applications like Web browsers while lower-level protocols interact with network adapters and other computer hardware. Routing Protocols Routing protocols are special-purpose protocols designed specifically for use by network routers on the Internet. Common routing protocols include EIGRP, OSPF and BGP. How Network Protocols Are Implemented Modern operating systems like Microsoft Windows contain built-in services or daemons that implement support for some network protocols. Applications like Web browsers contain software libraries that support the high level protocols necessary for that application to function. For some lower level TCP/IP and routing protocols, support is implemented in directly hardware (silicon chipsets) for improved performance. What Is Packet Switching on Computer Networks? Answer: Packet switching is the approach used by some computer network protocols to deliver data across a local or long distance connection. Examples of packet switching protocols are Frame Relay, IP and X.25. How Packet Switching Works Packet switching entails packaging data in specially formatted units (called packets) that are typically routed from source to destination using network switches and routers. Each packet contains address information that identifies the sending computer and intended recipient. Using these addresses, network switches and routers determine how best to transfer the packet between hops on the path to its destination. Pros and Cons of Packet Switching Packet switching is the alternative to circuit switching protocols used historically for telephone (voice) networks and sometimes with ISDN connections. Compared to circuit switching, packet switching offers the following: More efficient use of overall network bandwidth due to flexibility in routing the smaller packets over shared links. Packet switching networks are often cheaper to build as less equipment is needed given this ability to share. Longer delays in receiving messages due to the time required to package and route packets. For many applications, delays are not long enough to be significant, but for high-performance applications like real-time video, additional data compression and QoS technology is often required to achieve the required performance levels. Potential for network security risks due to the use of shared physical links. Protocols and other related elements on packet switching networks must designed with the appropriate security precautions. Also Known As: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol What Is a DNS Server? The Domain Name System (DNS) is a standard technology for managing the names of Web sites and other Internet domains. DNS technology allows you to type names into your Web browser like compnetworking.about.com and your computer to automatically find that address on the Internet. A key element of the DNS is a worldwide collection of DNS servers. What, then, is a DNS server?

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Answer: A DNS server is any computer registered to join the Domain Name System. A DNS server runs special-purpose networking software, features a public IP address, and contains a database of network names and addresses for other Internet hosts. DNS Root Servers DNS servers communicate with each other using private network protocols. All DNS servers are organized in a hierarchy. At the top level of the hierarchy, so-called root servers store the complete database of Internet domain names and their corresponding IP addresses. The Internet employs 13 root servers that have become somewhat famous for their special role. Maintained by various independent agencies, the servers are aptly named A, B, C and so on up to M. Ten of these servers reside in the United States, one in Japan, one in London, UK and one in Stockholm, Sweden. DNS Server Hierarchy The DNS is a distributed system, meaning that only the 13 root servers contain the complete database of domain names and IP addresses. All other DNS servers are installed at lower levels of the hierarchy and maintain only certain pieces of the overall database. Most lower level DNS servers are owned by businesses or Internet Service Providers (ISPs). For example, Google maintains various DNS servers around the world that manage the google.com, google.co.uk, and other domains. Your ISP also maintains DNS servers as part of your Internet connection setup. DNS networking is based on the client / server architecture. Your Web browser functions as a DNS client (also called DNS resolver) and issues requests to your Internet provider's DNS servers when navigating between Web sites. When a DNS server receives a request not in its database (such as a geographically far away or rarely visited Web site), it temporarily transforms from a server to a DNS client. The server automatically passes that request to another DNS server or up to the next higher level in the DNS hierarchy as needed. Eventually the request arrives at a server that has the matching name and IP address in its database (all the way to the root level if necessary), and the response flows back through the chain of DNS servers to your client.

