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HITLER ASPS

Conditions that produced authoritarian and single-party states The economic collapse of Germany after 1929 (main reason) The lack of democratic roots in Germany under the Weimar republic It was impossible to secure a majority in parliament (this depicted democracy as a weak Gov. system) The president had the authority to declare a state of emergency (Hitler used Hindenburgs ability to do this in order to establish his dictatorship) article 48 The fear of communism (Hindenburg appointed Hitler as chancellor as a result of such fears) The Nazis exploited the instability of the Weimar system and often used violence against their opponents The Nazis made use of propaganda to shape public opinion The Nazis used resentment against the Versailles Settlement to their ends. Some other political parties did not support democracy anyway German/European dislike of Jews anyway Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support Aims: Expansionism/ Lebensraum Support from German industry bosses, support from other parties and politicians The good life in Germany Unify all Germans speakers Remove non-Nazi influences Shaping the attitudes of the population to support Hitler's aims Focus on foreign policy and military

Ideology: Mein Kampf The eternal struggle against the Bolshevik Jew Revise Versailles Aryan superiority, mens superiority, anti-semite, anti-gay, anti-black etc. Nietzsche, to create the superior and pure German race No individualism, Volksgemeinschaft loyalty to Germany, racial purity, equality and state control of the economy. Lebensraum Resentment and desire to crush Jews and communism

HITLER ASPS

Support: Youth: Indoctrinate with Nazi ideology Create loyalty and willingness to sacrifice to greater good of nation --> nationalism/antiindividualism "Separate spheres" --> boys were to be strong fighters --> girls were to bear children Prepared Boys for military life Camping outdoor activity, fun games --> intimidation and oath to loyalty Later, greater focus on military drills and Nazi ideology --> seperate for boys and girls loyal to Hitler Rapid membership increase after 1933, plus compulsory membership Brainwashed kids --> students prepared to sacrifice themselves for the Nazi loyalty Education: Nazifying - an attempt to control the teachers 97% of teachers joined the Nazi Teacher's League in 1937 Purge and discuss unreliable teachers Politicize the curriculum to reflect Nazi ideology - control textbooks --> History, Biology, Physical Education (2h per day) Anti-intellectual, pro-strong/healthy --> future Aryan race Greater focus on needlework for girls, music and home crafts Support: Women: - "Seperate spheres" for men and women men were expected to work and fight for the Reich, women were expected to work and fight for the family Kinder, Kirche, Kuche (Children, Chruch, Kitchen) Why did Hitler have these policies? Ideological - Peasant-based Volksgemeinschaft invovled the rejection of "modern" and "Bolshevik" ideas about female emancipation Pragmatic - Given the steady birth rate decline in Germany, Hitler considered it essential for the continued economic growth of the Reich, as he planned to conquer and populate lands in the east What did Hitler do? Reduced the amount of women in employment Increased the amount of marriages and births Motherhood skills were taught by the "Women's Enterprise" Medals ("Honour Cross of the German Mother") - any women who had more than 8 children received a gold medal from Hitler personally

HITLER ASPS

Totalitarianism: the aim and the extent to which it was achieved - a political system where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible - an all-encompassing propaganda campaign- state-controlled mass media Propaganda was our sharpest weapon in conquering the state Radio, film, newspaper, rallies all information sources controlled Ministry Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda. Moral purging of outside ideas, advancement of Aryanism, reversing female emancipation, militarism, volksgemeinschaft 1933 - Editors law, 1939 - 70% Radio, - a single party/leader that is often marked by personality cultism Hitler as the Fuhrer the Leader. Disorganized leadership to mean that only he could effectively lead. Propaganda built around the worship of Hitler=Great Germany. Hitlers divine destiny to rule and lead. - control over the economy State controlled socialism. Trade unions banned, DAF founded. Blood and soil, work is joy - regulation and restriction of speech Free speech heavily monitored, Gestapo and SD - mass surveillance - widespread use of terror (FEAR AND TERROR!) Gestapo, SD. Much of the reporting of crime was neighbours and people not the police, D-11 concentration camp pre 1939 was a warning experience not a death sentence, intended to spread fear of resistance to the state. - ideologically driven state All aspects of life were to reflect Nazi ideology, Volksgemeinschaft, Aryan superiority, removal of unpure elements, reversing emancipation of women, Free time dedicated to Nazi things, Strength through Joy, Hitler Youth, League of German girls - youth, professional, cultural and sports groups supplement the partys political control Hitler Youth, Strength through Joy, League of German Girls, DAF,

