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Graphical aspects of visualization II

Above all else show the data. Tufte, 1983

Edward Tufte: The visual display of quantitative Information, 1983

Visualisierung

Edward Tufte: Graphical Integrity

90

Time Magazine: lpreisanstieg, 1979; aus Tufte: The visual display of quantitative Information

present quantities directly proportional to the numbers represented apply clear, detailed labeling preferably in the graphic itself show data variations, not design variations the number of visually defined dimensions in the graphic should equal the number of dimensions in the data (abbreviated)

New York Times, 2009 (interactive): How Different Groups Spend Their Day in 2008

New York Times, 2009 (interactive): How Different Groups Spend Their Day in 2008

John Snow (dot map): Deaths from Cholera in Central London, 1854

John Snow: Deaths from Cholera. Two aggregations over time Gruppierungen in der Zeit verndern die Aussage. (redrawn Tufte)

Other example for aggregation over time (redrawn Tufte)

Mathew Bloch; New York Times: Zwangsenteignungen in New York Region 200508, 2010 (interactive)

Kartogramme maps with data

Martin Waldseemller: Globussegemente aus Cosmographiae Introductio, 1507 (erste Nennung Americas)

Satellitenweltkarte nach Mercator Projektion (Gerardus Mercator 15121594)

Jost Murers: Karte des Zrichgaus, 1566; Holztafeldruck; Schattenschraffuren; Seitenansicht

Michel Turgot/Louis Bretez: Plan de Paris, 1739; Holztafeldruck; Schattenschraffuren; Seitenansicht

Constantine Anderson: Isometric map of midtown Manhattan, 1989; The Manhattan map company

Google Maps, 2012

Use of color

Same color is influenced by different surrounding colors

aus: Josef Albers: Interaction of color, 1963

Contrasting hues (Farbton) and similar lightness (HellDunkelstufe) create visual vibration

aus: Josef Albers: Interaction of color, 1963

Colors of similar lightness next to one another, are less distinguishable, even if they differ in saturation or hue.

aus: Josef Albers: Interaction of color, 1963

Visualization

Use of Color in Cartography

106

avoid bright or strong colors in large areas; use them for highlighting important details avoid bright colors next to white (visual vibration) use muted or subtle colors on backgrounds and large areas unite two or more large and enclosed color areas using tints of the same color
Q UA D RA AT ( F RE D SM E IJ E RS 1995)

Eduard Imhof: Cartographic Relief Presentation. Berlin, 1982 (nach Tufte: Envisioning Information, 1990)

Landeskarte der Schweiz 1 : 100 000, 1965

Eduard Imhof: Schweizerischer Mittelschulatlas, Kartendarstellung Frankreich 1 : 4 000 000

Charles Joseph Minard: Weinexport Frankreich, 1864; Illustration from Envisioning Information (Redesign)

Charles Joseph Minard (flow map): World immigration in 1858, 1862

1500 Personen = 1 Millimeter

Santos Henarejos (Detail): Supplies Unchained, Makeshift Magazine 02, 2012

Santos Henarejos: Supplies Unchained, Makeshift Magazine 02, 2012

Vincent Meertens: Time maps, 2010 (interactive)

Use of shapes and lines

Edward Tufte: Marshalling signals, 1983; Illustration from Envisioning Information ( Redesign)

Visualization

Use of shapes and lines

115

Gestalt psychology (Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Khler); frist half of 20th century

1 + 1 = 3 Visual perception actively constructs meaning

Gesetz der Geschlossenheit

Gaetano Kanizsa: Cognitive Contours, 1974 (nach Tufte: Envisioning Information, 1990)

Visualization

Use of shapes and lines

116

Gesetz der Nhe

Gesetz der guten Fortsetzung

Gestalt psychology (Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Khler) frist half of 20th century

Gesetz der hnlichkeit/Gleichheit

Masaru Kazumie: Piktograms Olympic Games Tokyo 1964

Western Europe Recommended Main International Highways, 1948 > Figur und Grund-Problem

Tschechoslowakische Luftverkehrsgesell.: Flugplan, 1933; > zeigt zeitliche und rumliche Bezge

It might be possible to tidy it up. Beck, 1968

Quad royal map, 1926 Becks first card folder edition, 1933

Four main Underground railways: First combined map, 1906

F. H. Stingemore: Underground card folder, 1926

F. H. Stingemore: Underground card folder, 1932

Harry C. Beck : Presentation Visual of a first diagram, 1931

Harry C. Beck : First quad poster of the diagram, 1933

Harry C. Beck : Quad poster of the diagram, 1935

1937

1940

1954

Harry C. Beck : Formal variations of the diagram, 193754

Harry C. Beck (not commissoned anymore): Pencil sketches on two complex interchanges, 1961

Internal diagram with planned lines, 1994

Suggested readings
Hans P. Brandt; Jancees van Westering: Form fabricates function. in: Total Identity. Amsterdam, 2003

Corporate Identity

Schema

132

Edward Tufte: The visual display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, 1983 Edward Tufte: Envisioning Information. Cheshire, 1990

Links

https://adobe.kuler.com