DNS Servers and Home Networking Computers on your home network locate a DNS server through the Internet connection setup properties. Providers give their customers the public IP address(es) of primary and backup DNS servers. You can find the current IP addresses of your DNS server configuration via several methods: on the configuration screens of a home network router on the TCP/IP connection properties screens in Windows Control Panel (if configured via that method) from ipconfig or similar command line utility An ISP is a company that supplies Internet connectivity to home and business customers. ISPs sup access, ranging from traditional modem dial-up to DSL and cable modem broadband service to de More recently, wireless Internet service providers or WISPs have emerged that offer Internet acc broadband networks. In addition to basic connectivity, many ISPs also offer related Internet services like email, Web hos

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A few companies also offer free ISP service to those who need occasional Internet connectivity. Th connect time and are often bundled with some other product or service. Finding the IP Address of An Email Sender Internet emails are designed to carry the IP address of the computer from which the email was sent. This IP address is stored in an email header delivered to the recipient along with the message. Email headers can be thought of like envelopes for postal mail. They contain the electronic equivalent of addressing and postmarks that reflect the routing of mail from source to destination. Internet email headers contain several lines of text. Some lines start with the words Received: from. Following these words is an IP address, such as in the following fictitous example: Received: from teela.mit.edu (65.54.185.39) by mail1.aol.com with SMTP; 30 Jun 2003 02:27:02 -0000 These lines of text are automatically inserted by email servers that route the message. If only one "Received: from" line appears in the header, a person can be confident this is the actual IP address of the sender. Understanding Multiple Received: from Lines In some situations, however, multiple "Received: from" lines appear in an email header. This happens when the message passes through multiple email servers. Alternatively, some email spammers will insert additional fake "Received: from" lines into the headers themselves in an attempt to confuse recipents. To identify the correct IP address when multiple "Received: from" lines are involved requires a small bit of detective work. If no faked information was inserted, the correct IP address is contained in the last "Received: from" line of the header. This is a good simple rule to follow when looking at mail from friends or family. Understanding Faked Email Headers If faked header information was inserted by a spammer, different rules must be applied to identify a sender's IP address. The correct IP address will be normally not be contained in the last "Received: from" line, because information faked by a sender always appears at the bottom of an email header. To find the correct address in this case, start from the last "Received: from" line and trace the path taken by the message by traveling up through the header. The "by" (sending) location listed in each "Received" header should match with the "from" (receiving) location listed in the next "Received" header below. Disregard any entries that contain domain names or IP addresses not matching with the rest of the header chain. The last "Received: from" line containing valid information is the one that contains the sender's true address. Note that many spammers send their emails directly rather than through Internet email servers. In these cases, all "Received: from" header lines except the first one will be faked. The first "Received: from" header line, then, will contain the sender's true IP address in this scenario. Internet Email Services and IP Addresses Finally, the popular Internet-based email services differ greatly in their use of IP addresses in email headers. Use these tips to identify IP addresses in such mails.

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Google's Gmail service omits the sender IP address information from all headers. Instead, only the IP address of Gmail's mailserver is shown in Received: from. This means it is impossible to find a sender's true IP address in a received Gmail. Microsoft's Hotmail service provides an extended header line called "X-Originating-IP" that contains the sender's actual IP address. Emails from Yahoo (if untampered) contain the sender's IP address in the last Received: entry.

Latency of Satellite Internet Service Satellite Internet service illustrates the difference between latency and bandwidth on computer networks. Satellite Internet connections possess both high bandwidth and high latency. When loading a Web page, for example, most satellite users can observe a noticeable delay from the time they enter a Web address to the time the page begins loading. This high latency is due primarily to propagation delay as the request message travels at the speed of light to the distant satellite station and back to the home network. Once the messages arrive on Earth, however, the page loads quickly like on other high-bandwidth Internet connections (DSL or cable). Besides propagation delays, latency also may also involve transmission delays (properties of the physical medium) and processing delays (such as passing through proxy servers or making network hops on the Internet). How Can I Find the IP Address of a Web Site? Each Web site on the Internet possesses at least one Internet Protocol (IP) address. Knowing a Web site IP address can be useful to determine its physical location, but this address is not automatically shown in Web browsers. How can you find the IP address of a Web site? Answer: First, you can use the ping utility to look up Web site IP addresses. Ping attempts to contact the Web site by name and will report back the IP address it finds. For example, to find the IP address of about.com, entering the command ping about.com will return a result similar to the following that contains the IP address: Pinging about.com [207.241.148.80] with 32 bytes of data: . . . Note that many larger Web sites do not return replies to ping commands, but the site IP address can usually still be obtained. The ping method will fail if the Web site is temporarily "down" of if the computer used to perform the ping is not connected to the Internet. The Internet WHOIS System An alternative method to find Web site IP addresses relies on the Internet WHOIS system. WHOIS is a database that tracks registration information for Web sites including the owner and IP address. To look up Web site IP addresses with WHOIS, simply visit one of the many public sites (like whois.net or networksolutions.com) that offer WHOIS database query services. Searching for a particular site name like about.com, for example, produces a result similar to the following: Current Registrar: REGISTER.COM, INC. IP Address: 207.241.148.80 (ARIN & RIPE IP search) . . Hop