HITLER ASPS

Establishment of authoritarian and single party states Methods: force and legal Tried to be forceful, beer hall putsch After jail , legal 1932, 37% votes 1933, 288 seats, not majority, used reichstag fire feb 1933, DfPoPoS arrest communists March 1933 Enabling act pass acts without Reichstag 1933 Reichstag dissolved 1934 Federal system abolished 1934 President and Chancellor merged into Fuhrer after Hindenburg died in August

Domestic policies and impact Political Gleishaltung "forcible coordination" Parties outlawed, purged government, placed Nazis in positions of power -Formed Volksmeinschaft people's community 1933, DfPoPoS arrest communists March 1933 Enabling act pass acts without Reichstag 1933 Reichstag dissolved 1934 Federal system abolished 1934 President and Chancellor merged into Fuhrer after Hindenburg died in August The Nazi Party created new institutions on top of the state ones, without replacing them. E.g. Nazi German Inspector of German Roads, and Minister of Post and Transport. Created Chaos. Intentionalists think intentional, structuralists think unintentional. By 1939 every public service had a Nazi branch and new separate Nazi departments were made

HITLER ASPS

Domestic policies and impact Economic 1. Full employment - the idea that everyone should have a job. By 1939, there was virtually no unemployment in Germany(for men, but this was intentional) 2. Beauty of Work - the Nazis set up the SdA (Beauty of Work) to help Germans see that work was good, and that everyone who could work should. In fact - because the Nazis had abolished the trade unions, banned strikes, and given more power to the industrialists - real wages fell and hours were longer under Hitler. 3. Re-armament begun in 1935 - the idea of 'guns before butter'. 4. Autarky - there was an unsuccessful attempt at making Germany selfsufficient. Early: 25 Point Plan At first, the 'socialist' aspect of the Nazi party was more evident. The 25 point plan was populist and somewhat anti-capitalistic. This is abandoned in 1931 so that he can befriend big businesses to re-arm Germany and fix the economy. First Period: 1933-37 Objectives The New Plan Under Schnacht -lower unemployment (Public Works Projects) -unemployment was 8 million, but down to 1.7 million by 1936. (This figure was done by removing women and Jews from the work force so that they don't count as unemployed and giving the jobs to suitable men) -goal: establish Germany autarky (independence) -independent of imports, self-sufficient "Wehrwirtschaft" military economy (violates Treaty of Versailles) Second period 1936~:Four Year Plan Goering Goal: economy and military= ready to fight war in 4 years -agricultiure and raw materials are all internal sources -government control of heavy industry takes over Krupp munitions factory - Autarky Third Period 1942-45: Under Speer - Centralized economy further - Blood and Soil ideology pushed - Small industry sacrificed for the advancement of big industry - Agriculture and military focus Economic Failures -not self-sufficient, still imported 60-70% of oil and copper, 100% of aluminium and 20% of food by the start of the war