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In computer networking, a hop represents one portion of the path between source and destination. When communicating over the Internet, for example, data passes through a number of intermediate devices (like routers) rather than flowing directly over a single wire. Each such device causes data to "hop" between one point-to-point network connection and another. In networking, the hop count represents the total number of devices a given piece of data (packet) passes through. Generally speaking, the more hops data must traverse to reach their destination, the greater the transmission delay incurred. Does IP Address Location (Geolocation) Really Work? So-called geolocation systems attempt to map IP addresses to geographic locations using large computer databases. Some geolocation databases are available for sale, and some can also be searched for free online. But does all of this geolocation technology really work? Answer: it depends. Question: Does IP Address Location (Geolocation) Really Work? In computer networking, IP addresses do not correspond exactly to geographic locations. It is still theoretically possible, however, to determine the physical location of IP addresses in many cases. So-called geolocation systems attempt to map IP addresses to geographic locations using large computer databases. Some geolocation databases are available for sale, and some can also be searched for free online. Does this geolocation technology really work? Answer: Geolocation systems generally function for their intended purpose(s) but also suffer from some important limitations. How Is IP Address Location Used? Geolocation can be used in several different cases: Managing Web sites - Webmasters can use a geolocation service to track the geographic distribution of visitors to their site. Besides satisfying general curiosity, advanced Web sites can also dynamically change the content shown to each visitor based on their location. These sites may also block access to visitors from certain countries or locales. Finding spammers - Individuals being harassed online often want to trace the IP address of email or instant messages. Enforcing the law - The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and other agencies may use geolocation to find people illegally swapping media files on the Internet, although typically they work directly with Internet Service Providers (ISPs). What Are the Limitations of Geolocation? IP address location databases have greatly improved in accuracy over the years. They may attempt to map each network address to a specific postal address or latitude/longitude coordinate. However, various limitations still exist: IP addresses may be associated with the wrong location (e.g., the wrong postal code, city or suburb within a metropolitan area). Addresses may be associated only with a very broad geographic area (e.g., a large city, or a state). Many addresses are associated only with a city, not with a street address or latitude/longitude location. Some addresses will not appear in the database and therefore cannot be mapped (often true for IP numbers not commonly used on the Internet).

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Can WHOIS Be Used for Geolocation? The WHOIS database was not designed to locate IP addresses geographically. WHOIS tracks the owner of an IP address range (subnet or block) and the owner's postal address. However, these networks may be deployed in a different location than that of the owning entity. In the case of addresses owned by corporations, addresses also tend to be distributed across multiple different branch offices. While the WHOIS system works well for finding and contacting owners of Web sites, it is a highly inaccurate IP location system. Where Are Some Geolocation Databases? Several online services allow you to search for the geographic location of an IP address by entering it into a simple Web form. Two popular services are Geobytes and IP2Location. Each of these services utilizes a proprietary databases of addresses based on Internet traffic flow and Web site registrations. The databases were designed for use by Webmasters and can be purchased as a downloadable package for that purpose. What Is Skyhook? A company named Skyhook Wireless has built a geolocation database of a different kind. Their system is designed to capture the Global Positioning System (GPS) location of home network routers and access points, which may also include residential street addresses. The Skyhook system is not publicly available. However, its technology is being used in the AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) "Near Me" plug-in. What About Hotspot Databases? Thousands of wireless hotspots are available for public use around the world. Various online databases exist for finding Wi-Fi hotspots which map a hotspot's location including its street address. These systems work well for travelers seeking Internet access. However, hotspot finders provide only the network name (SSID) of the access point and not its actual IP address. Read More - About Tracing IP Addresses Check IP Addresses on DNS Blacklists One way to confirm whether email or other messages you're receiving are spam is to check its originating IP address against one of the public DNS blacklist - DNSBL - databases available online. A DNS blacklist (DNSBL) is a database that contains the IP addresses of malicious hosts on the Internet. These hosts are typically email servers that generate large volumes of unsolicited mail messages (spam) or other Internet servers used for network attacks. A DNSBL tracks servers by IP address and also within the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). DNS blacklists help you to determine whether message senders may be spammers or hackers. You can also report spam and suspicious addresses to a DNSBL for the benefit of others on the Internet. The larger blacklists contain millions of entries. To use the DNSBL services listed below, type an IP address into the form they provide to look it up in the database. If researching the origin of a spam email, you can obtain its IP address from the mail headers (see: How To Find the IP Address of an Email Sender) SORBS database Spamhaus block list SpamCop blocking list SpamCannibal lookup

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Finally, note that a DNSBL contains only public addresses, not private IP addresses used on local networks. What Is the IP Address of YouTube? People sometimes want to know YouTube's IP address when they are unable to connect to the site by its host name. Knowing its IP address may not solve this problem, however. Question: What is the IP Address of YouTube? People sometimes want to know YouTube's IP address when they are unable to connect to the site by its domain name. Answer: Like many popular Web sites, YouTube utilizes multiple Internet servers to handle incoming requests. These are the most common YouTube IP addresses: 208.65.153.238 208.65.153.251 208.65.153.253 208.117.236.69 Just as you can visit the YouTube home page by entering http://www.youtube.com/ into your browser, you can also enter http:// followed by any of the above addresses - for example http://208.65.153.238/ If you cannot reach YouTube using http://www.youtube.com/, your Web host may be blocking access to it. In these cases, using an IP address based URL may succeed yet violate your host network's acceptable use policy (AUP). Check your AUP or contact your local network administrator before using an IP address to connect to YouTube. An Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) is a written agreement all parties on a community computer network promise to adhere to for the common good. An AUP defines the intended uses of the network including unacceptable uses and the consequences for non-compliance. You will most commonly see AUP when registering on community Web sites or when working on a corporate intranet. Why Acceptable Use Policies Are Important A good Acceptable Use Policy will cover provisions for network etiquette, mention limits on the use of network resources, and clearly indicate of the level of privacy a member on the network should expect. The best AUPs incorporate "what if" scenarios that illustrate the usefulness of the policy in real-world terms. The importance of AUPs is fairly well-known to organizations like schools or libraries that offer Internet as well as internal (intranet) access. These policies are primarily geared towards protecting the safety of young people against inappropriate language, pornography, and other questionable influences. Within corporations, the scope expands to include other factors such as guarding business interests. What Should an Acceptable Use Policy Contain? Many policy details you should expect to find in an AUP relate to computer security. These include managing passwords, software licenses, and online intellectual property. Others relate to basic interpersonal etiquette, particularly in email and bulletin board conversations. A third category deals with overuse or misuse of resources, such as generating excessive network traffic by playing computer games, for example.

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If you are in the process of developing an Acceptable Use Policy, or if you already have such a policy in your organization, here are some factors to consider in evaluating its effectiveness: Does it clearly specify the policy owner or owners? Have scenarios been documented unambiguously for the key policy issues? Descriptions of socalled "use cases" or "situational analyses" help everyone to relate the policy to real life situations especially those based on actual past experience. Are the consequences for non-compliance clear and intended to be enforced? An increasing number of organizations monitor their computer networks for unacceptable uses, and good Acceptable Use Policies cover network monitoring strategies such as these: Scanning proxy server logs to find hits to inappropriate Web sites including non work-related access occurring during business hours. Installing filtering software that blocks access to certain public Web sites Scanning of incoming and outgoing emails Establishing disk space quotas on shared network drives Use Cases for an AUP Consider what you would do in these situations: a co-worker asks to log into the network using your user name and password because their account is "unavailable" you receive a politically sensitive joke in email that you think is very funny and are considering forwarding it to your office mates the person sitting next to you spends all of their time at work downloading financial quotes and trading stocks online your word processor claims it has detected a virus on your computer If you aren't certain of the action to take in cases like these, an Acceptable Use Policy should be the place you turn for answers. What Is the IP Address of Facebook? People sometimes want to know Facebook's IP address when they cannot connect to www.facebook.com. Like many popular Web sites, Facebook utilizes multiple Internet servers and IP addresses. What Is the IP Address of Facebook? People sometimes want to know Facebook's IP address when they are unable to connect to the site by its domain name (www.facebook.com). Answer: Like many popular Web sites, Facebook utilizes multiple Internet servers to handle incoming requests to its Web site www.facebook.com. The following IP address ranges belong to Facebook: 66.220.144.0 - 66.220.159.255 69.63.176.0 - 69.63.191.255 204.15.20.0 - 204.15.23.255 Reaching Facebook via IP Address Facebook.com utilizes some but not all of the addresses in these ranges. Below are the most common active IP addresses for Facebook.com: 69.63.176.13 69.63.181.15