HITLER ASPS

Role of education, the arts, the media, propaganda Education Was a tool for the long-term survival of the regime. - Teachers and schools were co-ordinated in 1934 by the Reich. - 15% of the timetable was physical education. - Syllabi adjusted to fit the ideology, teachers re-trained. - Unis saw a great decrease in numbers. - Hitler youth and League of German girls Nazifying - an attempt to control the teachers 97% of teachers joined the Nazi Teacher's League in 1937 Purge unreliable teachers Politicize the curriculum to reflect Nazi ideology - control textbooks --> History, Biology, Physical Education (2h per day) Anti-intellectual, pro-strong/healthy --> future Aryan race Greater focus on needlework for girls, music and home crafts Propaganda/Media: Propaganda was our sharpest weapon in conquering the state Radio, film, newspaper, rallies all information sources controlled Ministry Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda. Moral purging of outside ideas, advancement of Aryanism, reversing female emancipation, militarism, volksgemeinschaft 1933 - Editors law, 1939 - 70% Radio ownership

HITLER ASPS

Status of women, treatment of religious groups and minorities Women Separate spheres" for men and women men were expected to work and fight for the Reich, women were expected to work and fight for the family Kinder, Kirche, Kuche (Children, Chruch, Kitchen) Why did Hitler have these policies? Ideological - Peasant-based Volksgemeinschaft involved the rejection of "modern" and "Bolshevik" ideas about female emancipation Pragmatic - Given the steady birth rate decline in Germany, Hitler considered it essential to reverse as he planned to conquer and populate lands in the east Misogynist nazi Ideals What did Hitler do? Reduced the amount of women in employment Increased the amount of marriages and births Motherhood skills were taught by the "Women's Enterprise" Medals ("Honour Cross of the German Mother") - any women who had more than 8 children received a gold medal from Hitler personally The employment of women fell from 1933-37. 1937 - conscription was introduced because of shortage of labour, women were taken back into work. Went up after 1937 Religion: Germany was mostly Catholic and Protestant. Hitler wanted a new Aryan Faithbased on German paganism. Catholics lost their privileges in 1933.Protestant churches were tried to be united in the Reich Church, which received little support and the Confessional Church (opposition to the Reich Church) was created. By 1935, The Nazis had little success in coordination German religion. 32% of Germans in the church Hitler had an interest in a kind of Mysticism revolving around ancient Aryans. Sent Himmler to Tibet

HITLER ASPS

Minorities: The Decree of the Struggle Against the Gypsy Plague.


Racial policies: The Nazis believed --> 1. The blonde-haired, blue-eyed Nordic Germans (or Aryans) were a Volk, or a race. 2. They were the master race. All the other, inferior, races were arranged in a hierarchy beneath them. 3. Near the bottom of this hierarchy came black peoples, and beneath them 'non-people' such as gypsies and Jews. 4. It was their duty to keep the German race 'pure' by having children only with fellow Aryans and restricting what other races could do, especially with Jews. 5. It was their destiny to conquer the lands of inferior races, such as the Slavs to the east, and use them to provide resources and living space for the master race. The persecution of minority groups The Nazis persecuted undesirable minority groups who they believed were inferior Untermensch in Germany, which consisted of: - Gypsies, Jehovahs, Poles, Slavs, soviets, Homos, blacks, Gypsies and other Unfit races The Euthansia Programme in 1939/ Law of Prevention of Hereditary Diseased Offspring. Euthansia means a quiet and easy death. Hitler introduced this programme to kill people with mental or physical disabilities who the Nazis judged to lead worthless lives at the expense of the State. 5000 children were killed by starvation or lethal injections. 71,000 adults were killed by injections or gassing. In 1941, Hitler stopped the programme in the face of protests started by the Catholics. The persecution of Jews Through the use of propaganda, Hitler blamed the Jews for: 1. Germany's defeat in 1918 2. The inflation of 1923 3. The economic collapse of 1929-1932 4. In schools children were taught to hate Jews, and textbooks put across anti-semitic ideas. 5. Nazi-controlled newspapers and magazines bombarded adults with anti-semitic articles and cartoons.

1935 Nuremburg Laws against Jews 1938 Krystallnacht Agaisnt Jews Deportation began in 1940. 1942 - extermination facilities were established