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69.63.184.142 69.63.187.17 69.63.187.18 69.63.187.19 69.63.181.11 69.63.181.12 Just as you can visit the Facebook home page by entering http://www.facebook.com/ into your browser, you can also enter http:// followed by any of the above addresses - for example http://69.63.176.13/ Acceptable Use of Facebook IP Adddress If you cannot reach Facebook using http://www.facebook.com/, your Internet provider may be blocking access to the site. Using an IP address based URL might bypass such restrictions. Even if it succeeds, however, such a workaround may violate your host network's acceptable use policy (AUP). Check your AUP and/or contact your local network administrator to ensure visiting Facebook is allowed. Traceroute Traceroute is a utility program that monitors the network path of test data sent to a remote computer. On Unix and Linux computers, the traceroute application is available in the shell, while on Windows computers, the tracert program can be accessed from DOS. Definition: Traceroute is a utility program that monitors the network path of test data sent to a remote computer. On Unix and Linux computers, the "traceroute" application is available in the shell, while on Windows computers, the "tracert" program can be accessed from DOS. Traceroute programs take the name or IP address of a remote computer on the command line. When run, traceroute sends a series test messages over the network (using ICMP) to each intermediate router progressing until the last message finally reaches its destination. When finished, traceroute displays the ordered list of routers that represent the path from that computer to the destination.

USB - Universal Serial Bus USB stands for Universal Serial Bus, an industry standard for short-distance digital data communications. USB allows data to be transferred between devices. USB ports can also supply electric power across the cable to devices without their own power source. USB 2.0: the current version supports a much faster theoretical maximum rate of 480 Mbps USB 3.0: the future standard is expected to support up to 4.8 Gbps Using USB for Local Networking To build a USB network, simply connect USB cables to the USB ports on those devices. USB is plug and play compatible, meaning the operating system USB driver software automatically detects and configures device connections. One USB network supports up to 127 devices. USB Keys As an alternative to using USB technology for local area networking, USB keys can be used to transfer files between two devices without requiring cables. To use a USB key (also

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known as a memory stick), copy files from one computer onto the key, then physically carry the stick to a different computer and copy the files onto that device. ICMP is a network protocol useful in Internet Protocol (IP) network management and administration. ICMP is a required element of IP implementations. ICMP is a control protocol, meaning that it does not carry application data, but rather information about the status of the network itself. ICMP can be used to report: errors in the underlying communications of network applications availability of remote hosts network congestion Perhaps the best known example of ICMP in practice is the ping utility, that uses ICMP to probe remote hosts for responsiveness and overall round-trip time of the probe messages. ICMP also supports traceroute, that can identify intermediate "hops" between a given source and destination. Also Known As: Internet Control Message Protocol In computer networking, a NIC provides the hardware interface between a computer and a network. A NIC technically is network adapter hardware in the form factor of an add-in card such as a PCI or PCMCIA card. Some NIC cards work with wired connections while others are wireless. Most NICs support either wired Ethernet or WiFi wireless standards. Ethernet NICs plug into the system bus of the PC and include jacks for network cables, while WiFi NICs contain built-in transmitters / receivers (transceivers). In new computers, many NICs are now pre-installed by the manufacturer. All NICs feature a speed rating such as 11 Mbps, 54 Mbps or 100 Mbps that suggest the general performance of the unit. Also Known As: NIC also stands for Network Information Center. For example, the organization named "InterNIC" is a NIC that provides information to the general public on Internet domain names.